Sociobiology: Volume 55, Number 1A, 2010

Feature Articles:

Sociobiology: Volume 55, Number 1B, 2010

Feature Articles:


New Species and New Records of Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Associated with Neotropical Army Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

By R. H. L. Disney & the late C. W. Rettenmeyer

ABSTRACT


The following new myrmecophile species are described: Acontistoptera longiseta Disney sp. n., A. medisetosa Disney sp. n., Apterophora chadabae Disney sp. n., Holopterina tenuipalpis Disney sp. n., Megaselia osapenensis Disney sp. n., Puliciphora fuschermanni Disney sp. n., P. hermanni Disney sp. n., Thalloptera confusa Disney sp. n., T. intermedia Disney sp. n., T. robusta Disney sp. n., Xanionotum longbotellus Disney sp. n., and X. pilosusphilum Disney sp. n. A key to the females of four species of Apterophora is provided. It includes two that are given code letters only until they are linked to their males. Ecitophora luteipalpis Schmitz is synonymised with E. parva Schmitz. Ecitoptera subciliata Borgmeier is synonymised with E. humeralis Borgmeier. Revised keys to the females of Ecitoptera, of Thalloptera and of the Xanionotum hystrix species group are provided. A series of males whose genera cannot be confirmed until they are linked to their females are given code letters and briefly characterized. The parasitoid species Pseudacteon carli Disney sp. n. and P. microbrowni Disney sp. n. are described.

KEY WORDS: Diptera, Phoridae, new species, Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Ecitoninae, myrmecophiles, parasitoids

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Myrmica schencki (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as the Primary Host of Phengaris (Maculinea) arion (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at Heathlands in Eastern Poland

By Marcin Sielezniew, Michał Włostowski & Izabela Dziekańska

ABSTRACT


Phengaris arion is a famous, endangered social parasite of Myrmica ants, which used to be considered specific to M. sabuleti. Recently a much more complicated pattern of host use has been revealed, and our studies conducted on two heathlands have contributed to it. M. schencki proved to be the most common Myrmica species in both localities, and also the only ant used by the butterfly there. It is the first piece of evidence of the existence of populations which apparently depend exclusively on this species. At one site a pupa of P. arion, parasitised by the ichneumonid wasp Neotypus coreensis, was also found. This is an interesting record, as any data concerning parasitoids of the butterfly are poorly documented in the existing literature.

KEY WORDS: Myrmica schencki, Phengaris arion, Maculinea, host specificity, myrmecophily, Neotypus coreensis, Poland

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Trichomes and Atta sexdens (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): A Study of Foraging Behavior in the Laboratory

By Kiniti Kitayama, John D. Hay, Leandro Sousa-Souto, Rodrigo J.V. Ottoni & Pedro De Podesta Uchoa de Aquino

ABSTRACT


The removal of trichomes from stems or leaves of plants by Atta spp., prior to foraging has not been previously reported. In this study done under laboratory conditions we illustrate the consistent removal of trichomes by Atta sexdens from leaves used as fungal substrate. We also demonstrate a preference in foraging behavior for leaves that had their trichomes removed.

KEY WORDS: Division of labor, foraging strategy, Licania, Ochroma, Miconia

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Defensive Behavior and Life History Strategy of the Galling Aphid Hamamelistes kagamii (Homoptera: Aphididae: Hormaphidinae)

By Harunobu Shibao, Masakazu Shimada and Takema Fukatsu

ABSTRACT


We found defensive behavior in a hormaphidine aphid, Hamamelistes kagamii, which forms pouch-like galls on its primary host plant Hamamelis japonica. Introduction of moth caterpillars into the immature galls elicited attacking behavior of aphid nymphs with their stylets. First instar nymphs were the main attackers, whereas a small number of second and third instar nymphs showed attacking behavior. The first instar nymphs also performed gall-cleaning behavior. Morphological differences were not recognized between the attacking and non-attacking first instar nymphs. Some attacking nymphs had the next instar cuticle inside the body. These results indicate that H. kagamii produces monomorphic first instar defenders that are potentially able to develop and reproduce. We compared several life history traits among Japanese hormaphidine species, Hamamelistes miyabei, H. kagamii and Hormaphis betulae, that form galls on the same host plant but differ in their social behavior and defense specialization. In H. miyabei with specialized monomorphic defenders, we identified the longest galling phase, the largest colony size, the longest period of winged emigrant production, and the longest first instar span. In H. betulae without defenders, we found the shortest galling phase, the smallest colony size, the shortest period of winged emigrant production, and the shortest first instar span. H. kagamii exhibited intermediate life history patterns between the two species. On the basis of these results, life history strategies adopted by these hormaphidine social aphids are discussed.

