Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office]; 530-898-6192 [Dept.] FAX: 530-898-6824
e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org / home page: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban
16 April 2003 
[This page printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Sp2003ANTH16.html]
© [All Rights Reserved.] For a presentation (with visuals) on April 16, 2003 in ANTH 16 (Power And Scarcity) at California State University, Chico, Chico, CA.
I. INTRODUCTION: FIELDWORK IN 1970 & 1971 AND INITIAL
II. COULD NOT ESCAPE "TOURISM" IN TONGA (OR THE WORLD)
III. RESEARCH SHIFTS: INTO "DARWIN & GAMING"
A. CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)
B. GAMING/GAMBLING DISTINCTION AND NATIVE AMERICANS
C. CALIFORNIA SPECIFICS
IV. THIRTY-THREE YEARS OF INTEREST(S) AND TEMPORARY
V. SELECTED URBANOWICZ REFERENCES: 1965->2003
VI. THE CHANGING NATURE OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL FIELD WORK
VII. APPROXIMATE" CASINO SPACE IN SQUARE FEET AT VARIOUS FACILITIES AND LOCATIONS
VIII. SELECTED "GAMING/GAMBLING" VISUALS
I. INTRODUCTION: FIELDWORK IN 1970 & 1971: I received the B.A. in Sociology/Anthropology (1967) from Western Washington University (Bellingham) and began Graduate Work at the University of Oregon (Eugene) in 1967. My wife and I went to the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga in 1970 where I began my fieldwork and in 1972 I received the Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon. I taught at the University of Minnesota (1972-1973) and came to CSU, Chico in August 1973 (where I have been ever since, both as an administrator [1975-1988] and full-time teaching faculty member). This presentation builds upon (and adds to) previously-related presentations at California State University, Chico. The most recent web pages (also listed at the end of this presentation) should be consulted for additional primary sources and information: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FALL2002ANTH162.html [November 4, 2002 for ANTH 162], http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Fa2000Anth138.html [September 20, 2000 for ANTH 138], and http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Sp2003ANTH161.html April 8, 2003 for ANTH 161]
II. COULD NOT ESCAPE "TOURISM" IN TONGA (OR THE WORLD)
"The Kingdom of Tonga lies in the heart of fable Polynesia, approximately 550 miles southwest of Samoa and 450 miles southeast of Fiji [and approximately 3200 miles southwest of the islands of Hawai'i]. ... Formerly a British protectorate, Tonga achieved independence in 1970 and entered the British Commonwealth of Nations that year. ... Tourism in one form or another has existed in Tonga since the mid 1960s. ... Tonga continues to be a nation of small landholders. ... Tongans have become the victims of their own tourism. ... Deep-seated economic problems induced by a growing indigenous and tourist population have almost engulfed the tiny islands of Tonga. ... It should be clear from this reading that I am not overwhelmingly escatic about Tourism in Tonga or impressed with the impact of tourism as a world-wide phenomenon. Tourism has been with us as long as people have had excess time to travel and, too, excess funds to expend on traveling to locations distant from home. ... Travelling is an escape to the carefree times of childhood when someone else had to do the worrying for us, and traveling is here to stay [as long as the economy can sustain it!]." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1989, Tourism In Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times? In Valene Smith (Editor), 1989, Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (Second Edition), pages 105-117.
I must definitely acknowledge and thank my colleague Dr. Valene Smith for getting me to Chico and for having my chapters in her three different editions of Hosts and Guests (1977, 1989, and 2001). I first met Valene at our national meetings in Toronto in 1972 (where I was presenting a paper based on my Tongan Ph.D. research) and in August 1973, I began teaching at CSU, Chico. Last year, in the professional journal entitled Tourism Recreation Research Valene was rightly described in the following manner:
"Valene Smith is the Margaret Mead [1901-1978] of the anthropology of tourism; she played a pioneering role in the initiation of the field as an academic enterprise, contributed to its theoretical foundations, conducted extensive empirical research on tourism-related topics in diverse settings and--last but not least--contributed significantly to the popularization of the field, primarily through her [volumes entitled] 'Hosts and Guests,' the several editions of which span a quarter of a century [stress added]." Erik Cohen, 2002, Review of Hosts and Guests Revisited: Tourism issues of the 21st Century. Tourism Recreation Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, pages 108-111, page 108.
