Spanish 425 - Applied Linguistics: Spanish Teaching Methodology

Course Description:

Required for B.A. in Spanish, Pre-Credential Option

Elective/Service course for: B.A. in Spanish, General Option

Prerequisites: SPAN 320 (Intro. to Spanish Linguistics)

The overarching purpose of SPAN 425 is to aid you, a prospective teacher, in exploring the professional career of teaching. This experience will help you understand factors that affect K-12 student learning and the connection between university subject matter preparation and K-12 academic content.  You will learn about the standards that individuals must meet to be recommended for a California Teaching credential, and the standards that California public school students meet.  Through experiences aiding and observing in an actual and needed role in a school, you will have opportunities to reflect on and discuss the complexity and many facets of teaching.  At the same time we hope that you will be able to assess whether teaching is the right career choice for you. 

In this course you will develop an understanding of current theories of foreign language learning through exploration of relevant research. You will read about and discuss the implications of key research for classroom practice. Opportunities are provided to use the theoretical base in the design of classroom activities. Special attention is given to designing performance-based language assessments and to adapt instruction to address the needs of exceptional students as well as those in at-risk categories.  The class will introduce a variety of strategies in dealing with students from diverse socioeconomic and cultural settings. We will focus on integrating effective technological tools into the design of classroom lessons, selecting and designing materials (including visuals, props, and realia) to support lessons, assessing student progress in an ongoing manner, and designing performance-based instruments that integrate the skills of listening, reading, and writing and address the national standards.

In the Early Field Experience hours, prospective teachers acquire planned, structured observations and experiences in secondary school classrooms. Placements are made in selected schools and classrooms that demonstrate exemplary practice as described in the California Standards for the Teaching Profession, and represent California�s diverse student population. Dialog/discussion sessions assist prospective teachers in making connections between subject matter courses, personal, social and emotional growth, and life in the secondary schools.

In the classroom, the primary modes of instruction will include lecture with discussion, small-group activities and hands-on practice with instructional technology. Students must participate in discussions, small-group activities and presentations that will provide opportunities to apply the concepts and techniques studied. The goal of this course is to provide experiences that facilitate the development of professional world language educator-inquirers, who are dedicated to continued professional development in order to plan, implement and model best instructional practice.

Course Objectives:

Students in this course will:

  • successfully complete a classroom aiding assignment in a K-12 school with students from a variety of populations in California, and additional school observations. 
  • understand the development of language teaching methodologies that led up to and include communicative language teaching.
  • understand of some of the major theories of second language acquisition and their applications to classroom language teaching.
  • use the terminology particular to foreign language teaching that is necessary for informed conversation in the field, especially to formulate and communicate his or her goals for growth as a professional educator.
  • reflect intelligently upon their own and on others� teaching.
  • articulate a personal philosophy of foreign language teaching
  • create and draw upon an extensive resource packet
  • understand the ACTFL Standards for Foreign Language Learning and be able to apply these principles to the development of lesson plans and learning objectives.
  • understand the Foreign Language Framework For California Public Schools: Kindergarten-Grade Twelve and be able to apply these principles to the development of lesson plans and learning objectives.
  • identify and describe connections between their subject matter preparation and California K-12 curriculum, instructional practices, and learning processes.
  • be able to develop and tailor activities to help students develop listening, reading, writing, and speaking skills in Spanish.
  • understand a variety of assessment tools and methods to measure students learning in their Spanish classes.
  • recognize that developing teaching expertise is a life-long process

Reading materials required:

Books:

O�Hair, M. J., McLaughlin, H. J., and Reitzug, U. C.  Foundations of democratic education, Harcourt, 2000. (This text is used in throughout the Multiple and Single Subject Programs of the Department of Education at CSU, Chico.)

Santos Gargallo, I. Ling��stica aplicada a la ense�anza- aprendizaje del espa�ol como lengua extranjera. Madrid: Arco Libros, 1999. 

Available on WebCT:

ACTFL Program Standards for the Preparation of Foreign Language Teachers. Prepared by the Foreign Language Teacher Standards Writing Team August 1, 2002; Approved By The Specialty Areas Studies Board National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education October 19, 2002

ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners. Yonkers, NY: ACTFL, 1998.

