Autism References

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General References

Ghaziuddin, M., & Butler, E. (1998). Clumsiness in autism and asperger syndrome: A further report. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 42(1), 43-48.

Mahar, M. T., Murphy, S. K., Rowe, D. A., Golden, J., Shields, A. T., & Raedeke, T. D. (2006). Effects of a classroom-based program on physical activity and on-task behavior. Medicine and  Science in  Sports and Exercise, 38(12), 2086-2094. doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000235359.16685.a3

Pitetti, K. H., Rendoff, A. D., Grover, T., & Beets, M. W. (2007). The efficacy of a 9-month treadmill walking program on the exercise capacity and weight reduction for adolescents with severe autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(6), 997-1006. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0238-3

Williams, J. H. G., Whiten, A., & Singh, T. (2004). A systematic review of action imitation in autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34( 3), 285-299.

Physical Activity & Autism Spectrum Disorder

Micacchi, G., Giuliani, A., Cerbo R., Sorge, G., & Valenti, M. (2006). Physical activity in autistic young patients: A critical review of literature. Ital J Sport Sci, 13, 57-64.
This is a critical review of the literature available regarding children with ASD. The authors discuss ASD and the impact it has on a child’s physical activity.
Pan, C.-Y., & Frey, G. C. (2006). Physical activity patterns in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(5), 597-606. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0101-6
This study focuses on the physical activity patterns in youths with ASD. The youths were divided into three groups: elementary, middle, and high school. The purpose of the article was to find out when these individuals participated in physical activity and who participated the most.
Rosser, Sandt D. D., & Frey, G. C. (2005). Comparison of physical activity levels between children with and without autistic spectrum disorders. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 22, 149-159.
This study compared physical activity levels between children with and without ASD. The investigators focused on four specific time periods when children were most active: daily, during physical education, during recess, and after school.
Todd, T., & Reid, G. (2010). Cycling for students with asd: self-regulation promotes sustained physical activity. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 27, 226-241.
This study examined the impact of a cycling program that used goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement on three adolescents with severe autism.
Todd, T., & Reid, G. (2006). Increasing physical activity in individuals with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 21(3), 167-176.
This study set out to see if a self-monitoring device would help increase physical activity levels in individuals with autism. The three participants in the study participated in a 6-month outdoor physical activity program that was divided into six phases. As the study progressed, edible reinforcers decreased while the use of the self-monitoring board and verbal cuing continued.


Jones, V., & Prior, M. (1985). Motor imitation abilities and neurological signs in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(1), 37-46.
The purpose of this study was to compare the motor imitation abilities of children with ASD with their chronological peers.

Information for the P.E. Teacher

Menear, K. S., & Smith, S. (2008). Physical education for students with autism: Teaching tips and strategies. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(5), 32-37.
This article provides general P.E. teachers tips and strategies on how to successfully include a child with autism in the classroom. The article includes a chart with 14 tips on helpful teaching considerations, a sample of IEP goals, and a continuum of placement options for a student with a disability. Topics discussed are progression, themed stations, picture stories, and increasing independence.