Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office]; 530-898-6192 [Dept.]; FAX: 530-898-6143
e-mail: email@example.com / home page: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban
[This Page is printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1980PolynesianPaper.html]
15 August 2003 
© [All Rights Reserved.] This paper was originally presented on October 25, 1980, at the "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25, 1980 and was placed on the WWW on August 15, 2003 as an "example" of ideas and writing of 1980. The text below is essentially unchanged from the original 1980 paper (with additions being indicated in [ ]'s below). In placing this paper on the WWW some 23 years after it was written I attempt to demonstrate to my students that life is, in fact, cumulative and ideas develop out of previous ideas; I also follow the 1963 words of Sir Karl Popper [1902-1994]: "we can learn from our mistakes [stress added]" (Conjectures And Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 1963, page vii). Several of my earlier papers have already been placed on the WWW for student use, such as Urbanowicz 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970a , 1970b, 1971, 1973, 1976a, 1976b, 1977, and 1983 (all referenced below); in placing them on the WWW, I was often reminded of the words of stanza 51 from the 1859 (first) edition translation of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám of Naishápúr by Edward Fitzgerald (1809-1883)
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it."
Please note the following: "The first Edition of the translation of Omar Khayyám, which appeared in 1859, differs so much from those which followed, that it has thought better to print it in full, instead of attempting to record the differences." W. Aldis Wright, n.d. [1932?], The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám And the Salámán And Absál of Jámí Rendered Into English Verse by Edward Fitzgerald (NY: A.L. Burt Company), page 119.
This 1980 paper dealt with some of my thoughts concerning women in Polynesia, beginning with my 1970-1971 fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga; several publications resulted from that fieldwork and are referenced below. I was last in Tonga in 1971, in Tahiti in 1980 (and before that in 1971), and last in Hawai'i in 2003. (Since 1970 I have been to Hawai'i, for various lengths of time, on twenty-six occasions.)
Historical footnote: Born in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1942, I graduated high school in 1960 and after attending New York University in 1960-1961, I enlisted in the United States Air Force (1961-1965), was Honorably Discharged, and eventually received the B.A. in Sociology/Anthropology in 1967 from Western Washington State College (now Western Washington University). I began Graduate Work in Anthropology at the University of Oregon in September 1967 and received the M.A. in Anthropology in 1969. In July 1970 I went (with my wife) to do fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and was awarded the Ph.D. in 1972. For a complete résumé, please see http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/resume.html). I taught in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota for 1972-1973 and joined the faculty of California State University, Chico, in August 1973 and have been happily here ever since!
THE BACKGROUND AREA
THE ISLAND WORLD THROUGH EUROPEAN EYES: TAHITI AS "EXAMPLE"
TONGAN, TAHITIAN, AND SOME HAWAI'IAN WOMEN
[APPENDIX I: CONTEMPORARY MAPS OF THE PACIFIC]
[APPENDIX II: SELECTED WEB PAGES FOR THE PACIFIC]
[APPENDIX III: SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ PUBLICATIONS DEALING WITH TONGA, 1972->1994 (in reverse chronological order)]
[APPENDIX IV: OTHER SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ HISTORICAL WEB PAGES (in reverse chronological order: 1965 -> 1983)]
"Current interest in the status of women has spurred greater attention to and research on women." Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow, Women in Cultures of the World, 1976.
Over the centuries, since first contact, the women of the Pacific, or Euroamerican interpretations of what women in the Pacific were supposed to be like, created the idea of an idyllic paradise which has come down to us in this part of the 20th century.
Women from the Pacific have been immortalized in print by Michener, captured on canvas by Gauguin, and have been paraded before our senses by every individual who has encouraged travel to the "South Seas" over the ears: from 16th century voyagers who were determined to receive sensual pleasures from island women, through 19th century missionaries who attempted to convert the bloody 'eathens, to the 20th century mass transporters who foster the notion of a "vacation in Paradise."