ACTFL Revised Proficiency Guidelines — Speaking

ACTFL Revised Proficiency Guidelines — Writing

ACTFL Revised Proficiency Guidelines — Listening

ACTFL Revised Proficiency Guidelines — Reading

Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (1999),

Foreign Language Framework For California Public Schools: Kindergarten-Grade Twelve. 1989. Sacramento: California Department of Education.

�A Guide to Aligning Curriculum with the Standards.� 1996. Ames: National K–12 Foreign Language Resource Center, Iowa State University. This publication is available only online at <http://www.educ.iastate.edu/nflrc/ publications/stds.htm#guide>.

Handbook for Planning an Effective Foreign Language Program. 1985. Sacramento: California Department of Education.

Teacher Preparation in Languages Other Than English: Quality and Effectiveness Standards for Subject Matter Programs in California. 1994. Handbook for Teacher Educators and Program Reviewers. Sacramento: Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

Course Policies:

Attendance

Because this course is focused not only on the theory, but also on the practice of teaching foreign languages, it is extremely important that you come to class regularly and on time. If you must miss a class or come late, please tell me ahead of time. 

Academic Integrity

As a student at CSUC, you are responsible for maintaining �a high standard of academic integrity� (2005-07 CSUC Catalog p. 623) in all the work you do here. Teaching is a cooperative endeavor; in this class, collaborative study (with me, with your classmates, and with friends and family) is expected and encouraged. Authorized aid includes studying with a partner or a group for the chapter quizzes and discussing ideas, methods, and techniques for the microteaching sessions. Unauthorized aid includes using any outside resources during the chapter quizzes and using wholesale/verbatim another instructor�s activity or lesson plan for the microteaching sessions. If you are in doubt about how to maintain academic integrity in any activity associated with this course, please consult with the professor.

Course Topics and Schedule:

All topics and assignments are designed to introduce the prospective teacher of Spanish to the most fundamental concepts related to the teaching of the target language in California secondary schools and to prepare for future studies (e.g. Single Subject or BCLAD Credential program).  This course adheres to requirements set out in the 2004 Languages Other Than English Single Subject Matter Standards for the Single Subject Teaching Credential California Commission on Teacher Credentialing (LOTE).

Topic 1: Discussion of Classroom Aiding—Introduced in Week 1 and reinforced throughout semester

The classroom aiding or service-learning component of SPAN 425 is the heart of the course. Your experience in a school and classroom provides the basis for observations, reflections, and discussions.  A minimum of 45 hours of service as a classroom aide is required. A form documenting your hours and signed by the teacher you are working with will show that you have met the school-hours requirement. The teacher will also complete an evaluation form and the CSU, Chico Teacher Candidate Disposition Form for your application for admission to a credential program. 

See Early School Experience Options (at Assignments and Info) for additional information about acceptable school and related experiences.  If you will be working in a school in Chico, school placements must be arranged through Community Action Volunteers in Education (CAVE). Forms for CAVE placements can be found in CAVE Placement Forms (at Assignments and Info).

Topic 2. Overview of the teaching methods used in Foreign Language—Week 2

Total Physical Response, The Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Lexical Approach, Competency-Based Language Teaching, Communicative Language Teaching, Natural Approach, Content-Based Instruction, Task-Based Language Learning. We also will touch on learning concepts that are not unique to Foreign Language: Whole Language, Cooperative Learning, and more.  (LOTE 4, 5)

Topic 3. Overview of L2 Acquisition and Educational Psychology—Week 3

The program prepares candidates to demonstrate an understanding of the language acquisition process; developmental patterns of language learning; the cognitive, affective, and social factors impacting language teaching and learning; and the interrelationship of language and culture. We also will discuss Multiple Intelligences, Neurolinguistic Programming, and more. (LOTE 2.5 and 12.4)

Topic 4. Technology—introduced in Week 4 and reinforced throughout semester

Spanish students have full access to the Multi-Media Language Learning Center in Taylor 207.  This is a state-of-the-art computer laboratory equipped with Internet access, programs integral to language-learning activities (e.g. Divace), a database of activities based on appropriate use of technology in the classroom.  Students will practice using various programs, learn to manage equipment, study the use of available language-learning activities, and create activities using technology.

