Amber Arena
EDTE 229B (Art)-03
Lesson Plan

Pictograph Stone Carving

Grade Level: 3-5 (with modifications)

Approximate Time: 1 hour, 45 minutes

Goal: Students will learn about the early methods of communication used by the Native American tribes.

Topic: Students will demonstrate the use of visual arts through making a pictograph stone carving that will resemble an authentic stone carving created by the Native Americans for use in communication.

Creative Expression: Each student will create his/her very own message with his/her choice of symbols and drawings the Native Americans used.

Artistic Perception: Students will identify symbols/drawings that represent their ideas and will carve them into the Styrofoam.

Historical and Cultural Context: The students will see and discuss pictures (art work) of pictograph writing and discover why it was used.

Aesthetic Valuing: Students will pair-share their pictographs with other students in the classroom and students will communicate through the use of their pictographs.

Rationale: Pictograph stone carving is important to learn because it allows students to understand and appreciate differences among people and allows them to communicate in another language. Pictograph stone carving allows the students to see how writing has developed over time. Furthermore, pictograph stone carving is one of the earliest forms of visual literacy. Most of us use visual literacy skills daily.

Strategy: A combination of direct instruction, guided discovery, inquiry.

Pictograph Stone Carving:
Pictures and symbols carved in stone.
Carving: Using some kind of tool to cut into an object to form an image.

(15 minutes)
I will start by showing students pictures of Native American pictographs and asking them what they think they are. I will ask them how they are used and what they notice about them. Students will then be told that they will need to communicate through making a pictograph as well. The students will be shown Native American hand symbols and pictures and discuss their meanings. I will show students the materials that will be used and describe how to use each material. I will demonstrate for the students the process used in making a pictograph stone carving by demonstrating steps 3, 4, 8, and 9 of the pupil activity sequence in front of the class. After I paint the Styrofoam I will set it aside and show the students a finished product that was previously made. After answering any questions and checking for understanding, students will be allowed to proceed.

Pupil Activity Sequence: (1 hour)
1. Teacher hands out copies of symbols found in Susan Schneck’s, Native Americans Cooperative Learning Activities to each student.

2. One student from each table will be assigned to get supplies for all group members.

3. Students break off the sides of the Styrofoam sheet to create irregular edges.

4. Students paint Styrofoam surface lightly with peach tempera paint

5. Let dry (*hint- If students finish early they can create their own symbols for new words)

6. While waiting for the Styrofoam to dry, students will take turns role playing (communicating), with a partner, using Native American hand signs.

7. When Styrofoam is dry students return to their desks and take out a carving tool.

8. Using a pencil or blunt object (such as the end of a paint brush), students etch out a variety of Indian symbols to create a story or message.

9. Using a paint brush, students paint brown inside the etched lines to outline each symbol.

10. Using various colors of acrylic paint, students paint each symbol within the brown lines.

11. If desired, brown paint can be wiped around the sides of the Styrofoam to create an "aged" appearance. (*hint- Students who finish early can write a message using new symbols they have created)

Closure: (20 minutes)
Students will pair-share for twelve minutes. Students will pair up with one member of their group and have four minutes to translate each other’s message (two minutes for each partner). Then, students will rotate partners and continue the same procedure until each student has met with three different people and have translated each other’s pictograph stone carvings. Next, the teacher will ask for volunteers to share their pictograph stone carvings with the class as a whole. Students will ask for volunteers to translate their messages. Last, as a group, students will volunteer or be called upon to describe their experiences and discuss what they liked most about the pictograph stone carving. They will also describe what they found to be the most difficult part of the activity and what could be done to make it easier. Students will have an opportunity to give their opinions about pictograph stone carving and discuss the pros and cons of this form of communication. Students will also be asked why the Native Americans used pictograph stone carving as their early form of communication.

Clean-up: (10 minutes)
Clean up will be assigned by tables. I will call students by tables (of four) to put their pictographs on a side counter out of the way so they can be displayed later. Then, One student from each table will pick up the paint brushes and go to the sink and clean them and put them away. Another student from each table will put away the spray paint. The third student at each table will clean and put away all of the acrylic paint. Finally, the fourth student at each table will wipe down the table with paper towels and make sure the work area is clean. These same students will also make sure all counters are clean.

Evaluation: Students present their pictograph stone carvings that demonstrate the use of symbols from their handout and are able to correctly decode the message. This allows the teacher to assess whether the students related the correct symbol-word correspondences. Students not presenting at the time will be asked to determine if the correct symbols are represented in the message or story. This allows the teacher to assess whether the students in the audience understand the symbol-word correspondences and whether the students have actually learned to communicate in another "language." Students write a reflection on the experience and discuss the effective/ ineffective use of pictograph stone carving and why it was used. By having the students write a reflection, the teacher is able to assess whether the students understand what pictograph stone carving is, why it was used by the Native Americans and whether it was effective.

Styrofoam sheet: 10Sx12Sx1/2S
Pale peach tempera paint
Acrylic paint in assorted primary colors
Paint brushes for each student
Pencil or paint brushes (blunt-end object) for carving
Containers for water to rinse paint brushes
Native American Cooperative Learning Activities by Susan Schneck
Copies for entire class of Native American signs and pictures
Pictures of Native American pictograph stone carvings