I have not been back to the Polynesian Kingdom since 1971 and my research interests have changed, just as Tonga (and Tongans) have changed and a 2003 publication entitled Tongans Overseas: Between Two Shores sums up the situation:
"Changes in Tonga. The surge of Tongans moving overseas in the 1970s was associated with a process of 'internationalization' that began when [King Taufa'ahau] Tupou IV took the throne in 1965, following a period of relative isolation during the reign of [his mother] Queen Salote (r. 1918-1965).... Since that time, continued migration has brought a wide range of changes to Tongan society, and a recent editorial in the Tongan magazine Matangi Tonga claims, 'The features of the country, particularly [the capital of] Nuku'alofa, are changing so rapidly that people who left Tonga five years ago will not recognise the place when they return'. ... Not all of these changes are viewed entirely positively by those remaining in the islands. There is a somewhat ambivalent attitude toward the 'development' that migrants' remittances, along with international aid, have brought to the country. Many Tongans have commented to me that development in Tonga is physically evidenced by improved interisland communication and transport, electricity throughout most of the islands, more multistory buildings and more expensive houses, numerous restaurants and nightclubs, and so on. On the other hand, they also observe that there have been more negative developments such as roads crowded with cars; increasing pollution; a higher cost of living; increasing crime, landlessness, and even homelessness; poor families squatting on land reclaimed from rubbish dumps; and other common problems of so-called 'Third World' countries.... International migration has helped to maintain a fairly stable population in Tonga, and with only around 0.5 percent growth since the 1980s, the population now remains at around a hundred thousand. Still, there are problems of overpopulation in the capital, Nuku'alofa, which has seen a constant influx of people from the villages of [the main island of] Tongatapu and the other islands of the archipelago since the late nineteenth century [stress added]." Helen Morton Lee, 2003, Tongans Overseas: Between Two Shores (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press), pages 27-28.
Indeed, certain "problems" seem to have been exported from Tonga to the United States, as a 1997 article in Newsweek pointed out:
"It was no great surprise when shotgun blasts shattered the silence of a working-class neighborhood on Salt Lake City's west side in February . In a ritual common to many urban areas, residents gawked at the splintered windows of the targeted house, thanked God nobody was hurt, cursed the shootings that threaten their safety--and then got on with their lives. Even in devout, pastoral Utah, they're getting used to gang violence. But they don't have ordinary gangs. Investigators think the blasts were aimed at relatives of a young Pacific Islander who police believe founded the Utah Tongan Crip Gangsters, the state's dominant Polynesian gang. Missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have long devoted particular attention to Polynesia, perhaps because some Mormon scholars believe that a lost tribe of Israel settled there. Tonga is now roughly 45 percent Mormon; Samoa, about one third. As a result, many emigrants from the islands have settled in the capital of Mormonism, Salt Lake City. But acculturation has not been easy in a state that's 93 percent white, and some kids have reacted by joining up with the likes of the Tongan Crips or the Sons of Samoa. A police study estimates that more than 10 percent of gang members in the area are Pacific Islanders. And they're causing more and more trouble [stress added]." Kendall Hamilton (with Daniel Glick and Jeff Rice), 1997, The Crips and Bloods of The promised Land. Newsweek, Vol. 127, Issue 20, May 13, page 72.
Again, Tonga has changed from my research of 1970-1971 and so have I.
III. RESEARCH SHIFTS: INTO "DARWIN & GAMING"
A. CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)
"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success." Peter Brent 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.
Although it may seem strange at first glance to see some "connection" between "Darwin" and "gaming" in my own career, consider the fact that Darwin was interested in large numbers, natural selection, as well as "chance" in what has been termed "survival of the fittest" (a term Darwin borrowed from Herbet Spencer [1820-1903]). Darwin, as a young man, was also unsure of his future career.
I graduated from high school in 1960 and after attending New York University (New York City) for 1960-1961, I flunked out of NYU and enlisted in the United States Air Force (1961-1965). My wife and I were married in 1963 and after I was honorably discharged, I became a full-time student at Western Washington State College (now Western Washington University) in Bellingham, Washington. In 1965 I was enrolled in various classes and an early paper I did for a Speech 100 class was entitled Darwin - 1859: An Important Historical Event. Chance or serendipity? As Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) stated (in translation!) in 1854: "In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind." In 1965, I was finally prepared for "education" (and received the BA., M.A. and Ph.D. in seven years) and was "prepared" for anthropology and Darwin. I have pursued my Darwin interests to date, and became interested in "tourism" and specifically "gaming" (or gambling).