KEY WORDS: Hamamelistes kagamii, social aphids, primary host generation, gall formation, altruistic defenders, Hormaphidini, life history strategy

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Litter and Associated Ant Fauna Recovery Dynamics After a Complete Clearance

By Lucas N. Paolucci, Ricardo R.C. Solar & José H. Schoereder

ABSTRACT


In this paper, we evaluated how the recovery process of litter and associated ant fauna occurs, after a total removal of the litter. For that, we designed a natural microcosms experiment in a forest remnant in Southeast Brazil, and tested four hypotheses: (I) litter weight increases with time after clearance; (II) litter-dwelling ant species richness increases with time after clearance; (III) litter-dwelling ant species richness increases with litter weight increase and (IV) evenness between ant species becomes higher with restoration time. We also compared the litter weight and ant species richness before disturbance and after a year recovery period. Litter weight and ant species richness presented a significant positive relationship with time. If a habitat is profoundly disturbed, and it is left to a natural recovery process, it is predictable that a condition similar to the former would be established. As expected, ant species richness had also a significant positive relationship with litter weight, once the species could inhabit the litter as it was being reestablished. Evenness did not have a significant relationship with restoration time, which suggests that there is not a “colonization rule” for the litter ant assemblage: in other words, there are no pioneer species. In spite of these results, litter weight and ant species richness were lower even after a year of natural recovery process, in comparison to the undisturbed stage. These variables are expected to be equal only after a recovery period of 820 days, which indicates a low resilience of this system.

KEY WORDS: Bioindicators, disturbance, Formicidae, litter, natural microcosm, recovery

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Archotermopsis sp. (Isoptera, Termopsidae) of Northern Thailand: Gonad Development in Soldiers and Description of Neotenic Pair, with General Observations on Life-History

By Susan Johnson, Michael Lenz, Charunee Vongkaluang, Sujit Chutibhapakorn, Khwanchai Chareonkrung & Barbara Thorne

ABSTRACT


We collected two-hundred and eighty-four termites identified as the rare, relict genus Archotermopsis (Termopsidae) from one fallen log of Toona ciliata in a mixed deciduous forest at approximately 1500 m elevation in Doi Phu Ka National Park, Nan Province, Thailand in February of 2008. Among them was the first neotenic pair ever recorded for this genus. The neotenics exhibit much greater gonad development than other individuals collected with them. Gonad development of neotenics and helpers is similar to those in the closely-related species Zootermopsis nevadensis (Hagen), as is mandible development in the neotenics. These results suggest that not all individuals of the genus Archotermopsis have fully-developed gonads, as was recorded in Imms’ 1919 monograph on Archotermopsis wroughtoni, though it is unclear if this difference in gonad development is due to seasonality.

KEY WORDS:

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Ants as Environmental Impact Bioindicators From Insecticide Application on Corn

By Jardel Lopes Pereira, Marcelo Coutinho Picanço, Antonio Alberto da Silva, Emerson Cristi de Barros, Ricardo Siqueira da Silva, Tarcisio Visintin da Silva Galdino & Cidália Gabriela Santos Marinho

