Darwin Continues To Evolve: Urbanowicz on Darwin (Again!).

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz/Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico
Chico, California 95929-0400

home page: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban
e-mail: curbanowicz@csuchico.edu

15 September 1997 version 2.0 [1]

Printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Darwin_Sep'97.html.




One must wonder, does Urbanowicz have any other interests? (Yes, he does.) The first Darwin presentation in a somewhat similar format was made at an Anthropology Forum on October 4, 1990. On February 10, 1993, a live closed-circuit televised production of Darwin was broadcast throughout Northern California for an Anthropology 103 course (followed by another Anthropology Forum on February 11). An additional Darwin presentation was made for new students at California State University, Chico, during "Orientation Week" on August 25, 1994 and on September 15, 1994, a "Darwin Presentation" (entitled "Evolution: Charles Darwin And Anthropology") was presented at an Anthropology Forum that date. The first presentation of an uncut version of this current videotape was made at an Anthropology Forum on November 7, 1996 and, finally (for now), this 17 minute videotape (finished in July 1997) is presented today: What next?


The rationale for creating instructional videotape(s) dealing with Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) is an attempt to not only convey the content of Darwin's work within the context of his times, but also to demonstrate the impact his ideas have for contemporary University students. Urbanowicz not only wishes to "humanize" Darwin but he also wishes to get contemporary students (and others) to understand Darwin's impact in the 20th Century (and into the 21st Century). In many respects, the videotape presentations are an attempt (through the use of multimedia) to convey what Freeman Dyson wrote about Albert Einstein: "This book shows him as he was--not a superhuman genius but a human genius, and all the greater for being a human being" (In Alice Calaprice, 1996, The Quotable Einstein, page xiii).

Over a four-day period in Spring 1996, working with Ms. Donna Crowe and Mr. Clark Brandstatt of the University's Instructional Media Center (IMC) and Ms. Martha Acuña of the Theatre Arts Department, we videotaped ~12 hours of "Urbanowicz on Darwin" which Ms. Crowe (working with various individuals) edited over the 1996-1997 Academic Year. In addition to these studio videotapes, numerous Darwin-related graphics were created by the incredibly talented individuals of IMC for the various "Videotape Modules" (some of which were used in this first module presented today: Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part One: The Beginning).

Hopefully, over the 1997-1998 Academic Year, Crowe and Urbanowicz (and others) will edit and create three additional Darwin "Videotape Modules" (covering the voyage of HMS Beagle, Darwin's return to England, and his later years). Finally, working with both IMC and the Technology and Learning Program (TLP), preliminary work on a "Darwin CD-ROM" is being discussed.


Charles Robert Darwin was born in the village of Shrewsbury (England) on February 12, 1809, and he died on April 19, 1882. He is buried in London in Westminster Abbey.

"The [1937] Hungarian Nobel Prize winner [in Physiology/Medicine], Szent-Geörgyi [von Nagyrapolt], once said that a scientist should see what everybody else has seen and then think what nobody has thought. Nobody did this better than Charles Darwin, who first realized that the evolution of life took place by Natural Selection. Darwin taught us all to see more clearly what everyone had seen, and Darwin also taught us to think, along with him, what no one else had thought. No branch of science is more dominated by a single theory, by a single great idea, than is the whole of biology by the idea of evolution by Natural Selection."(J. Livingston and L. Sinclair, 1967, Darwin and the Galapagos, n.p.)

Over the years 1831-1836 Darwin took part in a multiple-thousand mile voyage around the globe and one of the best/short statements concerning Darwin's trip on HMS Beagle comes from Howard Gruber who wrote: "...the Beagle voyage was not a lucky accident but the exploitation of an opportunity that fitted in perfectly with his own well-developed purposes" (Howard Gruber, 1974, Darwin On Man: A Psychological Study Of Scientific Creativity [NY: E.P. Dutton]). In the context of Darwin's time other eminent Victorians were exploring and gathering information about the world about them and the zeitgesit was an expanding one!

"The Victorians' fascination with the past was thus the product of an age obsessed with change, desperately hoping that history itself might supply the reassurance that could no longer be derived from ancient beliefs. ... The Victorians' obsession with history was fuelled by an immense extension of the range of past events open to their investigations." Peter J. Bowler, 1989, The Invention of Progress: The Victorians and the Past (Oxford: Basil Blackwood), page 3.