The initial quote that began this section points out that Charles R. Darwin definitely proved many individuals wrong and nothing is as clear for his success (and impact) to date as his monumental 1859 publication (and subsequent editions of 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872): On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition]; Darwin himself was to write in his Autobiography that the Origin "is no doubt the chief work of my life" (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882: With Original Omissions Restored Edited With An Appendix And Notes By His Grand-Daughter, page 122).
When what is commonly called Origin was published in 1859, it was an immediate (and controversial) success, much like Steinbeck's Grapes in 1939. In understanding Darwin, and his ideas through time, the following information should be of interest: every edition of Origin published in Charles R. Darwin's lifetime is different! He re-wrote every-single-one and all are different! The reason it is important to point out the various editions of Origin is demonstrated by the following chart, based on information in the excellent 1959 publication of Morse Peckham [Editor] entitledThe Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text). The concept of change is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself or reading about him and I include the following tabular information on Darwin's Origin in virtually everything I present or write:
Charles R. Darwin took great care not to write about Homo sapiens in Origin in 1859 and all he had to say about "man" in 1859 was:
"In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. [Chapter XV: "Recapitulation And Conclusion"]
My Darwin research is well-documented below and I continue to pursue my understanding of this remarkable 19th century individual, but other interests developed.
B. GAMING/GAMBLING DISTINCTION AND NATIVE AMERICANS
"Gambling has held human beings in thrall for millennia. It has been engaged in everywhere, from the dregs of society to the most respectable circles. Pontius Pilate's soldiers cast lots for Christ's robe as He suffered on the cross. The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius was regularly accompanied by his personal croupier. The Earl of Sandwich invented the snack that bears his name so that he could avoid leaving the gaming table in order to eat. George Washington hosted games in his tent during the American Revolution. Gambling is synonymous with the Wild West. And 'Luck Be A Lady Tonight' is one of the most memorable numbers in Guys and Dolls, a musical about a compulsive gambler and his floating crap game [stress added]." Peter L. Bernstein, 1996, Against The Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk, page 12.
"This game was both a sport and a sacrificial ritual. It was played throughout Mesoamerica, using a large rubber ball that could be hit by the elbows, knees, or hips, but could not be touched by the hands or feet. The game required the players to wear heavy protective equipment, and much paraphernalia was developed during the Classic period. It was often played in masonry courts, and rings or other markers were used for scoring." Esther Pasztory, 1983, Aztec Art (NY: Harry N. Abrahams), page 41.
The United States of America has a lengthy history of interest in gaming (called "gambling" or "entertainment" to some) and "gaming" generates a tremendous amount of revenue, has great visibility, and is creating some interesting partnerships. Four events contributed to today's domestic gambling: (#1) State lotteries, beginning in New Hampshire in 1964; (#2) Holiday Inn entering gaming in 1978; (#3) the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) by the United States Congress in 1988; (#4) and human nature. My research interests in "gambling/gaming" obviously developed out of my general research into tourism which began in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga in 1970 and 1971; several publications (and presentations) resulted from that period of my life and specific references are provided below. Living in northern California, with an obvious proximity to Reno, sparked my interest in what the industry calls "gaming" but is really known as "gambling." Papers and publications have resulted from this interest and specific references are also provided at the end of this paper. There has been a lengthy history gaming (called "gambling" or "entertainment" to some) in the Americas and Native Americans are becoming very big "players" in contemporary 21st century activities!
"The boom in tribal gambling began in the mid-1970s, when tribes in Florida, Wisconsin, Connecticut, and California operated relatively modest, low-stakes bingo halls on their reservations. Encouraged by the Reagan administration, which hoped gambling would reduced tribal dependence on Washington, these tribes had expanded their gambling enterprises significantly by the end of the decade [stress added]. Robert Goodman, 1995, The Luck Business: The Devastating Consequences and Broken Promises of America's Gambling Explosion (NY: Free Press), page 111.