There are, however, other aspects of women in the Pacific than the sensual pleasures which are enshrined in the various mediums: women in the Pacific were leaders, visionaries, and important focal points for numerous aspects of island life which this brief paper will discuss. This paper draws and expands upon certain points first made in earlier publications (Urbanowicz, 1973, 1977, and 1979).
THE BACKGROUND AREA
For various purposes, the island world of the Pacific is traditionally divided into three major culture areas: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesia, in the northern Pacific, is a group of small islands scattered over an area the size of the 48 contiguous American states, with a landmass of slightly more than 800 square miles (the Marianas, including Guam, add approximately another 280 square miles to this Micronesian mass).
Melanesia, including New Guinea (the second largest island in the world), is undoubtedly the largest part of the Pacific in terms of landmass (and population). Diversity in language, culture, and lifestyle is the key to Melanesia, and as Ann Chowning has stated it:
"There is, at present, no general agreement even among anthropologists about the geographical boundaries of Melanesia.... Every anthropologist who has tried to generalize about Melanesia has emphasized its enormous diversity.... [and] it is literally impossible to make more than a handful of generalizations that will apply to even the majority of societies in Melanesia." (An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia, Second edition, 1977: 1-2).
The island world of Polynesia, bounded by Hawa'i in the northern Pacific, Easter Island in the southeast Pacific, and New Zealand in the southwest Pacific, are probably more familiar to the general public and will provide examples for this brief note. It has been the island world of Polynesia, with swaying palm trees, blue-green lagoons, and misty mountain tops, which has provided us with the vision of the "Paradise of the South Seas" over the years. (Please see Map #1.)
[August 2003 Note: For contemporary maps of the region, please see Appendix I at the end of this web paper.]
The "South Seas" or "Mar del Sur" was the term applied to the Pacific Ocean, largest on this planet with over 64,000,000 square miles in area, by the Spanish conquistador Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, on September 28, 1513. Balboa had crossed the land we now know as Panama in search of fabled gold and when he eventually saw the Ocean, he solemnly claimed it all on behalf of the Spanish Crown.
Although Pacific islanders had been crossing the island world of Polynesia since at least 1140 B.C., and Hawai'i was peopled by indigenous inhabitants by at least 750 A.D., it was not until September of 1519 that a small fleet of vessels left Spain on a 13 month voyage destined for the South Seas. This was the first European voyage across the Pacific, led by the Portuguese navigator Fernao de Magalhaes (also known as Ferdinand Magellan). Magellan was killed in the Philippines in 1522, and only one vessel, The Victoria, with 31 individuals eventually returned to Spain after the circumnavigation, but the Pacific could be crossed by Europeans (because the sea was so calm on the voyage from Spain to the Phillipines, Magellan gave the ocean the name of "Mar Pacifico," an illusory name which has survived to this date.
Although various European explorers from Magellan onwards gave the non-Pacific world some idea of what the Pacific islands were like, the Pacific islands were truly placed upon Europe's map of the world by two distinguished men: Captain James Cook (1728-1779) of the English Navy and Captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) of the French Navy. Cook literally criss-crossed the Pacific in three expeditions (1768-1771, 1772-1775, and 1776-1780) and he was eventually killed by Hawai'ians on the big island of Hawai'i on 14 February 1779. The records from these descriptions encouraged Europeans to go out and not only see the Pacific but change the lifestyles of the indigenous inhabitants. Bougainville's three year voyage from 1766 to 1769 was the first and most important of French expeditions to the Pacific and it is from Bougainville, perhaps that we get the first full-blown Euroamerican myths about Polynesian women.
THE ISLAND WORLD THROUGH EUROPEAN EYES: TAHITI AS "EXAMPLE"
"Here Venus is the goddess of hospitality. The very air the people breathe, their songs, their dances...all conspire to call to mind the sweets of love, and all engage to give themselves up to them."