The study and application of current and emerging technologies, with a focus on those used in K-12 schools, for gathering, analyzing, managing, processing, and presenting information is an integral component of each prospective teacher�s program study. Prospective teachers are introduced to legal, ethical, and social issues related to technology. The program prepares prospective teachers to meet the current technology requirements for admission to an approved California professional teacher preparation program. (LOTE 3)

Topic 5. Equity and Diversity—Week 5

Discussions and readings will focus on the implications of teaching in a global society.  We will look at how student and teacher diversity enriches the classroom environment, impacts learning styles, and guides our perceptions of our surroundings.  In particular, we will focus on what the Heritage Learner brings to the classroom, and what we can contribute specifically to the Heritage Learner.  Human differences and similarities to be examined in the program include, but are not limited to those of sex, race, ethnicity, socio-economic status, religion, sexual orientation, and exceptionality. The program may also include study of other human similarities and differences. The curriculum in the Subject Matter Program reflects the perspectives and contributions of diverse groups from a variety of cultures to the disciplines of study. (LOTE 2, 20)

Topic 6. National Standards for Foreign Language Learning (The 5 C�s)—Introduced in Week 6 and reinforced throughout semester

Students will learn how to interpret and apply the �Five C�s� (Communication, Cultures, Connections, Comparisons and Communities) in the secondary school Spanish classroom and in the profession of teaching in general. These experiences enable prospective teachers to interact with the larger cultural communities associated with the target language to broaden their perspectives and experience base for language learning and teaching. Candidates demonstrate the ability to relate the target language to broaden their perspective and experience base for language learning and teaching. Candidates demonstrate the ability to relate the target language to other disciplines. (LOTE 4, 5, 20)

Topic 7. Foreign Language Framework For California Public Schools: Kindergarten-Grade Twelve—Weeks 7-13

  • Rationale for Studying Foreign Languages
  • Proficiency Levels (Language Learning Continuum)
  • Content of Foreign Language Curriculum
  • Implementation of Curriculum and Instructional Practices
  • Assessment of students and evaluation of programs
  • Professional development
  • The role of parents or guardians, administrators and the community
  • The criteria for evaluating kindergarten through grade 8 foreign language instructional materials

Topic 8.  Reflection and Synthesis. Weeks 14-15

Course Assignments and Grading Policies

A. Class Participation          

We meet three hours a week. It is essential to such a small, practically oriented class that you come to class regularly, keeping up with assignments so that you come to class prepared to listen carefully to what your classmates have to say and to make insightful and well-informed comments of your own.  In this course, two absences are allowed without penalty for family emergencies or for any brief illnesses such as a cold or the flu. (If you find you are dealing with an extended serious illness, please contact me.) Please note that there are strict grade deductions following these two absences and that coming late to class or leaving early counts as a half of an absence. If you are absent more than two times, no matter how active your participation is otherwise, your participation grade will be reduced by 10 points per absence.  Perfect attendance will be rewarded with 10 extra points on the participation grade.

Beyond attendance, your class participation will be graded according to the following criteria:

excellent

20

very good

18

good

16

 so-so

14

poor

12

very poor

10-0

Remains alert, focused, and responsive

Has prepared by thoughtfully completing reading assignments

Offers ideas, opinions, and questions during class discussions

Provides tactful yet substantive feedback to classmates

Makes connections between class topics or Spanish course materials and Early Field Experience

B. Final Reflective/Analytical Paper on Early Field Experience

In this paper, you should:

  1. Describe in general terms your experience in the classroom (and/or other Early Field Experience)
  2. Analyze how specific experiences or events have contributed to your learning and preparation as a teacher
  3. Discuss the diverse populations with whom you worked and what you learned through this experience
  4. Analyze how your early field experiences are linked to the content of coursework in the program—both in SPAN 425 and other courses in Spanish (provide specific examples, refer to course readings and discussions, compare to concepts discussed in the courses)
  5. Evaluate how well the Field Experience was structured, what level of support you received, and whether you could suggest any improvements for future years
In preparation, students should keep journal of experiences throughout the semester, writing an entry after each day in the classroom, to have specific material for the paper.  Include the materials that you developed or your Master Teacher gave you to work with.  You will turn in the journal and materials used in the classroom along with the paper. 