Tribal gambling accelerated in the 1980s. Prior to 1988, federally recognized Native American tribes and individual States had the authority to enter into various agreements concerning taxes as well as tribal social services. It was the United States Supreme Court decision in California versus Cabazon Band of Mission Indians (begun in 1986 and eventually decided in favor of the Cabazon in 1987) that resulted in the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) of 1988. It has been pointed out that "the primary issue in Cabazon was whether the State of California had authority to enforce its gambling laws within the reservation occupied by the Cabazon Indians" (N. McKay, 1991/92, The Meaning of Good Faith In The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Gonzaga Law Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 471-486, page 472) and the resulting court decision on the Cabazon "allowed unregulated gambling to flourish on Indian reservations [stress added]" (Joseph J. Weissmann, 1993, Upping The Ante: Allowing Indian Tribes To Sue States In Federal Court Under The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. The George Washington Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 1, pages 123-161, page 124). In 1996 the United States Supreme Court ruled (Seminole versus Florida) against a portion of IGRA and, as one commentator has written, "since 1996....there rarely has been a compact negotiation that did not involve revenue sharing [between a tribe and the state in which it was located in] [stress added]." Matt Connor, 2002, A Taxing Situation." International Gaming & Wagering Business, Vol. 23, No. 3, pages 1, 34-35, page 1. The money involved in this partcular "leisure industry" is tremendous and it has changed perceptions of Native American and Native American issues:
"What do the Indian nations of Arizona, California, Connecticut, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington and several other states have now that they did not have 15 years ago? The answer is political clout. ... According to Bill Eadington, a specialist in gambling economics at the University of Nevada-Reno, by the end of the decade the Indian casinos in California will be raking in $5.1 billion to $10.3 billion a year in gambling revenues. He said about half of this will be profits. The $5.1 billion figure is still higher than the income generated by the entire Las Vegas strip casinos [stress added]." Tim Giago, July 30, 2000, Jury Still Out On Indian Gaming's Impact. The San Francisco Chronicle, page 5.
On December 16, 2002, Time Magazine published a scathing article entitled "Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune" (by Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, pages 44-58) and in it the authors wrote the following:
"Buying Politicians. Wealthy indian gaming tribes suddenly are pouring millions of dollars into political campaigns at both state and federal levels. They are also influencing gaming and other policies affecting Native Americans by handing out large sums to influential lobbying firms. In 200 alone, tribes spent $9.5 million on Washington lobbying. Altogether they spend more to influence legislation than such longtime heavyweights as General Motors, Boeing, AT&T--or even Enron in its heyday [stress added]." Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58, page 47.
While The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) of 1988 was created with the best of intentions in mind, Time magazine did not report it that way:
"At the end of the 1980s, in a frenzy of cost cutting and privatization, Washington perceived gaming on reservations as a cheap way to wean tribes from government handouts, encourage economic development and promote self-sufficiency. After policy initiatives by the reagan Administration and two U.S. Supreme Court rulings that approved gambling on Indian reservations, Congress enacted the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act in 1988. It was so riddled with loopholes, so poorly written, so discriminatory and subject to such conflicting interpretations that 14 years later, armies of high-priced lawyers are still debating the definition of a slot machine. Instead of regulating indian gambling, the act has created chaos and a system tailor-made for abuse [stress added]." Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58, page 46.
While dollar amounts are difficult to come by for the sovereign nations, Bartlett and Steele report the following:
"Last year 290 Indian casinos in 28 states pulled in at least $12 billion in revenue. Of that sum, Time estimates, the casinos kept more than $5 billion as profit. That would place overall Indian gaming among Fortune magazine's 20 most profitable U.S. corporations, with earnings exceeding those of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., Merrill Lynch, America Express and Lehman Holdings combined [stress added]." Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58, page 46.
Major Native American beneficiaries of IGRA have been in the states of California, Florida, and Connecticut and Connecticut has the largest casino in the world: Foxwoods Resort and Casino, currently in excess of 320,000 square feet of casino space. Looking at data for the United States, Bartlett and Steele reported the following:
"...casinos in California, Connecticut and Florida--states with only 3% of the Indian population--haul in 44% of all [gambling] revenue, an average of $100,000 per Indian. In California, the casino run by the San Manuel Band of Mission Indians pulls in over $100 million a year. That's about $900,000 per member [stress added]." Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58, page 47.