ABSTRACT


The risk evaluation from insecticide application about ants is an issue that is still underdeveloped, mainly in tropical regions. Because of this, the aim of this work was to evaluate the impact caused by the application of spinosad, chlorfenapyr and lufenuron insecticides to ants on the surface of the soil associated with corn cultures. The treatments utilized were: Lufenuron (300 ml ha-1), Spinosad (69 ml ha-1) and Chlorfenapyr (625 ml ha-1). A control group was maintained without the application of insecticides. The experimental delineation used was casual blocks with 5 repetitions. The applications of insecticides were carried out 45 days after the emergence (DAE) of the corn. The Formicidae populations collected on the surface of the soil consisted of the following morphospecies: Tapinoma sp., Hypoponera sp., Neivamyrmex sp., Strumigenys sp., Pheidole sp., Solenopsis sp. (two morphospecies), Pachycondyla sp. The capture frequency of the predator ants on the soil was 81%, with species presenting greater percentage frequencies respectively: Solenopsis sp1 (40.02%), Neivamyrmex sp (28.57%), Hypoponera sp. (22.45%), Pachycondyla sp. 1 (19.39%), and Tapinoma sp. (16.33%). After applying spinosad, chlorfenapyr and lufenuron a reduction was observed in both the average density and the frequency of the Solenopsis ap. 1, Neivamyrmex sp., Hypoponera sp. and Tapinoma sp. species proving the impact these insecticides have on these predators.

KEY WORDS: environmental impact, spinosad, clorfenapir, lufenuron, predator ants, bioindicators

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New Species and New Records of Apocephalus Coquillett (Diptera: Phoridae) that Parasitize Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in America

By Brian V. Brown, R. Henry L. Disney, Luciana Elizalde, & Patricia J. Folgarait

ABSTRACT


The following new species of Apocephalus ant-parasitizing flies are described: Apocephalus exlobicornis Brown & Disney, A. exstriatus Brown & Disney, A. flavitenuipes Brown & Disney, A. intermedius Brown & Disney, A. longisetarum Brown & Disney, A. necdivergens Brown & Disney, A. noetingerorum Brown & Disney, A. penicillatus Brown & Disney, and A. philhispidus Brown & Disney. Host records are reported for each species, as well as new host records for the previously described A. mucronatus Borgmeier, A. neivai Borgmeier, A. setitarsus Brown, A. velutinus Borgmeier, A. viscosae Disney, and for one further unnamed species.

KEY WORDS: parasitoids, Apocephalus sp., new species

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Genetic Structures in Colonies at a New Site of Vollenhovia emeryi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) With Clonal Reproduction

By Misato Okamoto & Kyohsuke Ohkawara

ABSTRACT


Recently, an extraordinary reproductive system with thelytokous parthenogenesis was discovered in some ants, for example Wasmannia auropunctata and Cataglyphis cursor. It has been reported that a mymrcine ant, Vollenhovia emeryi, has a similar reproductive system. In this ant, female sexuals were almost homozygous at three loci whereas workers tended to be heterozygous with maternal alleles, suggesting that female sexuals are produced by clonal reproduction whereas workers are sexually produced. In the present study, we analyzed the genotypes of colony members at a new site and neighboring populations where clonal reproduction was confirmed. In our results, we found that some queens were heterozygous at the L-5 locus like workers. Dissection revealed that all queens were inseminated and had developed ovarioles with yellow bodies. In previous studies the hetero-type queens were very rare in populations with clonal reproduction. The discovery of the hetero-type queens indicates the existence of different systems of both clonal and sexual reproduction in V. emeryi.

KEY WORDS: ants, parthenogenesis, clonal reproduction

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Mineralization of Indoxacarb 150sc Termiticide in Urban Soils Used for Controlling Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

By Neil A. Spomer, Shripat T. Kamble, Mark A. Coffelt and Clay W. Scherer

ABSTRACT


The mineralization of pesticides is generally a result of microbial activity. The mineralization of termiticides in soils around urban structures has not been reported previously in the scientific literature. We investigated the mineralization of indoxacarb 14.5% AI 150SC termiticide in urban soils collected from potential treatment zones. Soil cores (0-25 cm and 76-102 cm depth) were taken either 0.16 m or 3 m from foundation of structures. These soils were prepared and placed in individual soil microcosms treated with indoxacarb spiked with radiolabeled indoxacarb [AI]. Microcosms were held at 15 or 25°C and intermittently sampled for up to 203 d. Evolved 14CO2 was collected in sodium hydroxide traps and analyzed using liquid scintillation counting. Temperature had the biggest influence on mineralization rates as cumulative percent 14CO2 was highest at 25°C. Soil depth was not significant factor when subjected to the same temperature. Temperature was also used as an indicator of microbial activity as soils were analyzed for temporal changes in indoxacarb concentrations when held at 4, 15, and 30°C. High temperatures inversely affected indoxacarb residues in soil. In addition to temperature, residue formation and/or abiotic factors also contributed to significant overall loss(19.3-92.9%) of indoxacarb residue at 360 d with variation due to temperature and soil type.