Thus de Bougainville immortalized the island the native called Tahiti, but which he termed "La Nouvelle Cythere" since it reminded him of the Greek goddess of love. Tahiti is perhaps one of the most beautiful islands of the Pacific and de Bougainville's two ships (the Boudeuse and Etoile) landed at Tahiti on April 6, 1768. He wrote:
"The aspect of this coast offered us the most enchanting prospect. As we came nearer the short, the number of islanders surrounding our ships increased.... All these people came crying 'tayo.' [taio] which means 'friend,' and gave a thousand signs of friendship. They all asked nails and ear-rings of us. The canoes were full of females, who, for agreeable features, are not inferior to most European women; and who, in point of beauty and body, might with much reason vie with them all. Most of these fair females were naked, for the men and old women that accompanied them had stripped them of the garments which they generally dressed themselves in.... The men...soon explained their meaning very clearly. They pressed us to choose a woman and to come ashore with her; and their gestures, which were nothing less than equivocal, denoted in what manner we should form an acquaintance with her. It was very difficult amidst such a sign to keep 400 young French sailors who had seen no women for six months." (Robert Langdon, Tahiti: Island of Love, 1968, pages 19-20)
de Bougainville's Voyage Autour du Monde was published in French in 1771 and in English as Voyage Around the World in 1772. With published prose such as this, and confirming statements from other voyagers, the Pacific Paradise was born. As Carl Stroven and A. Grove Day have stated it:
"At this time in France and England there was a widespread interest in Rousseau's doctrine of primitivism, which held that civilization corrupted human nature and that mankind could be noble and happy only in a primitive society. Since de Bougainville gave a detailed and colorful picture of a newly discovered primitive [sic.] people, the Tahitians, living happily in the 'state of nature,' his narrative was eagerly read for its illustration of Rousseau's theories operating in practice. This and the fact that de Bougainville wrote with raciness and humor made the book one of the most popular of all Pacific voyages. (The Spell of the Pacific: An Anthology of Its Literature, 1949, page 113.)
de Bougainville's "racy" accounts were also eventually substantiated to some extent by Captain Cook. The descriptions of island life recorded by Cook, and the sketches made by his various artists and scientists on the expeditions, fleshed out the island world of the Pacific. In Tahiti, on the 14th of May 1769, Cook recorded in his Journal:
"...this day closed with an odd scene at the gate of the Fort where a young fellow about 6 feet high lay with a little girl about 10 or 12 years of age publickly before several of our people and a number of the natives. What makes me mention this, is because, it appeared to be done more from Custom than Lewdness, for there were several women present particularly Obarea (Purea) and several others of the better sort and these were so far from showing the least disprobation that they instructed the girl how she should act her part, who young as she was, did not seem to want it." (J.C. Beaglehole, Editor, The Journals of Captain James Cook, Vol. 1, 1955, page 93)
What Cook and his men had witnessed were part of the activities associated with the celebrated Arioi sect which flourished in traditional Tahitian society. The Arioi were dedicated to the worship of the Tahitian deity known as 'Oro, a youthful and handsome deity in the Tahitian cosmogony. Cook wrote:
"They are called Areeoy and have meetings among themselves with wrestling &c. and the women with dancing the indecent dances before mentioned, in the course of which they give full liberty to their desires but I believe keep strictly up to the appearance of decency. I never was admitted to see them, one of our gentlemen saw part of one but I believe very little of their real behavior tho he saw enough to make him give credit to what we had been told." (J.C. Beaglehole, Editor, The Journals of Captain James Cook, Vol. 1, 1955, pages 351-352)
The Arioi were involved in various activities, many of which revolved around sex. Douglas Oliver, perhaps the greatest living expert on Ancient Tahitian society has written:
"In other words, the things about the [Arioi] sect that attracted and held members were not only the positive advantages of membership...but [also] the institutionalized opportunity it provided for perpetuating 'youthfulness' in all its gratifying aspects." (Ancient Tahitian Society, Vol. 2, 1974, pages 943-944.)