One may read in Darwin about his views of South America in The Voyage of The Beagle wherein he wrote the following:

"Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in sublimity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man; whether those of Brazil, where the powers of Life are predominant, or those of Tierra del Fuego, where Death and Decay prevail. Both are temples filled with the varied productions of the God of Nature:--no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body [STRESS added]. (Charles R. Darwin, 1839, The Voyage of the Beagle [Leonard Engel, Editor of the 1962 edition.] (NY: Anchor), page 436.

Charles R. Darwin was an individual who was definitely a product of his times and should be studied, appreciated, analyzed, and understood within the context of his times; as Sally Mitchell points out in Daily Life in Victorian England:

"By the middle of the [19th] century, the general spread of scientific awareness had cast doubt on the biblical account of creation by revealing the great age of the earth and the late appearance of humankind. ... Intelligent laypeople were sufficiently engaged in this [scientific] debate to make Charles Darwin's On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection an immediate bestseller when it was published in 1859. Darwin was himself an example of the self-taught amateur' he studied both divinity and medicine but took up neither as a profession. His work in natural science was based not on his education but on close observation and careful thought" (Sally Mitchell, 1996, pages 84-85).


Change is apparent where Darwin is concerned and his most monumental work was the 1859 publication of On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, it went through five additional editions in his own lifetime (in addition to his numerous other publications). Please note the following changes which took place over the SIX editions of Origin which are described in Morse Peckham's massive 1959 publication The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press):





9 eliminated

483 re-written

30 added
7 %
33 eliminated

617 re-written

266 added
14 %
36 eliminated
1073 re-written
435 added
21 %
178 eliminated
1770 re-written
227 added
29 %
63 eliminated
1699 re-written
571 added
21-29 %

In the 1869 edition Darwin used the famous phrase "Survival of the Fittest" (borrowed from Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]) and by the 1872 edition, "On" was dropped from the title. In 1859 Darwin originally only wrote the following about human beings: "Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history" and by the 6th edition of 1872, Darwin wrote as follows:

"In the future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be securely based on the foundation already well laid by Mr. Herbert Spencer, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Much light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history."

Considering Darwin's passing reference to Homo sapiens in this monumental work, it is somewhat ludicrous to read Edward Said, writing in his influential 1993 publication entitled Culture And Imperialism, invoking Darwin's name to support the following phrase: "All of these [individuals] developed and accentuated the essentialist positions in European culture proclaiming that Europeans should rule, non-Europeans be ruled" (page 100). This was not true for Darwin; neither is Said correct when he uses Darwin to justify a colonial "scheme of peoples guaranteed scientifically by scholars and scientists" into "superior" and inferior" human beings (page 140). If one wishes to cite Darwin, be it on "imperialism" or religion or (even) evolution, one must read Darwin. As R.B. Freeman pointed out in his 1977 publication The Works of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographical Handlist, Charles Darwin did not even use the specific term "evolution" in the 1859 edition of Origin.

"The word 'evolution' occurs, for the first time in all of Darwin's works, on page 2 of the first volume of the first edition [of The Descent of Man], that is to say before its appearance in the sixth edition of The origin of species in the following year [stress added]" (R.B. Freeman, 1977, page 129).

Darwin has also been called an "atheist" by some, but please note that in the second edition of Origin published in 1860 Darwin had the following words in closing his book:

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator [STRESS added] into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved."


Charles Robert Darwin was an extremely important individual for a variety of reasons: the data he collected, the experiments he conducted, the books he wrote (more than twenty), and the theories and ideas he proposed influenced a variety of disciplines, from anthropology to zoology as well as business and biology, ecology, geology, and the general social sciences. In the 1990s there is a field called "Darwinian Medicine" as well as "Evolutionary Psychology." Although dead more than a century, Darwin's ideas continue to have an impact in numerous areas of contemporary thought (see, for example, James F. Moore, 1996, The Death Of Competition: Leadership & Strategy In The Age Of Business Ecosystems). Indeed, Frank J. Sulloway (former MacArthur Fellow) makes Darwin the central individual in his 1996 best-seller Born To Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives and he ends his 635 page tome (fully one-third being Appendices and Notes) with the following: "The best way of understanding creative genius is through the remarkable insights that Darwin's own theories provide about the human mind" (1996: 456). Howard Gardner, another MacArthur Fellow, also used Darwin as a prime example in his own 1996 publication entitled The Eight Human Intelligences.