When Foxwoods first opened in Connecticut February 15, 1992 it employed 2,300 people. In January 1999, Foxwoods employed 11,000 people. The following appeared in 1998:
"The Mashantucket Pequots' dazzling national lobbying office [in Washington, D.C.] reflects the success of the tribe's Connecticut casino. The etched glass walls, custom woodwork, turquoise frieze and Native American art rival the capital's swankiest clubs and blue-chip law offices. Gambling has brought a few Indian tribes, like the Pequots, breathtaking wealth. For many others, it has brought subsistence, a break from oppressive poverty. And it has brought a lot of them to Washington to defend their new business [stress added]." Jim Drinkard, 1998, Casinos, lobbying are winning combination for tribes. USA Today, February 12, 1998, page 10A.
"Since Foxwoods Resort and Casino opened in February 1992, the business has poured many hundreds of millions of dollars into the regional and state economies. The [Mashantucket] Tribe contributes 25 percent of all slot machine revenues directly to the state. That money, which the state redistributes to all of Connecticut's municipal governments, totaled $824,793,482 from 1992 through December 31, 1998 [stress added]." Pequot Times, February 1999, page 3.
In October 2002, the Pequot Times reported the following:
"Foxwoods reported an August  slot revenue of $73.3 million, the second best in the casino's history, exceeded only by the record $76.8 million reported in August 2001. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal nation, Foxwoods' owners, reported sending $18.3 million to the state, raising the total to $1.526 billion given Connecticut since Foxwoods began offering slots to its customers in January 1973. ... During the month of August  an average of 6,629 slot machines were in play at Foxwoods compared to the previous August, when there were 6,480 slot machines [stress added]. Anon., 2002, Foxwoods' August slot win - $73.3M. Pequot Times, October 2002, page 11.
In January 2003, the Pequot Times reported the following:
"Foxwoods continues its strong start in Fiscal Year 2003 by posting its second-best November ever with a net slot win of $62.7 million on an overall handle of $747.3 million [or ~91.60% was returned back to the "players" in the form of slot payoffs]. ... The casino's owners, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation, also reported a $15.67 million contribution to the State of Connecticut for November [stress added]. Anon., 2003, Strong showing in November Slots. Pequot Times, January 2003, page 14.
Foxwoods currently employs 11,500 people and receives approximately 41,000 visitors per day. In March 2003, the Pequot Times reported that Foxwoods had a $59,500,000 "slot win" in January 2003 and gave $14,900,000 to the State of Connecticut, raising "the amount given the state to $113.4 million since July 1" which is the start of the fiscal year for the state of Connecticut (Pequot Times, March 2003, page 11).
This is very good indeed, considering that the "competitive marketplace" on the east Coast of the United States comes not only from Atlantic City, New Jersey, but from another Native American casino in the area: The Mohegan Sun Casino which opened in 1996, in Uncasville, Connecticut. Success soon followed and the Mohegan Sun expanded and, after Foxwoods, is now the second largest casino in the western hemisphere:
"Mohegan Sun semiofficially opened its new 34-story hotel recently and became the second largest casino in the world." Bob Delisle, 2002, New England News. Card Player, June 7, 2002, Vol. 15, No. 12, pages 65-66, page 65; and "...the 315,000-square-foot Mohegan Sun Casino complex is the second largest in the nation behind nearby Foxwoods.... [stress added]." Kitty Bean Yancey, June 24, 2002, Many stars orbit Mohegan Sun. USA Today, page 2D.
Comparing data in the "local" sense, if one looks the chart at the end of this paper, you will see that Foxwoods (at 320,000 square feet of casinos space) is approximately the size of the combined casino space of Harrahs, Reno (62,300 square feet), The Nugget, Sparks (73,900 square feet), Harrahs, Lake Tahoe (83,646 square feet), and The Reno Hilton (100,000 square feet)! The Connecticut casino is huge!
Incidentally Native American casinos in California (and the rest of the United States) appears to be causing problems in Nevada and in March of 2003 the following appeared:
"A university study done for Nevada's major hotel-casinos says the state can no longer rely on the clubs as a major tax source capable of meeting demands for public services. The hotel-casino industry is urging legislators not to raise the clubs' taxes beyond a quarter-percent increase they have agreed to accept. The report says that the hotel-casinos have a much higher tax burden than other industries in the state [stress added]." Anon., 2003, USA Today, March 11, 2003, page 6A.