Sexual promiscuity was described as being rampant in the Pacific and Europeans were fascinated, A voyage from Europe to the Pacific islands was indeed a long one, and the islands of the Pacific beckoned when sailors made landfall. European vessels needed fresh supplies when they reached the islands and islanders sought trade goods from the European emissaries. As W.H. Pearson clearly wrote in an article entitled "The reception of European voyagers on Polynesian islands, 1568-1797" in 1970:
"First contact between Europeans and Polynesians were conditioned by a conflict of two economic pressures. The first was the need for the ships companies for fresh water, for vegetables food and fresh meat and for timber and firewood; the second, the need to protect the population and resources of each island from the inevitable drain on food supply that must accompany the visit, unexpected and of uncertain length, of a numerous company of strangers." (1970: page 121.)
Traditional Island life revolved around working with the available natural resources of each island and the Pacific islanders quickly realized the value of European technology. Trade quickly took place as soon as the foreign vessels landed. As one example, iron was not found in the Pacific islands until Euroamericans brought it in, and it proved an extremely valuable trading commodity. It was such a valued item that Cook had to pass the following regulation designed to curb (or at least slow down) some trade with Pacific islanders:
"No sort of Iron or anything that is made of iron, or any sort of Cloth or other useful or necessary Articles are to be given in exchange for anything but provisions.... (J.C. Beaglehole, 1955 op. cit., page 572.)
TONGAN, TAHITIAN, AND SOME HAWAI'IAN WOMEN
The pattern for Euroamerican penetration of Pacific islands discussed above for Tahiti took similar form throughout other islands of the Pacific. Oliver has written of the "Western conceit" to call the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries as the "Era of Discovery" (The Pacific Islands, 1962: 83) and in 1966 Alan Morehead wrote eloquently of The Fatal impact: An Account of the Invasion of the South Pacific 1767-1840 as a result of Euroamerican contacts.
Throughout much of the general published literature, women were often viewed as being sexual objects, objects of "trade," and generally regarded as having an inferior (or at least a lower status) than men in Pacific societies. In the anthropological literature, however, this is clearly not the case. In earlier papers (1975 and 1979) I have maintained that in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga, for example, women played an extremely important role in all major portions of island life before the coming of Euroamericans. Indeed, in his pioneering work of 1929, entitled Tongan Society, Edward Winslow Gifford clearly pointed out that "a woman is always superior in rank to her brother regardless of seniority" (1929: 17).
The overall importance of Tongan women in traditional times is clearly evident in all levels of society, from the family level to that of the "chiefs" or 'eiki. A 19th century missionary who was in Tonga from 1828 to 1859 reported in an unpublished manuscript that:
"Formerly there were three ranks of nobles in Tonga to which the term Eiki or Lord applied, of these the Tuitonga stood first, then the Tamaha, and next the Hau or civil ruler." (John Thomas, n.d., Ranks of Chiefs, page 1.)
While the Tu'i Tonga was a representative of the gods, the Tamaha was actually viewed as a god herself on Tonga and Gifford reports that "The Tamaha, the daughter of the female Tui Tonga and sororal sister of the male Tui Tonga, was the person of highest rank in the kingdom" (1929: 80) (also see Urbanowicz 1979: 228).
The Tamaha, the living oracle of the Tongans and the daughter of the Tu'i Tonga Fefine (the sister of the Tu'i Tonga) was an extremely important person in traditional Tongan society. Indeed, the Tu'i Tonga Fefine herself had an important role to play in Tongan society as the French explorer Dumont D'urville reported in his manuscript account of his 1827 visit to the main island of the Tongan archipelago, Tongatapu:
"Soon after our arrival at the anchorage, a native came to present me with a great ceremony a green branch of kava (piper methisticum). Singleton (a European residing in the islands of Tonga since 1806), whom I questioned about the reason for this gift, informed me that this branch had been sent to me by the old queen Tuoï-Tonga-Fafine (Tu'i Tonga Fefine), and that in doing so she did me a great honour. The branch put the ship under the protection of the gods of the country and would guarantee it against any misfortune. Consequently I received the sacred branch with respect and had it planted in a spot within view of the ship, which seemed to please the natives who witnessed the ceremony." (D'Urville, n.d.: MS: 1a; and see Urbanowicz 1975: 39).