In his 1876 autobiography, Darwin wrote that at the time of Origin he could be viewed as a theist, or one who had the conviction of the existence of God. Ideas and perspectives change over time and in 1876 Darwin stated: "The mystery of the beginning of all things is impossible by us; and I for one must be content to remain an agnostic." (S. E. Hyman, 1963, Darwin for Today, page 371)

No matter what may appear in print (or on the web), it is definitely clear from the thorough research of James Moore (and his 1994 publication entitled The Darwin Legend) that when Charles Darwin had his final and fatal heart attack on the 19th of April 1882, he made no deathbed statement as to his faith and did not recant his "evolution" position which had been the thrust of his life, research, and published works. I personally like to speculate, however, that had Darwin been asked the question while he was dying: "Darwin, have you made peace with God?" perhaps Charles Darwin would have chosen to respond with the words attributed to Thoreau (1817-1862) on his deathbed, who is said to have responded to that question with: "I didn't know we had quarreled."

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http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Nov7-96.html (November 7, 1996, Anthropology Forum Darwin handout)

http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/darwin.mov (1996 Quick Time move: 14 seconds)

http://www.csuchico.edu/anth/CASP/1996.html (1996, The Chico Anthropological Society Papers, Number 16, Special Edition on Darwin. This 114-page publication, edited by Tracy A. Hokaj and Kevin F. Weherly, is available from The Department of Anthropology at California State University, Chico, and includes "The Popular Phenomenon of Charles Darwin" by Angela Pearce, "The Creation/Evolution Controversy in America" by Tracy A. Hokaj, "Darwin and Education: A New Perspective" by Laura Morris, "From Darwin to the Human Genome Project" by Peni Carmosino, "Charles Darwin in Cyberspace: Electronic Evolution and Technological Selection" by Kevin F. Weherly, as well as yet another version of "Urbanowicz on Darwin" by Charles F. Urbanowicz.

http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin/DarwinSem-S95.html (1995 Spring Graduate Seminar Paper for Anthropology 303)

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OTHER DARWIN WEB SITES LOCATED ELSEWHERE (Twenty-nine below). Please note that at the time this web document was created for the 11 September 1997 presentation, all of the following links were active.

http://www.literature.org/Works/Charles-Darwin/voyage/ (The Voyage of the Beagle)

http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/his/darwin/darintro.htm (Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle - Birds)

http://cc.owu.edu/~librweb/f2darwin.htm (Darwin's Paper Read at the Linnean Society Meeting [1858])

http://www.literature.org/Works/Charles-Darwin/origin/ (The Origin of Species)

http://diogenes.baylor.edu/WWWproviders/Larry_Ridener/courses/DARWIN.HTML (Darwin - Origin of Species)

http://www.uib.no/zoo/classics/descent.html (The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex)

http://rjohara.uncg.edu/ (The Darwin-L Web Server)

http://www.dca.uac.pt/acores/darwin/edarwin.htm (Charles Darwin in the Azores)

http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/MSS/Darwin.html (Cambridge University Library: Darwin Papers)

http://www.nhm.ac.uk/museum/Downhse/downhse.html (Down House, United Kingdom)

http://tyrrell.magtech.ab.ca/tour/evoltion.html (Royal Tyrrell Museum Tour: Evolution)

http://www.wehi.edu.au/~wilkins/evolinks.html (Wilkins's Evolution Links)

http://www.wehi.edu.au/~wilkins/Precursors/darprecs.html (Darwin's precursors and influences)

http://ac.acusd.edu/History/classes/diplo/darwin.html (Darwin)

http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/victorian/darwin/darwinov.html (Darwin and Evolution Overview)

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evolution.html (Evolution Entrance: University of California, Berkeley)

http://www.lib.virginia.edu/science/parshall/darwin.html (Biography of Charles Darwin)

http://www.nobunaga.demon.co.uk/htm/darwin.htm (Charles R. Darwin 1809-1882)

http://spruce.evansville.edu/~al22/darwin.html (Charles R. Darwin 1809-1882)

http://www.thinkwareinc.com/cdarwin.htm (Charles R. Darwin)

http://www.genetics-ed.org/darwin.htm (Darwin)

http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~rsauzier/Darwin.html (Charles Darwin)

http://myhero.com/science/darwin.asp (SCIENCE HERO: Charles Darwin)

http://www.c4systm.com/Steiner/Bio/Darwin.html (Short Bio of Darwin)

http://www.utep.edu/~charles/GENETICS/DARWIN.HTM (Charles Darwin HTML)

http://salwen.com/darwin.html (Charles Darwin's Illness)

http://spider.lloyd.com/~tstout/cs/pog_1.shtml (Introduction: The Impact of Charles Darwin)

http://www.catholic.net/rcc/Periodicals/Issues/Darwin.html (The Death of Darwinism)

http://www.nando.net/newsroom/ntn/health/090297/health22_24220_noframes.html (Darwinism debate is still evolving)