KEY WORDS: Indoxacarb, termiticide, mineralization, soil, subterranean termites

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Descriptive Study of Non-Repellent Insecticide-Induced Behaviors in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

By Franklin Y. Quarcoo, Arthur G. Appel, & Xing Ping Hu

ABSTRACT


The effects of three slow acting non-repellent insecticides on the behavior of the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Koller) was investigated in a continuous exposure study. Abnormal behaviors of fipronil and indoxicarb treated termites were similar; incipient intoxication (disorientation), followed by ataxia (uncoordinated movements), and morbundity (lack of ability to walk) leading to death. Reduction in walking speed (followed by morbundity and death) was the major behavioral symptom of chlorantraniliprole treated termites. The importance of behavior-based studies, particularly behavioral endpoints, to the development and use of non-repellent termiticides is discussed.

KEY WORDS: Reticulitermes flavipes, behavior, non-repellent termiticides

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Myrmecofauna of the Southern Catarinense Restinga Sandy Coastal Plain: New Records of Species Occurrence for the State of Santa Catarina and Brazil

By Danon Clemes Cardoso & Maykon Passos Cristiano

ABSTRACT


In this study, we analyzed the species richness of the Myrmecofauna in the southern Santa Catarina Restinga Coastal Sandy Plain. We found a total of 71 species distributed along the restinga habitats studied. Myrmicinae was the most speciose subfamily with 41 species, followed by Formicinae (13 species), Ponerinae (eight species) and Dolichoderinae with six species. The Subfamilies Ecitoninae, Pseudomyrmecinae and Ectatomminae were the least speciose with only one species each. We recorded nine new records for the State of Santa Catarina, and 11 records found only in collections of Fomicidae in the state, but not yet documented in literature. This finding reveals the need for studies of ants in the State to demonstrate real knowledge of wildlife and for future conservation projects. Moreover, the results of this study show that the ant fauna of the Restinga of Santa Catarina is composed in large part by the same subfamilies found in other Brazilian ecosystems. The records of nine new cases of ant species and 11 species not yet reported in the literature emphasize the need for studies on the myrmecofauna of the region.

KEY WORDS: Ants, Formicidae, Richness, Species List, Mycetophylax, Wasmannia sulcaticeps

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Contributions to the Knowledge of the Myrmecophilous Pselaphines (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae) from China. III. Two New Genera and Two New Species of the Subtribe Batrisina (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae, Batrisitae) from a Colony of Lasius niger (Hymeptera, Formicidae, Formicinae) in East China

By Zi-Wei Yin, Li-Zhen Li & Mei-Jun Zhao

ABSTRACT


Two new genera and two new species of subtribe Batrisina, viz., Songius lasiuohospes gen. et sp. nov. and Sinotrisus nomurai gen. et sp. nov., from Zhejiang Province, East China are described and illustrated. Both genera were collected from a colony of Lasius (Lasius) niger (Linnaeus, 1758) and belong to the Tribasodes genus-group (defined by Nomura & Idris, 2003) by reason of having the metatrochanter with a denticle or a protuberance on the posterior margin in the male and totally asymmetrical aedeagus with an uncomplete dorsal apophysis. Systematic positions of the new genera are discussed. A key to the myrmecophilous genera of subtribe Batrisina known from China is provided.