Throughout Tongan history, women have always played major roles in daily life, including the running of the Kingdom. (When the Tongan Constitution of 1875 was promulgated, with the assistance of Europeans, quite a few things changed in Tonga. Please see Urbanowicz 1973.) Perhaps the most famous recent Tongan woman has been Her Majesty Queen Salote Tupou III, who was the reigning monarch from 1918 until her death in 1965 when her son acceded to the throne and became His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV.
An article in a recent Pacific Islands Monthly pointed out the role being played by a contemporary Tongan woman, Papiloa Foliaki, and also mentioned Tongan women in general"
"Tongan women have always been a powerful behind-the scene influence on public affairs, but the Hon. Member for Tongatapu's emergence as a charismatic centre-stage public figure in her own right has caused a lot of talk, both for and against." (Penny Hodginson, 1980: 24)
Papiloa Foliaki is the only elected woman in the Tongan parliament of 23 individuals; she is one of the seven elected representatives for the Tongan population of over 100,000 individuals. Women have been important in the Pacific and Euroamerican interpretations of their traditional and contemporary roles has often been lacking.The most famous of all Tahitian women, perhaps, was Queen Pomare Vahine IV, who became the ruler of Tahiti and the Society Islands in 1827 at the age of 16, and who ruled until her death on September 17, 1877. This fifty year reign saw the introduction of Catholicism to French Polynesia, eventual internal warfare, and the establishment of the French Protectorate. (It was her son, Pomare V, who gave into pressure and turned this Polynesian Kingdom over to France.) When Queen Pomare died there was a great deal of concern over the future of the islands:
"Underlying the flowery rhetoric of some (funeral) speeches, there was actually a measure of anxiety among the chiefs and even among the people concerning the future of the country without a Queen. Unconsciously, the Tahitians felt that they had lost a queen and a mother, the symbol of their profound personality and their national heritage." (P. O'Reilly, Pomare: Queen of Tahiti, 1972: 30).
Indeed, the Hawai'ian counterpart of Queen Pomare IV is Queen Liliuokalani, who was born in 1838 and who came to the Hawai'ian throne at the death of her brother, King Kalakaua, in 1891. Queen Liliuokalani took the Hawai'ian throne at a time when the economy of the islands was depressed, Americans were seeking annexation to the United States, and things were going generally from bad to worse! On January 17, 1893, a "Committee of Safety" (formed by Honololu's annexationists) "abolished the monarchy of Hawaii and established a provisional government" (Joseph Feher, Hawaii: A Pictorial History, 1969: 331). On July 4, 1893, Hawai'i was proclaimed a Republic, with Sanford Dole as the first President. On August 12, 1898, the American flag was flown over the annexed islands of Hawai'i and on June 14, 1900, the Territory of Hawai'i was finally established. The last Queen of Hawai'i, now known as Lydia Dominis (and poet-authoress of Aloha oe) died a private citizen in 1917.
In her work entitled Women of Old Hawaii (1975), Maxine Mrantz pointed out that in Hawai'i, women were in fact leaders, artists, rulers, and lawmakers. Similar examples could easily be found for other island groups in the Pacific which would clearly point out the important role that women have played in the past and continue to play in the present as we move into the future.
John C. Beagblehole, 1955, The Journals of Captain James Cook: Vol. 1 (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society).
Ann Chowning, 1977, An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia (2nd Edition). (Cummings Publishing Co.).
Jules S.C. Dumot D'Urville, n.d., Partial Translation by Olive Wright of Voyage de la Corvette L'Astrolabe....Historie Du Voyage, 1826-1829. (Wellington, NZ: Alexander Turnbull Library Misc. MS. 1374).
Joseph Feher, 1969, Hawaii: A Pictorial History (Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special publication No. 58).
E. W. Gifford, 1929, Tongan Society (Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin No. 16, Honolulu).
Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow, 1976, Women in Cultures of the World (Cummings Publishing Co.).
Penny Hodhkinson, 1980, Papiloa in Politics. Pacific Islands Monthly, Vol. 51, No. 2, page 24.
Robert Langdon, 1968, Tahiti: Island of Love (Sydney: Pacific Publications).