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DARWIN-RELATED WEB SITES (Thirty-two below). Please note that at the time this web document was created for the 11 September 1997 presentation, all of the following links were active.

http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/victorian/science/edarwin.html (Erasmus Darwin)

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/Edarwin.html (Erasmus Darwin)

http://www.uib.no/zoo/classics/new_species.txt (Alfred Russell Wallace 1855 paper)

http://www.uib.no/zoo/classics/varieties.html (Alfred Russell Wallace 1858 paper)

http://homepages.iol.ie/~spice/alfred.htm (Alfred Russel Wallace: 1823-1913)

http://www.acls.org/pro-dar.htm (American Council of Learned Societies: The Correspondence of Charles Darwin)

http://www.Geocities.com/Heartland/3479/Darwin.html (Charles R. Darwin 1809-1882; Urbanowicz states this is actually the "Wedgwood" geneology)

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/thuxley.html (Thomas Henry Huxley: 1824-1895)

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/owen.html (Richard Owen: 1804-1892)

http://research.med.umkc.edu/tlwbiostats/historyGalton.html (Historical Perspective: Sir Francis Galton, 1822-1911)

http://www.polaris.net/~jpinson/welcome.html (Charles Darwin Research Station - The Galápagos Islands)

http://www.cs.swarthmore.edu/~binde/jason/geography.html (Overview of the Galápagos Islands)

http://www.terraquest.com/galapagos/wildlife/island/finch.html (Virtual Galápagos: Wildlife - Darwin's Finches)

http://www.as.wvu.edu/~kgarbutt/soc_darwin.html (Social Darwinism)

http://www.dimensional.com/~randl/scopes.htm (The Scopes "Monkey Trial," or "A 1925 Media Circus")

http://www.edweek.org/ew/vol-15/25tenn.h15 (70 Years After Scopes, Evolution Hot Topic Again)

http://www.netspace.org/MendelWeb/ (MendelWeb Home Page)

http://vflylab.calstatela.edu/edesktop/VirtApps/VflyLab/IntroVflyLab.html (Electronic Desktop Project - Virtual Flylab)

http://gort.ucsd.edu/jhan/ER/dd.html (Darwin's Dangerous Idea by Daniel C. Dennett)

http://www.spacelab.net/~catalj/ (The World of Richard Dawkins)

http://www.physics.wisc.edu/~shalizi/notebooks/darwin-machines.html (Darwin Machines - Universal Darwinism)

http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/phylogeny.html (The Tree of Life Home Page)

http://biomednet.com/gateways/bbe (Brain, Behaviour and Evolution)

http://www.hgmp.mrc.ac.uk/Public/human-gen-db.html (Human Genome Databases Menu)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/SCIENCE96/ (The Human Transcript Map)

http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/execsumm.html (Executive Summary dealing with "Evolutionary Biology") and please see http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/evolution.html (Evolution, Science, and Society)

http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Darwin.html (George Howard Darwin: 1845-1912)

http://www.nature.com/ (Nature - International Weekly Journal of Science)

http://www.sciencemag.org/ (Welcome to Science Online)

http://www.gene.com/ae/AE/AEPC/WWC/1991/darwin.html (Charles Darwin's Hardware Shop)

http://psych.lmu.edu/darwin.htm (Darwin's Cafe: An Informal Discussion Board for Evolution and Human Behavior)

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LINKS TO LINKS! (Ten below). Please note that at the time this web document was created for the 11 September 1997 presentation, all of the following links were active.

http://www.unipv.it/~webbio/dfantrop.htm (D. Formenti links: ANTHROPOLOGY; Urbanowicz states that this is an incredible and massive/impressive web site!)

http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/students/b-sklar/basic387.html (Into the World of Anthropology)

http://www.aau.dk/~etnojens/etnogrp/anitaslist.html (A. Cohen-Williams' list of Anthropology/Archaeology WWW sites)

http://www.usc.edu/dept/v-lib/anthropology.html (The World-Wide Web Virtual Library: Anthropology)

http://www.buckley.pvt.k12.ca.us/AnthroLink/links.html (AnthroLink: Related Links)

http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/afaq.html (Anthropology Resources on the Internet)

http://wings.buffalo.edu/academic/department/anthropology/web_sites.html (Direct Access to Web Anthropology Resources)

http://www.acs.oakland.edu/~dow/anthap.html (The ANTHAP - The Applied Anthropology Computer Network)

http://www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html (Anthropology in the News)

http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/ifla/I/training/citation/citing.htm (Citation Guides for Electronic Documents)