(LOTE 4, 9)

C. Analysis and Presentation of 1 critical article on pedagogy, L2 acquisition, or other topic covered in the course.

Once during the semester, you will write a 2-3 page summary and discussion of an article pertaining to a class topic.  The article will be chosen in consultation with the professor, possibly from the bibliography of recommended readings on this syllabus.  You will complete an in-class oral presentation based on your synthesis of the article.  In your presentation, you will present your summary, answer questions from classmates, and lead a short discussion on how the article pertains to students� Early Field Experiences. (LOTE 4, 5.)

D. Quizzes on Readings

On a regular basis, students will be tested over the comprehension of readings and the ability to synthesize ideas in Spanish. (LOTE 4, 5)

E. Portfolio of Teaching Materials

Throughout the semester you will develop a Portfolio of Teaching Materials that will be compiled and turned in at the end of the semester. The Portfolio of Teaching Materials is a collection of ideas, activities, and resource materials that you will gather throughout the semester and that you will be able to add to and draw upon throughout your career as a foreign language teacher. You may choose whichever format you find easiest to deal with—perhaps a folder, a  series of manilla envelopes, or a binder with page protectors for any loose items.

You will be required to include activity plans that will utilize some of the materials you collect. (Specified for each section, below). The activity can be one that you create, either by modifying a textbook activity in an interesting way, or by developing the activity entirely yourselves (possibly by incorporating authentic materials). Not all your activities need be entirely original creations, but your portfolio should contain at least a balance of both modifications and original creations. The portfolio should also demonstrate a balance of activity types targeting a variety of language skills. Your activity plan will include the following:

  • what the activity is
  • what the teacher should do and what the students should do during the activity
  • the materials necessary to carry out and complete the activity
  • the time needed to carry out the activity
  • the pedagogical purpose of the activity (why did you use this activity?)
  • how the activity reflects methods and best instructional practice as detailed in the LOTE Single Subject Standards (CCTC), ACTFL Standards, National Standards (5 C�s) and/or California Foreign Language Framework
  • where the activity fits in the lesson sequence and how it meshes with the text (i.e. input, asimilaci�n, aplicaci�n,integraci�n..)
  • what language skill(s) the activity reinforces
  • how the activity utilizes the skills and knowledge you have acquired in your coursework in Spanish

If you are able to try out the activity in the class where you serve as Teacher�s Aide, you can also provide a summary / analysis of how the activity went over in class (i.e. did students enjoy it?, were you able to finish it in the time planned?, did it target the language skill you intended it to target?, etc..) and how you assessed this; an analysis of why it went over the way it did; and comments on how you might do it differently the next time, if you were to do it differently at all.

Your resource packet should include the following elements:

1.     Summary report of your interviews with two (2) teachers and two (2) students

2.     Summary report of your classroom observations (Observation assignments will direct your understanding of the school environment and the issues faced by teachers.  The time you put into observations is in addition to your classroom aiding hours.  We encourage you to make observations in classrooms other than the one to which you are assigned. Guidelines will be provided for the focus of each observation/interview and the structure of the summary reports.) (LOTE 5)

3.     An annotated list of at least 10 journal articles or books (from no earlier than 1995) related to or useful for foreign language teaching; your annotations should each be around 100 words and should state in what way the source might be useful to you; the following list contains the most well known foreign language journals, some of which are available in the Meriam Library and others online:

i.     Foreign Language Annals                 
ii.     ADFL Bulletin                                    
iii.     Journal of Educational Research       
iv.     Instructor       
v.     Journal of Language and Social Psychology                                                   
vi.     Canadian Modern Language Review 
vii.     FLES News                                        
viii.     Hispania                                            
ix.     Language Learning                           
x.     Modern Language Journal                
xi.     TESOL Quarterly                              

A list of at least 10 books and articles you haven�t yet had time to read but would like to in the future

A collection of at least 50 photographs or line drawings cut from magazines or photocopied from textbooks or other sources that can be used in the classroom—together with 5 activity plans that use one or more of the photos or drawings.