Alan Morehead, 1966, The Fatal Impact: An Account of the Invasion of the South Pacific: 1767-1840 (Penguin).
Maxine Mrantz, 1975, Women of Old Hawaii (Honolulu: Tongg Publishing Co.).
Douglas L. Oliver, 1962, The Pacific Islands (Revised Edition).
Douglas L. Oliver, 1974, Ancient Tahitian Society (Three Volumes) (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press).
Patrick O'Reilly, 1972, Pomare: Queen of Tahiti (Paris: Societe des Oceanistes Dossier 13).
W.H. Pearson, 1970, The Reception of European Voyagers on Polynesian Islands, 1568-1797. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, Vol. 26, No. 2: 121-153.
Carl Stroven and A. Grove Day, 1949, The Spell of the Pacific: An Anthology of Its Literature.
John Thomas, n.d., MS. No. 5, Ranks of Chiefs (Sydney: Mitchell Library Microfilm, FM4/1439 reel 48, original in London).
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1973, Tongan Adoption Before The Constitution of 1875. Ethnohistory, Vol. 20, No. 2: 109-123.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1975, Drinking in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Ethnohistory, Vol. 22, No. 1: 33-50.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1979, Change in Rank and Status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Political Anthropology: The State of the Art, edited by S. L. Seaton and J. M. Claessen (Mouton: The Hague), pp. 225-242.
[APPENDIX I: CONTEMPORARY MAPS OF THE PACIFIC]
[APPENDIX II: SELECTED WEB PAGES FOR THE PACIFIC]
The world dertainly has changed since this 1980 paper (and since my first trip to Hawai'i in 1970) and perhaps some of these web sites might be of interest:
[Tongan Visitors Bureau} Welcome to the Kingdom of Tonga]
http://www.fikco.com/kingdom.htm [Tonga} Includes Audio]
http://www.royaltonganairlines.com/ [Royal Tongan Airlines]
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/pacific/tonga/index.htm [Lonely Planet World guide} Tonga]
http://gohawaii.about.com/cs/tonga/index.htm [Various Tongan Articles and Links]
http://www.pacificforum.com/links/Countries/Polynesia/Tonga/ [Pacific Islands Web Directory} Tonga]
http://pidp.ewc.hawaii.edu/pireport/[Pacific Islands Report} Up-to-the-date news]
http://coombs.anu.edu.au/WWWVL-PacificStudies.html [Australian National University} A massive Pacific Site]
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ [CIA World Factbook} 2002]
http://www.govt.nz/ [New Zealand Government On-Line]
http://www.abc.net.au/news/ [ABC News (Australia)]
Finally, check out:
[Web Cams around the world, including many in Oceania!]
http://www.123cam.com/site.php?site=http://www.hawaii-malinda.com/live/1.htm [Live From Honolulu]
http://www.123cam.com/site.php?site=http://citycams.co.honolulu.hi.us/waikiki.html [Waikiki Beach, Honolulu, Hawai'i]
http://www.123cam.com/site.php?site=http://www.tahitiplanet.com/webcam.htm [Pape'ete Harbor, Tahiti]
http://www.123cam.com/site.php?site=http://www.borabora.com/webcam/ [Pape'ete seafront, Tahiti]
http://www.princess.com/ipix/ships/tahitian_bridge_cam.html [From the Bridge of the Tahitian Princess]
1994 Review of Islanders of the South: Production, Kinship and Ideology in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1993) by Paul Van Der Grijp (translated by Peter Mason). Ethnos (Stocklhom), Vol. 59, No. 3-4: 276-278.
1993 Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. (For the California State University, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 30, 1993).
1991a Another Look at Tourism With Regards to Tonga. Hosts and Guests, edited by Valene Smith (Tokyo: Keisó Shobo), pp. 147-164 [Japanese Translation of 1989].
1991b Tonga. Encyclopedia of World Cultures, edited by D. Levinson (Boston: Hall-Macmillan), pp. 336-339.
1989 Tourism in Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times? Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by Valene Smith, 2nd Edition (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 105-117.