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SOME PUBLICATIONS (WITH SOME LINKS) DEALING WITH DARWIN (not specifically mentioned above). Please note that at the time this web document was created for the 11 September 1997 presentation, all of the links were active. NOTE: considering potential "future changes" to this page (as indicated in Footnote #1 below), you might wish to consider something like a "URL Minder" (information available at: http://www.netmind.com/URL-minder/).

David Amigoni & Jeff Wallace [editors], 1995, Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species: New Interdisciplinary Essays (Manchester University Press).

Behe, Michael, 1996, Darwin's Black Box (The Free Press).

Burkhardt, Frederick [Editor], 1996, Charles Darwin's Letters: A Selection (Cambridge University Press).

Calvin, William, 1990, The Ascent of Man (NY: Bantam).

Dawkins, Richard, 1995, River Out Of Life: A Darwinian View Of Life (Basic Books/Harper Collins).

Dennett, Daniel C., 1995, Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution And The Meaning of Life (Simon & Schuster) [and please see another "book review" at: http://www.anatomy.su.oz.au/danny/book-reviews/h/Darwins_Dangerous_Idea.html].

Dyson, George B., 1997, Darwin Among The Machines: The Evolution of Global Intelligence (Addison-Wesley).

John-Steiner, Vera, 1985, Notebooks Of The Mind: Explorations Of Thinking [Visual Thinking] (Harper & Row).

Kelly, Kevin, 1994, Out Of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems, and the Economic World (Addison-Wesley).

Kohn, David [Editor], 1985, The Darwinian Heritage (Princeton University Press).

Shekerjian, Denise, 1990, Uncommon Genius: How Great Ideas Are Born (Penguin).

Sims, Michael, 1997, Darwin's Orchestra: An Almanac Of Nature In History And The Arts (NY: Henry Holt).

White, Michael & John Gribbin, 1997, Darwin: A Life in Science (Penguin).

Wright, Robert, 1994, The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology And Everyday Life (NY: Pantheon Books).

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SOME "INTERESTING" DARWIN & DARWIN-RELATED LINKS ADDED (Thirty) BETWEEN SEPTEMBER 10, 1997 & SEPTEMBER 15, 1997 (WHEN THIS PAGE WAS LAST UPDATED). Please note that at the time this web document was updated on 15 September 1997 presentation, all of the following links were active. NOTE: considering potential "future changes" to this page (as indicated in Footnote #1 below), you might wish to consider something like a "URL Minder" (information available at: http://www.netmind.com/URL-minder/).

http://www.mitsubishielectric.com/WhoWeAre/specProjects.html (Mitsubishi Electric Special Projects - Urbanowicz says: Note their Charles Darwin quote!)

http://www.handwriting.org/images/samples/cdarwin.htm (Handwriting [sample of] Charles Darwin)

http://honors.ccsu.ctstateu.edu/Honors/EText/Darwin/DarwinTimeLine.html (Charles Darwin Time Line)

http://www.bio.utk.edu/botany/darwin/biography.htm (Charles Darwin - "A Brief History of Charles Darwin")

http://www.acls.org/acls/pro-dar.htm (American Council of Learned Societies: The Correspondence of Charles Darwin)

http://www.mq.edu.au/~ockham/y6405.html (Darwin and Huxley - Urbanowicz says very interesting!)

http://www.sierranevada.edu/teachered/dixi/sp/chaut/darwin.html (Chautauqua: Charles Darwin)

http://buglady.clc.uc.edu/biology/bio106/darwin.htm (Evolution and Darwin)

http://www.schoolsucks.com/papers/science/Anthropology/origin.txt (origin.txt - Urbanowicz says "Interesting: But don't try to submit!")

http://www.schoolsucks.com/papers/science/philosophy/darwin.txt (darwin.txt - Urbanowicz says "Interesting: But don't try to submit!")

http://www.schoolsucks.com/papers/science/philosophy/darwin.txt (darwin.txt - Urbanowicz says "Interesting: But don't try to submit!")

http://staff.lib.utexas.edu/~ralph/resume/darwin.html (Charles Darwin: Curriculum Vitae - Urbanowicz says this is an "interesting" approach to Darwin in the 20th Century!)