There also appear to be some "problems" in Connecticut. In 2001, USA Today reported the following:
"The tribe that owns and operates the Mohegan Sun Casino can't stop legitimate descendants of other branches of the tribe from calling themselves Mohegans, the state Supreme Court ruled. Justices rejected a suit by the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut, which owns the casino, against the Mohegan Tribe and Nation Inc. The Casino-owning Mohegans claimed that the use of the tribe's name by another faction was an infringement under federal trademark law and represented unfair competition [stress added]." Anon., 2001, USA Today, February 14, 2001, page 6A.
To place the impact of the dollar amounts in Connecticut into some perspective, please consider the following:
"By our estimation, the two [Connecticut] casinos generated nearly $1.5 billion dollars in revenue for 1997. By way of comparison, that is roughly 38% of what the twelve Atlantic City [New Jersey] posted in casino revenues in 1997" [stress added]." Sebastian Sinclair, 1998, "Go-Go Times Roll On For Foxwoods, Mohegan Sun." Indian Gaming Business: A Quarterly Supplement to international Gaming & Wagering Business, May, pages 8-9, page 8.
The "East Coast" of the United States of America has a tremendous population for potential casino patronage and it is clear additional Native American casinos will be built:
"Two hundred years ago, thousands of Indians were pushed out of New ork State and into the West by white men who wanted their land. Today , the descendants of those displaced Indians are moving back, drawn by developers who want something the indians have: a near monpoly on casino gambling, guaranteed by Congress. Commercial developers have so far formed partnerships with at least three tribes from Oklahoma and Wisconsin to buy hundreds of acres for casinos in the Catskills and in other parts of upstate New York, even though some of them are not recognized as New York tribes. The tribes and the developers have been drawn by Gov. George E. Pataki's ambitious plan to dot the state with casinos as a way to generate state income. For the Indians, the ventures hold the promise of earning vastly more money in the populous East than their small casinos in the West and Midwest bring in. For their white partners, who put up the money for development and bear the risks, the ventures promise huge rewards [stress added]." Iver peterson, 2003, One Casino in the East Beats Two in the West, Indians Say. The New York Times, March 24, 2003, page A14.
Nowhere is the success of "Native American Gaming" more visible in this country than in Connecticut. All but extinct by the 1970s (the Pequot were virtually annihilated in 1637 by the settlers in the area), the Mashantucket Pequot now have the largest gaming facility in the Western Hemisphere. In August 1999 the Pequot Nation opened up a $135,000,000 museum: The Mashantucket Pequot Museum (see Amy Gamerman, Pequot Museum: It Makes A Village. The Wall Street Journal, September 2, 1998, page A16). In 1998, when Proposition 5 was being discussed in California, the following was frightening to many individuals:
"Imagine a California with 40 or more Foxwood-sized gaming facilities, many lining the thoroughfares leading from Southern California to the Nevada border, each aggressively wooing the millions of customers from the population centers of Anaheim and San Diego to the gambling meccas of Las Vegas, Reno, Stateline, and Laughlin. That's the doomsday prediction of some gaming observers watching the action in California.... [stress added]." Matt Connor, 1998, Nevada's Bad California Dream. International Gaming & Wagering Business, July 1998, page 1, pages 26-31, page 1 and 26.
C. CALIFORNIA SPECIFICS
As of this writing, California has 61 Native American tribes have formal "tribal-state gaming agreements" with the state of California and there are currently 50 tribes who are now operating casinos in the state (Anon., 2003, Davis asks California tribes for talks on revenue-sharing issues. The Chico Enterprise-Record, April 1, 2003, page 4A). The development of legalized Native American casinos in California goes back to the successful 1998 passage of what was known as Proposition 5, which had both advocates and adversaries. Some $50 million to $60 million was spent to sway voters one way or the other (Jon Ralston Nevada Politics. The Reno Gazette-Journal, July 20, 1998, page 1B). Proposition 5 passed and the rest is history in California! Local expansion is increasing and in Yolo County (which "entertains" individuals from San Francisco, Davis, and Sacramento areas) we can see where a Native American casino will increase in size from 113,000 square feet of casino space to 263,000 square feet:
"After months of negotiations, the Rumsey Band of Wintun Indians and Yolo County officials struck a tentative agreement Wednesday that reduces the size of a proposed expansion of the Cache Creek indian Gaming Casino. The deal also requires the tribe to pay Yolo County more than $80 million over the next 18 years to mitigate traffic, air quality and other problems. ... The deal would reduce the proposed enlargement from 200,000 square feet to 150,000.... [stress added]. Pamela Martineua, October 3, 2002, Accord reached on Yolo casino expansion. The Sacramento Bee, Page A1 and A14, page A1.