1988 Review of Early Tonga as the Explorers Saw It: 1616-1810 (1987) by E. N. Ferdon. The American Anthropologist, Vol. 90, No. 4: 1021.
1981a Review of The Nobility and the Chiefly Tradition in the Modern Kingdom of Tonga (1980) by G.E. Marcus. Pacific Studies, Vol. 5, No. 114-116.
1981b Pacific Women: Some Polynesian Examples. Discussion Paper 81-1 in Discussion Paper Series (College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, California State University, Chico).
1979a Change in Rank and Status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Political Anthropology: The State of the Art, edited by S. L. Seaton and J. M. Claessen (Mouton: The Hague), pp. 225-242 [identical to 1975a].
1979b Comments on Tongan Commerce, With Reference to Tourism and Traditional Life. Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 20, No. 2: 179-184.
1978a Brève note sur l'inflation, le tourisme et le Pétrole au Royaume polynésien des Iles Tonga. Journal de la Société des Océanistes, Vol. 36, No. 60:137-138.
1978b Review of A Polynesian Village: The Process of Change In the Village of Hoi, Tonga (1977) by P. Tupouniua. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 87, No. 3: 288-289.
1977a Integrating Tourism With Other Industries in Tonga. The Social and Economic Impact of Tourism on Pacific Communities, edited by B. H. Farrell (Center for South Pacific Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz), pp. 88-94.
1977b Tourism in Tonga: Troubled Times. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by Valene Smith (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 83-92.
1977c Motives and Methods: Missionaries in Tonga in the Early 19th Century. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 86, No. 2: 245-263.
1976a John Thomas, Tongans, and Tonga! The Tonga Chronicle (July 15, 1976), Nuku'alofa, Tonga, Vol. 13, No. 7: 7.
1976b Tourism in The Pacific. The Asianist (California State University, Chico), Vol. 1: 17-22.
1975a Change in Rank and Status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Psychological Anthropology, edited by T. R. Williams (Mouton), pp. 559-575 [identical to 1979a].
1975b Drinking in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Ethnohistory, Vol. 22, No. 1: 33-50.
1974a Capt. Cook's Club. Pacific Islands Monthly, April.
1973 Tongan Adoption Before The Constitution of 1875. Ethnohistory, Vol. 20, No. 2: 109-123.
1972 Tongan Culture: The Methodology of an Ethnographic Reconstruction. Copyrighted Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon; also available from Ann Arbor, University Microfilms 73-7972); CSUC} GN/671/T5/U7/1972a]. [And please see} http://www.uoregon.edu/~anthro/dissertations.html]
1983 Christian Missionaries in The Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga: Late 18th & Early 19th Century Activities. (For the Symposium entitled "Missions and Missionaries in the Pacific: An Overview" for the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, San Francisco, California, December 28.)
1977 Evolution of Technological Civilizations: What is Evolution,Technology, and Civilization? (For the Symposium on "The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence at NASA/Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California, February 24-25.)
1972 Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction. For the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association,Toronto, Canada, December 2, 1972).
1971 Tongan Culture: From The 20th Century to the 19th Century. For the 70th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New York, New York, November 17, 1971).
1970a Discussion. Current Direction in Anthropology: A Special Issue [Bulletins of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. 3, No. 3, Part 2], edited by Ann Fischer (Washington, D.C., American Anthropological Association), pages 55-56.
1970b Mother Nature, Father Culture. (For the 28th Annual Meeting of the Oregon Academy of Science, Eugene, February 28).
1969 A Selective View of the Intellectual Antecedents of Claude Lévi-Strauss. (For the 68th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 20-23, 1969.]
1968 Comments on Bronislaw Malinowski (For a University of Oregon ANTH 507 Graduate Seminar, October 29).
1967 The Classical Maya. Honors Papers (Bellingham: Western Washington University), Vol. 6: 26-32.
1965 Darwin - 1859: An Important Historical Event. (For SPEECH 100, Western Washington State College [now Western Washington University], Bellingham, Washington, June 30).
[~ 5,345 words]} 15 August 2003
to the Department of Anthropology;
to California State University, Chico.
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15 August 2003 by cfu