A collection of at least 10 pieces of realia (actual material from the target culture that can be used in the classroom—brochures, catalogs, train schedules, etc.) —together with 5 activity plans that use one or more of the pieces of realia.

An annotated list of at least 20 web pages related to or useful for foreign language teaching; your annotations should each be around 100 words and should describe the authors and content of the page—together with 5 activity plans that each use one of the pages.

The Teaching Materials Portfolio is due on the last day of class; it will be graded for completeness (20 points), thoroughness (40 points), and thoughtfulness (40 points).

F. Early Field Experience Options

For admission to Department of Education Single Subject Programs, our approved SB 2042 programs require that prospective credential candidates complete a course that contains introductory school experience elements of California Single Subject Matter Standard 6.  The standard calls for significant experiences in public school classrooms under the guidance of a credentialed teacher.  Appropriate classrooms provide experiences with a population of students representative of the diversity of California children and youth.  Additionally, these standards require that opportunities be provided for prospective teacher candidates to study, consider and discuss a variety of contemporary school issues.

The Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures offers SPAN 425 that meets the specifications of these standards and includes a minimum of 45 clock hours of early school experience.  Recognizing that many prospective candidates seek a variety of experiences with children and youth, the department has designed the requirements and options below to honor those school experiences.

45 – Hour Requirements

  1. The experience must be program appropriate (secondary school level for Single Subject).
  2. The experience must have been completed within the last four years.
  3. A minimum of 2/3 of the experience must be completed in a traditional public school setting, observing, aiding and participating. (A Teacher Candidate Disposition form will be required from the teacher-of-record.)
  4. A minimum of 1/3 of the experience must be in a linguistically diverse classroom.
  5. The following time distributions will be credited (only one selection will apply):

Up to 1/3 of the experience may be in a private school.

Up to 1/3 of the experience may be as a substitute teacher or teacher-of-record with written verification by a school administrator or teacher.

Up to 1/3 of the experience may be completed in a tutoring or other educational service project or course that provides direct experience with students such as in a special education setting, summer school, alternative education setting, mentoring programs, specialized charter schools, magnet schools, after-school academic programs, or other (see Program Coordinator for approval).

45 - Hour Options

To meet California standards for early school experience you can mix experiences from the categories above.  The basic guideline is that a minimum of 2/3 (30 clock hours) of your experience must be in a traditional public school setting.  Then, other experiences selected from number 5 in Requirements (above) can be used to meet up to 1/3 (15 clock hours) of experience. 

For the professor�s record keeping you must submit a plan for your early school experience.  Submit your plan through the SPAN 425 course email by sending a message titled: School Experience Plan.  Explain the following:

  1. How you will meet (or have met) the traditional public school experience.  Indicate the name and city of the school, the teacher�s name and the grade level or subject area of your experience.
  1. If you have optional experiences, list these with an indication of the setting and the teacher (or supervisor) with whom you worked.

You will write a Final Reflective/Analytical Paper on Early Field Experience. See description and requirements above. Student should keep journal of Early Field Experiences throughout the semester, writing an entry after each day in the classroom, to have specific material for the paper. Also, keep any materials used or developed for class.

Many potential credential candidates have significant experience with children and youth, and in school or other educational settings.  You may have sufficient experiences to meet all or part of Department of Education 45–hour requirements.  If you believe this is the case, describe your experiences (as in 1 and 2 above), and ask the professor to evaluate them for meeting the requirement. The professor will respond with an email that you can print and submit with your program application. In any case, you still will have to write the final paper discussing your experiences.

Letters of recommendation and/or Teacher Candidate Disposition forms will be used to verify your experience by department staff.  YOU must request letters or TCD forms from current or former supervisors and/or Master Teachers with whom you have worked.

Suggested Weekly Schedule

On average, a student in this course will spend approximately six hours a week studying outside of class in addition to thescheduled three hours a week spent in class, for a total of nine hours dedicated to learning foreign language methods each week of the semester. This is, of course, an estimated average; the actual amount of time you spend on this course may vary from week to week, and the amount of time you need to complete the readings, study for the quizzes, and create and practice the microteaching segments may vary somewhat from that needed by your classmates.  