If Cache Creek is currently at 113,000 square feet and if the expansion will add 150,000 square feet, that will be one big casino of 263,000 square feet! (Please see the chart at the end of this presentation for some comparisons.) An influential trade journal pointed out the following in August 1998:
"California contributes about 35% of Nevada casinos visitors and at least $1.5 billion of the state's $7.6 billion 1997 GGR [Gross Gaming Revenue]. Suppose the Indian initiative passes, survives the inevitable legal challenges, and encounters no meaningful opposition in Congress or the Interior Department. A large new California machine market would thereby be created. Every device manufacturer on the planet would rush to supply it. California has 106 federally recognized tribes all over the State, including southern California. Casinos would blossom like flowers in the spring. Racetracks and card rooms, and California's lottery, would ask for and very possibly get the right to offer equivalent games. At least one-third, and perhaps two-thirds, of the $1.5 billion Californians currently leave in Nevada casinos would stay in California [stress added]." (Eugene Martin Christiansen, 1998, "A New Entitlement" in International Gaming & Wagering Business, August 1998, pages 3-35, page 26)
Please note the headline in The Chico Enterprise-Record of Sunday November 18, 2001:
"By 2007, with the anticipated construction of several other key Indian casinos, including a $100 million project planned outside Roseville, [Bill] Eadington estimates that eight key Northern California casinos could exceed $600 million in cash flow on $1.8 billion in revenues [stress added]." John Stearns, 2001, California Tribal Casinos Threaten Northern Nevada Economy. The Chico Enterprise-Record, November 18, 2001, page 4G.
Indeed, the need for people to work in the Native American casinos is so great that for the "Thunder Valley Station Casino" (scheduled to open in May 2003 in the northern California area around the communities of Lincoln, Rocklin, and Roseville), the $600 tuition for those attending a school for card dealers is being paid for by the tribe.
"A report by the state [of California] Employment Development Department in January  estimated tribal casino employment at 35,600 jobs in California, with most of those jobs held by non-Indians. That's a 10.6 percent increase over the previous year, while the total private-sector labor force in the state grew less than 1 percent. In some areas of the state, Indian casinos have taken their place among the regions' dominant employers. In Riverside and San Bernadino counties, nine casinos employ nearly 10,000 people. In San Diego County, administrators estimated last year that the county's nine casinos had a combined payroll of $270 million and bought more than $260 million worth of goods and services from 2,000 vendors, most of them local [stress added]." Steve Wiegand, 2003, Casino school draws full house. The Sacramento Bee, March 16, 2003, page A1 + A20, page A20.
With the influx of growing casino revenues, Native American tribes are venturing beyond their "traditional" locations and casino activities and are diversifying their activities, as The Sacramento Bee pointed out on March 4, 2003:
"Fueled by cash from casinos, more and more tribes are difversifying their economic bases into enterprises that range from airplanes to automated transaction machines. ... For the Rumsey band ["of Wintun Indians, which operates the Cache Creek Indian Casino in Yolo County"] that diversity now includes owning a Ford dealership in Texas; being the Illionois government's biggest landlord in the capital of Springfield; and owning several buildings in the Sacramento area--including one on Watt Avenue that houses the internal Revenue Service--and agricultural and undeveloped land in the Capay Valley. Other California casino tribes are proving just as innovative in investing their chips. The Tule River indian Reservation, near Porterville [CA], runs a company that remodels old small planes into state-of-the-art luxury aircraft. The tribe also operates a woodworking company that manufactures custom cabines. The Hopeland Band of Pomo County started a company that supplies automated cash transactions machines to the Bay Area Rapid transit District System. The Morongo Band of Mission Indians in San Bernadino County recently formed a partnership to provide wireless broadband Internet service to businesses in the Riverside area. The owners of the outlet mall, the Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians, will take diversifying a step further Thursday [March 5, 2003]. The 281-member tribe will break ground on a $43 million hotel in Washington, D.C., near the Capitol and the Smithsonian Institution. What makes it unique is that Viejas is teaming with three other casino tribes--one in California and two in Wisconsin--to bankroll the project. For the first time, tribes from around the country are pooling gambling revenues for major off-reservation investments [stress added]." Steve Wiegand, 2003, Tribes branch out beyond casinos. The Sacramento Bee, March 4, 2003, page A1 and A15.