KEY WORDS: taxonomy, new genera, new species, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae, myrmecophiles, Lasius niger, Tianmushan Mountain, East China

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Communities of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Fragmented Environments

By Wedson Desidério Fernandes, Denise Lange & Stela de Almeida Soares

ABSTRACT


The composition and richness of ant species were studied in four fragmented environments (agricultural, pasture, reforestation, and secondary forest), in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Six fortnightly sample collections were conducted. Each collection consisted of twenty pitfall traps randomly placed. Forty-three species belonging to six subfamilies and 17 genera were collected. The highest species richness was found in the fragmented environment covered with the secondary forest. The pasture and agricultural environments had lower species richness and higher densities of captured individuals. The species distribution provided by the multidimensional analysis showed two groups: (1) the samples collected in the secondary forest, and (2) the samples collected in agricultural and pasture areas. Results of the species co-occurrence analysis show that all environments were randomly distributed except in pasture, revealing low species competition in the latter. Our results support the hypothesis that environments with higher structural complexity also have higher richness and diversity of ant species and that fragmentation can affect such situation.

KEY WORDS: Communities, co-occurrence, richness, distribution, Brazil

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Minimum Subterranean Termite (Reticulitermes santonenesis) Numbers Required for Survival and Successful Establishment of a Colony

By Khalid Rasib and D.J. Wright

ABSTRACT


Workers of R. santonensis were used to determine the minimum number of termites required for colony survival and establishment. Survival was observed for initial termite numbers as low as ten under constant conditions at 25°C, 75% RH over 28 weeks. Results showed that an initial termite number of 250 gave the greatest population survival with 38 nymphs. Increasing initial termite numbers caused a decrease in the survival in the laboratory and an increase under field conditions. Survival decreased with time in the laboratory trials. There was no significant (P>0.05) interaction between density and substrate type and neither initial termite number nor substrate type and volume had a significant effect on the termite survival.

KEY WORDS: subterranean termite number, colony establishment, survival, substrate types, Substrate volumes

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Genetic Evidence for Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) of Middle Eastern Lineage in the United States

By Roxane Magnus & Allen L. Szalanski

ABSTRACT


Honey bees, Apis mellifera L. are the principle managed pollinator of agriculture and horticulture crops in the United States. Apis mellifera is not native to the United States and the first record of this species in the United States was during the early to mid 17th century when European settlers brought it to the United States. The mitochondrial DNA COI-COII intergenic region of A. mellifera exhibits a high degree of genetic variability within and among A. mellifera lineages and is useful for differentiating lineages as well as detecting unique mitotypes. We conducted a study of the genetic diversity of honey bees from central and south central United States from primarily feral populations. Of the 469 samples from 14 states subjected to DNA sequencing we found evidence of four mitotypes from the ‘O’ lineage: O5, O5d, O5’’b, and O2. Only one of these mitotypes, O2, has been previously observed (in Lebanon). Within the feral population, this lineage accounted for 5% of the observed mitotypes. Of the 24 ‘O’ lineage samples mitotype O5 was the most common and accounted for 52% of the total observed ‘O’ mitotypes. Bayesian and maximum parsimony (MP) phylogenetic analysis revealed that O2, O5, and O5d were more closely related to those found in Libya (O5b, O5a, O4a, O4b), Lebanon (O1b, O2, O3), and Egypt (O1c). However, O5”b appears to have no close relationship to any of the other mitotypes. The existence of the Middle Eastern ‘O’ lineage in the south central and central United States suggests that further molecular genetic studies of the honey bee population is needed for utilizing and conserving the genetic variation which most likely exists in the Unites States. Furthermore, this study also suggests that feral honey bees are surviving despite the introduction of the varroa mite in the 1980s which reduced the feral and managed populations.

KEY WORDS: Apis mellifera, COI-COII intergenic region, Middle Eastern honey bee, mtDNA, O lineage

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Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) Damaging Fruits of Myrciaria sp. (Myrtaceae)

By André R. de Souza, Daniele F. A. Venâncio & Fábio Prezoto

ABSTRACT


The interaction between social wasps and Myrciaria sp. (Myrtaceae) fruits was registered. Nine species of social wasps visited the fruits of sampled plants, but only S. cyanea was observed breaking the fruit skin. A possible solution for this undesirable behavior is to find and to remove the S. cyanea colonies, the unique species that was able to break the fruit skin. The others wouldn't need to be removed, because they explored only pre-existing holes in fruits.

KEY WORDS: biological control, fruit trees, pre-harvest damage

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