The following is a suggestion for how you might schedule your study time, based on nine hours a week. Adjust the study plan to your schedule, try it out, and modify it as the semester goes on until you find a plan that fits your learning style and study preferences and enables you to do well in the course.

Activity                                           Duration (Per Week)           

Coming to class                                    3 hours                                                                 

Reading material for class                      1½ hours

Portfolio of Teaching Material                   1/2 hour

Field Experience and Observations             3 hours

Studying for Quizzes                               1 hour

Bibliography of Suggested Readings

�A Guide to Aligning Curriculum with the Standards.� 1996. Ames: National K–12 Foreign Language Resource Center, Iowa State University. This publication is available only online at <http://www.educ.iastate.edu/nflrc/ publications/stds.htm#guide>.

22. Copyright � 1996 by College Entrance Examination Board. All quotations reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. www.collegeboard. com.

A Challenge to Change: The Language Learning Continuum. 1999. Edited by Claire W. Jackson. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 21–43, 147. Copyright � 1999 by College Entrance Examination Board. All quotations reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. www.collegeboard.com.

A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform. 1983. A report to the nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education, by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. Washington, D.C.: National Commission on Excellence in Education.

ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K–12 Learners. 1998. Yonkers, N.Y.: American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages.

Alonso, Encina. (1999) C�mo ser profesor/a y querer seguir si�ndolo. Madrid: Edelsa.

Altman, Charles. 1988. The Video Connection: Integrating Video into Language Teaching. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Approaches to Computer Writing Class-rooms: Learning from Practical Experience. 1993. Edited by Linda Myers. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Articulation and Achievement: Connecting Standards, Performance, and Assessment in Foreign Language. 1996. Edited by Claire W. Jackson. New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 16, 18–

Articulation of Language Programs: Recommendations for Implementation Within and Among California�s Elementary, Secondary, and Post-Secondary Educational Segments. 1994. Edited by Hal Wingard. San Diego: California Language Teachers Association.

Assessing Foreign Language Proficiency of Undergraduates. 1991. Edited by Richard V. Teschner. Boston: Heinle Thomson Learning.,

Bamford, K. W., and D. T. Mizokawa. 1991. �Additive-Bilingual (Immersion) Education: Cognitive and Language Development,� Language Learning, Vol. 41, No. 3, 413–29.

Bringing the Standards into the Classroom: A Teacher�s Guide. 1997. Ames: National K–12 Foreign Language Re-source Center, Iowa State University.

Bruck, M.; W. E. Lambert; and R. Tucker. 1974. �Bilingual Schooling Through the Elementary Grades: The St. Lambert Project at Grade Seven,� Language Learning, Vol. 24, No. 2, 183–204.

Burke, K.; R. Fogarty; and S. Belgard. 1994. The Mindful School: The Portfolio Connection. Palatine, Ill: IRI/Skylight Publishing.

California Special Education Programs: A Composite of Laws (Twenty-fifth edition). 2003. Sacramento: California Department of Education.

Cerrolaza, M & Cerrolaza, A. (1999) C�mo trabajar con libros de texto. Madrid: Edelsa.

Challenge for a New Era: Nebraska K–12 Foreign Language Frameworks. 1996. Lincoln: Nebraska Department of Education.

Classroom Oral Competency Interview. 1993. Stanford, Calif.: Leland Stanford Junior University Board of Trustees.

Classroom Writing Competency Assessment. 1996. Stanford, Calif.: Leland Stanford Junior University Board of Trustees.

Curtain, Helena, and Carol Ann Pesola. 1994. Languages and Children. Making the Match. White Plains, N.Y.: Longman.

Curtain, Helena. 1993. An Early Start: A Resource Book for Elementary School Foreign Language. Washington, D.C.: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, ED 353 849.

Defining and Developing Proficiency: Guidelines, Implementations, and Concepts. 1998. Edited by Michael D. Bush and Robert M. Terry. The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, Ill.: McGraw Hill/ Contemporary.

