Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz/Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico/Chico, California 95929-0400
Telephone: 530-898-6220 [Office]; 530-898-6192 [Dept.] FAX: 530-898-6824
e-mail: and home page:

Distributed 11 September for 18 September 2002 Presentation [1]

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© [All Rights Reserved.] For Professor William Loker's ANTH 300, at California State University, Chico, on September 18, 2002. Urbanowicz received his B.A. (1967) from Western Washington University and the M.A. (1969) and Ph.D. (1972) from the University of Oregon. Charlie taught at the University of Minnesota in 1972-1973 and came to Chico in August 1973.


Some may already know that my "passion" is Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and while I will mention "Darwin" today, I will try to cover a few other points concerning the "history of theory" in Anthropology. Darwin is a fascinating individual and many have written much about him and there is a "Darwin" industry and I cannot talk about 18th, 19th, 20th, and 21st Century anthropology without mentioning Darwin! The personality and background of every individual influences what he or she writes about, be it Darwin or.... anyone! And I cannot avoid it. As one has written:

"The Russians have a proverb: He lies like an eyewitness. Few eyewitnesses see it all, fewer still understand all the implications. And their reports are always personal. Yet what they see is essential. History begins with people caught in the moment-by-moment rush of events. The correspondent on the scene shares the jolt of joy or horror in watching the world change in an instant. Personal bias becomes part of the story, and often makes the account more vivid [stress added]." David Colbert [Editor], 1997, Eyewitness to America: 500 Years of America in the Words of Those Who Saw It Happen (NY: Pantheon Books), page xxvii.

"Personal bias becomes part of the story, and often makes the account more vivid" is an important theme and I bring to my interpretation of Darwin a passionate attempt to humanize him and I have opinions on "images" of Darwin portrayed to students, the public, and the scientific community. Ehrlich's publication, Human Natures: Genes, Cultures and the Human Prospect (Washington, D.C.: Island Press/Shearwater Books, 2000), appropriately invokes Darwin at the begininng of his first chapter (page 1):

"...when we regard every production of nature as one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the far more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of natural history become!"

It is not only the "productions of nature" which have a history, but the "history of anthropology" has a history as well! (Ehrlich's 331 pages of text and 100 pages of 1,901 numbered footnotes - with 2,574 references clearly points out there is a "history" to his interpretation and what he believes about Human Nature.)


Summarizing my interest in Darwin and moving on: I attempt to "humanize" Charles R. Darwin, place him within the context of his times, and discuss some of the impact (and interpretations) of his work. I attempt to understand some of his scientific research, specifically his monumental 1859 publication entitled On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life and how it (and Charles Darwin) has been interpreted over time. Darwin was an important individual for a variety of reasons: the data he collected, the experiments he conducted, and the theory he proposed influenced a variety of disciplines, from anthropology to zoology as well as ecology, ethology, geology, and the general social sciences. His influence continues to be condemned, debated, and supported after almost 150 years. I am personally conducting my on-going research into Darwin with an eye towards the year 2009 which will be the bicentennial of Darwin's birth and the sesquicentennial of On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life.

Incidentally, there is one point I consistently make in any presentation or paper about Darwin: "change" might well be his middle name! Please consider, if you will, the changes that occured in his celebrated 1859 magnum opus, taken from Morse Peckham [Editor, 1959] The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press):



9 eliminated
483 re-written
30 added
7 %
33 eliminated
617 re-written
266 added
14 %
36 eliminated
1073 re-written
435 added
21 %
178 eliminated
1770 re-written
227 added
29 %
63 eliminated
1699 re-written
571 added
21-29 %

What Darwin do you know?


In order to "contextualize" Darwin (and others), I created the following "chart" (and, as stated, all will probably not agree on either the definitions or the placement of individuals): how would you create such a chart?

Acculturation: also called, by some, Cultural Dynamics.
Change(s) through time.

Melville J. Herskovits (1895-1963), H.G. Barnett (1906-1985); Nancy O. Lurie (1924->).

(American) Cultural Anthropology: also called, by some, Historical Empiricism.

Ethnographic "facts" are obtained through fieldwork.

Franz Boas (1858-1942); Alexander Chamberlain (1865-1914); Alfred Kroeber (1876-1960); Elsie Parsons (1874-1941); Robert H. Lowie (1883-1957) ; Paul Radin (1883-1959); Ella Cara Deloria (1888-1971); Esther Goldfrank (1896-); Erna Gunther (1896-1982); Robert Redfield (1897-1958); Ruth Bunzel (1898-1990); Julian Steward (1902-1972); Gene Weltfish (1902-1980); Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960); Ruth Landes (1908->1991); Ernestine Friedl (1920->); Eric Wolf (1923-1998); Morton Klass (1927-2000).

(British) Social Anthropology.


The "social" aspect (and "social organization") is crucial for an understanding of people.

A.C. Haddon (1855-1940); W.H.R.Rivers (1864-1922); Charles G. Seligman (1873-1940); A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955); Beatrice M. Blackwood (1889-1975); Hortence Powdermaker (1896-1970); Camilla Wedgwood (1901-1955); Raymond Firth (1901-2002); Edward Evans-Pritchard (1902-1973); Sigfried Nadel (1903-1954); Monica Wilson (1908-1982); Edmund Leach (1910-1989); Max Gluckman (1911-1975); Ann K. Fischer (1919-1971); Victor Turner (1920-1983); Mary Douglas (1921->); F.G. Bailey (1924->).

Cross-Cultural Research.
Statistical analyses based on previous research.

Edward Burnett Tyor (1832-1917); George P. Murdock (1897-1985).

Diffusionism (Kulturkreise and Heliolithic).
Change as a result of diffusion (borrowing).

Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904); Wilhelm Schmidt (1868-1954); Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937); Leo Frobenius (1873-1938); Fritz Graebner (1877-1934); William J. Perry (1889-1949); V. G. Childe (1892-1957)

Evolutionary ideas (various).
Change(s) over time.

Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882); Johann Jacob Bachofen (1815-1887); Edward B. Tylor (1832-1917); Lewis H. Morgan (1818-1881); Herbert Spencer (1820-1903); Karl Marx (1818-1883); Henry Maine (1822-1888); Pierre Paul Broca (1824-1880]; Thomas H. Huxley (1825-1895); John McLennan (1827-1881); Augustus Pitt-Rivers (1827-1900); Paul Topinard (1830-1911); John Lubbock (1834-1914); Max Weber (1864-1920); Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955); Leslie White (1900-1975); Robert Carneiro (1927->); Marshall Sahlins (1930->)

French Sociologie / Structuralism.
Culture (and Society) shaped by pre-programmed codes (of the human brain).

Émile Durkheim (1858-1917); Marcel Mauss (1872-1950); Arnold van Gennep (1873-1957); Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908->)

Discovering how parts of a culture function (not concerned with "origins" or "history").

Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942); Audrey I. Richards (1899-1984)

Modernism / Postmodernism.
Thinking about what we are thinking about (and more!)

Eleanor B. Leacock (1922-1987), Clifford Geertz (1926-); Renato Rosaldo (1941->); Sherry Ortner (1941->); George Marcus (1943->).

Neoevolutionism: also called, by some, Cultural Ecology.
Cultures develop in relation to their capacity for harnessing energy.

Julian Steward (1902-1972); Roy Rappaport (1926-1997); Marvin Harris (1927-2001]

Use of the Scientific Method.

Charles de Montesquieu (1689-1775); Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794), August Comte (1798-1857); Gregory Bateson (1904-1980); Derek Freeman (1916-2001).

Pre [Non]-Boasian American Cultural Anthropology.
Somewhat Self-Explanatory.

Joseph François Lafitau (1670-1746) ; Henry Schoolcraft (1793-1864); John Wesley Powell (1834-1902); Erminnie Smith (1836-1886); Alice Fletcher (1838-1923); Frederick Putnam (1839-1915); Matilda Stevenson (1849-1915); Anténor Firmin (1850-1911); Franklin Cushing (1857-1900); Zelia Nuttall (1857-1933); Frederick Starr (1858-1933); Edward S. Curtis (1868-1952).


"Primitive" Mentality.

Somewhat Self-Explanatory.

Theodore Waitz (1821-1864); Adolph Bastian (1826-1905); Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939)

Psychological Anthropology: also called, by some, Culture & Personality.
Dealing with the relationship between culture and psychology.

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939); Edward Sapir (1884-1939); Ruth Benedict (1887-1948); Margaret Mead (1901-1978); Abram Kardiner (1891-1981); Ralph Linton (1893-1953); Cora DuBois (1903->); Horace Miner (1912-1993); Rhoda Metraux (1914->).

Research / writing based on previously published and unpublished information.

James George Frazer (1854-1941); Charles F. Urbanowicz (1942->)

This was created, for the first time, for my Fall 2002 ANTH 296, and as I state in that Guidebook (available at This is in no way intended to be a "definitive" listing (or categorization) and some individuals could (obviously) be placed in one or more "boxes" below! Also please note: Not everyone in the world would necessarily agree with my definition of "assumption(s)" nor my placement of "some individuals" ...." In that same Guidebook I also have the following: according to Leslie A. White & Beth Dillingham, "The whole history of ethnological theory is embraced [below] by this simple diagram" Leslie A. White (1900-1975) and Beth Dillingham, The Concept of Culture, 1973, page 38.


What do you think?


"He had a term for people like this: temporal provincials--people who were ignorant of the past, and proud of it. Temporal provincials were convinced that the present was the only time that mattered, and that anything that had occured earlier could be safely ignored. The modern world was compelling and new, and the past had no bearing on it." Michael Crichton, 1999, Timeline (NY: Ballantine Books), page 84.


Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2002, [On Darwin: Countdown to 2008/2009! Presented at the "Darwin Day" activities, sponsored by HAGSA [The Humanist Association of the Greater Sacramento Area], Sacramento, February 10, 2002.

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2001b, [Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. ~Twenty-two Minutes. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [].

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2000, [Teaching As Theatre: Some Classroom Ideas, Specifically Those Concerning Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) for the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, California (November 15-19, 2002)].

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1999a, [Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. ~Twenty-two Minutes. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [].

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1999b, [Charles R. Darwin: Fall 1999 Miscellaneous Information (for Various Activities).

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1998c,] [Folklore Concerning Charles R. Darwin. For the 1998 Meetings of the Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California Folklore Society, Sacramento, California, April 16-18, 1998.]

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1997, [Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part One: The Beginning (1997). ~Seventeen Minutes. Darwin in England]. Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [].

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1992, [Four-Field Commentary]. Published in the Newsletter of the American Anthropological Association, 1992, Volume 33, Number 9, page 3.

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1990, [A Dossier on Darwin: A Letter to the Editor; originally published in the Chico [California] Enterprise-Record on September 26, 1990, page 4B.]

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1970, [Discussion Words from 1969 / 1970.] Published in Current Direction in Anthropology: A Special Issue [Bulletins of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. 3, No. 3, Part 2, September 1970], edited by Ann Fischer, (Washington, D.C., American Anthropological Association, pages 55-56.

1.© [All Rights Reserved.] For a presentation on September 18, 2002, for Professor William Loker's ANTH 300, at California State University, Chico, and placed on the web (and distributed to the students) on September 11, 2002. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

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Copyright © 2002; all rights reserved by Charles F. Urbanowicz

11 September 2002 by cfu

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