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/GreekScience/Students/Kathleen/darwinaris.html (darwinaris.html - "The Devil's Chaplain versus The Greek Philosopher: Darwinisn As A Reaction To Aristotle's Biology")

http://www.ndu.edu/ndu/inss/macnair/mcnair52/m52c8.html (McNair Paper 52, Chapter 8 - October 1996 - "Evolutionary Biology As A Source Of Friction And Exemplar For Theory")

http://www.biology.com/visitors/tour/voyage/offer.html (Voyage: Charles Darwin)

http://www.terindell.com/asylum/jason/darwin.html (Charles Darwin and the Galapagos)

http://pauillac.inria.fr/~clerger/Darwin.html (Darwin's Theory of Atoll Formation)

http://www.oll.temple.edu/ih/IH52/Revolutions/Darwin/DarwinSet.html (Charles Darwin Page)

http://clab.cecil.cc.md.us/faculty/biology1/DARWIN.HTM (Charles Darwin - Urbanowicz says interesting and nice glossary of terms at end of item.)

http://www.windows.umich.edu:8000/people/enlightenment/darwin.html (Charles Darwin)

http://tidepool.st.usm.edu/crswr/pagesf/darwin.html (Charles Darwin)

http://theusctr.csd.sc.edu/library/spcoll/nathist/darwin/darwin.html (The C. Warren Irvin, Jr., Collection of Charles Darwin and Darwiniana)

http://media.dickinson.edu/english/romnat/darwin.htm (Darwin.htm)

http://www.mexicodesconocido.com.mx/tortuga/8152.htm (Charles Darwin [in Spanish]

http://www.horizon.fr/galapagos/pinson.html (Les Pinsons de Darwin [Darwin's Finches - in French])

http://outcast.gene.com/ae/AE/AEPC/WWC/1995/rabbit.html (Peter Rabbit Meets Charles Darwin)

http://geoclio.st.usm.edu/darwin.html (Rock Star Profile: Charles Darwin)

http://www.ims.issaquah.wednet.edu/humanities/bowen/students/pacrim97/ecuador/econind.htm (Charles Darwin, Scientist - "Charles Darwin And The 'Evolution' of Ecuador's Economy")

http://diogenes.baylor.edu/WWWproviders/Larry_Ridener/DSS/Spencer/SPENCEP3.HTML (Spencer - The Person - Successful Author)

http://darwin.mbb.sfu.ca/imbb/brandhorst/zfish.html (SFU Zebrafish Research WWW Home Page - Finally, Urbanowicz says: consider the implications of this type of important research.")

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[1] © The latest revision for this web paper was made on September 15, 1997. This presentation was originally made for the "Anthropology Forum" on September 11, 1997 at California State University, Chico. Earlier this semester, a shorther version of this paper (with the title of " Darwin And Modernism: From The Industrial Revolution Through Frankenstein and to The Origin of Species and Beyond!") was presented to the class of Professor James W. McManus: Art 197 Avant-Garde 20th Century on September 2, 1997. Incidentally, since this is obviously a "web document" and I personally view the "web" as an "organic machine" (maintained by human beings), you might wish to "bookmark" this page and return every-now-and-then to see how the "page" might have changed.

For a complete listing of the Fall 1997 Forums at California State University, Chico, please click here and to return to the beginning of this paper, please click here. To go to the Home Page of Urbanowicz, please click here and to go to the Department of Anthropology Home Page, please click here. To go to the Home Page for the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, please click here and to go to the Home Page of California State University, Chico, please click here. Thank you for all of your "clicking" patience and I hope you enjoy the Darwin information and links!

FINALLY, while I personally view "the web" as an important research tool (hence the numerous links provided), please consider consulting or reading some of the "old-fashioned books" (or most important, consulting some of the very important "reference librarians") which are (readily) available in The Meriam Library (or elsewhere): while Nicholas Negroponte is still interesting and somewhat important, please think about the words of Clifford Stoll in his 1995 publication entitled Silicon Snake Oil: Second Thoughts On The Information Highway when he writes:

"Today, however, the bargains are on paper, not on disk. Don't believe me? Spend seventy dollars on an atlas at your bookstore. While you're paging through it, notice its precise colors and logical layout. Now think of the hundreds of dollars you've save by avoiding those map-reading CD-ROMS, with cruder reolution and no topography. Twenty years from now, you'll still read that atlas and dream of faraway places; the software will be long since obsolete and unusable" [stress added] (pages 140-141).

Once again, to return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

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