Developing Communication Skills: General Considerations and Specific Techniques. 1978. Edited by Elizabeth G. Joiner and Patricia Westphal. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

DiPietro,R.  (1987).  Strategic Interaction:  Learning languages through scenarios.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.

Foreign Language Framework for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. 1989. Sacramento: California Department of Education.

Foreign Language Proficiency in the Class-room and Beyond. 1998. Edited by Michael D. Bush and Robert M. Terry. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, Ill.: McGraw Hill/ Contemporary (out of print).

Fromkin, Victoria; Robert Rodman; and Nina M. Hyams. 2002. An Introduction to Language (Seventh edition). Boston: Heinle Thomson Learning.

Futures: Making High School Count! 2002. Sacramento: California Education Round Table.

Goals 2000: Educate America Act. 1994. HR 1804. <http://www.ed.gov/ legislation/GOALS2000/TheAct/>.

Hakuta, Kenji. 1986. Cognitive Development of Bilingual Children. Los Angeles: University of California, Center for Language Education and Research. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 260.

Hakuta, Kenji. 1990. �Bilingualism and Bilingual Education: A Research Perspective,� NCBE Focus: Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education (Spring), 1.

Handbook for Planning an Effective Foreign Language Program. 1985. Sacramento: California Department of Education.

Hertz, Robert M. 1987. Computers in the Language Classroom. Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.

Huebner, Thom, and Anne Jensen. 1992. �A Study of Foreign Language Proficiency-Based Testing in Secondary Schools,� Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 25 (April), 105–15.

LaReau, Paul, and Edward Vockell. 1989. The Computer in the Foreign Language Curriculum. Santa Cruz, Calif.: Mitchell Publishing (out of print).

Larsen Freeman, D. (1986) Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lee, J. & VanPatten, B. (1995).  Making Communicative Language Teaching Happen.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Lee, J. (2000). Tasks and Communicating in Language Classrooms. New York:  McGraw-Hill, Inc

Lightbown, P. & Spada, N. (1993).  How languages are learned.  Oxford:  Oxford University Press.

Massachusetts Foreign Languages Curriculum Framework. 1999. Malden: Massachusetts Department of Education.

Modern Media in Foreign Language Education: Theory and Implementation. 1998. Edited by Michael D. Bush and Robert M. Terry. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, Ill.: McGraw-Hill/ Contemporary.

Modern Technology in Foreign Language Education: Applications and Projects. 1989. Edited by William Flint Smith. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, Ill.: National Textbook Company (out of print).

Moskowitz, Gertrude. 1978. Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class: A Sourcebook on Humanistic Techniques. Boston: Heinle Thomson Learning.

National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. 1996. Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century. Lawrence, Kans.: Allen Press.

National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. 1999. Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century. Lawrence, Kans.: Allen Press.

New Perspectives and New Directions in Foreign Language Education. 1998. Edited by Michael D. Bush and Robert M. Terry. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series. Lincolnwood, Ill.: McGraw-Hill/Contemporary.

Omaggio, Alice C. Teaching Language in Context, 3rd ed. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers,Inc., 2001.

Omaggio-Hadley, Alice. 1993. Teaching Language in Context: Proficiency-Oriented Instruction (Second edition). Boston: Heinle Thomson Learning.

Oral Communication Testing: A Handbook for the Foreign Language Teacher. 1977. Edited by Cathy Linder. Lincolnwood, Ill.: National Textbook Company (out of print).

Oxford, Rebecca L. Language Learning Strategies. 1990. Boston: Heinle Thomson Learning.

Padilla, A. M.; H. Sung; and J. C. Aninao. 1994. Stanford Foreign Language Oral Skills Evaluation Matrix (FLOSEM). Stanford, Calif.: Leland Stanford Junior University Board of Trustees.

Padilla, A. M.; J. C. Aninao; and H. Sung. 1996. �Development and Implementation of Student Portfolios in Foreign Language Programs,� Foreign Language Annals, Vol. 29, No. 3, 429–38.

Pitkoff, Evan, and Elizabeth Roosen. 1994. �New Technology, New Attitudes Provide Language Instruction,� NASSP Bulletin, Vol. 78, No. 563, 36–43.

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