This "diversification" trend continues, and on March 30, 2003, one could read the following:
"...now, concerns about the future of gambling and the sustainibility of tribal economies and forcing the Umatilla [Oregon]--and dozens of other tribes nationwide--to pursue long-term, multi-million dollar investments in eveything from aeronautics to digital mapping. More than 200 tribes--just more than one-third of all federally recognized tribes--operate casinos in 29 states, said Jacob Coin, executive director of th California Nations Indiian Gaming Association. Those casinos bring in an annual total of $10.6 billion. ... Next month, the 1,000-member Morongo [California] tribe will open a $26 million bottling plant for Arrowhead Mountain Spring Water, a subsidiary of Mestle Waters north America. ... the Mississippi Band of Choctaw [were], one of the first tribes to invest in noncasino projects. The Choctaw, which opened their Silver Star Casino in 1994, own 22 businesses and are the majority owners of three more, including high-tech industries that produce geoimaging devices and a 1,200-employee auto parts plant in Mexico.... [stress added]." Anon., 2003, Seeing the need to diversify, tribes looking beyond casinos. The Chico Enterprise-Record, March 30, 2003, page 4B.
Once again, the aforementioned December 2002 Time article pointed out that there are problems with all of this money and many Native Americans are not profitting from gambling revenues:
"The White Man Wins Again. While most Indians continue to live in poverty [in the United States of America], many non-Indian investors are extracting hundreds of millions of dollars--sometimes in violation of legal limits--from casinos they helped establish, either by taking advantage of regulatory loopholes or cutting backroom deals [stress added]." Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58, page 48.
Much more needs to be researched and written about this aspect of "Native American" gambling and California is a hotbed of activity!
"California is home to 108 tribes, one-fifth of the nation's total. An additional 54 have applied for federal recognition. Many are located within a few hours' driving distance of urban centers. The race for market shares is fierce. The race for market share is fierce. California has capped the number of slot machines at 52,000. Fifty-two casinos already are operating with more than 40,000 slots. Tribes that have begun gaming also worry about nearby rancherias siphoning off business as new casinos opens. Many of the tribes are tiny--some with fewer than a dozen members. A tribe with one adult member--the Augustines--opened a casino in Coachella. For insiders, that means few to share the spoils. For outsiders, 'small tribes are easier to control,' said Cheryl Schmitt, director of Stand Up for California, a gambling watchdog group. The rewards can be substantial. Tribal casinos brought in $12 billion in revenue nationally last year. They donated nearly $4 million to national parties, and their candidates so far this election cycle paid out $15.6 million for federal lobbying, according to Dwight L. Morris & Associates, a campaign-finance research company. In California, campaign donations by tribes to state candidates have topped $42 million since 1999, and annual tribal gambling revenue exceeds $5 billion [stress added]." Judy Pasternak and Eric Bailey, 2002, A Game of Casino Hardball: Corruption Charges Fly in a Tribal Dispute Over Land Use And Lots of Income. The Los Angeles Times, November 5.
One must realize that Native American casinos are in fact "sovereign nations" and this has led some to state that this gives them an unfair advantage when it comes to salaries and wages, but that may also be changing in California (and the nation?) as evidenced by the following for the Cache Creek Casino (mentioned above):
"With the jingle of countless slot machines, gambling has generated r for California's once-impoverished casino tribes. Squarely in the middle of those profitable gambling halls stands a stark counterpoint on the wage scale: Many of the busboys, cashiers, cooks, waitresses and other employees of Native American tribal casinos rank among the state's most poorly compensated workers. But change may be coming. In Northern California, a tribe with a profitable gambling business has signed a union agreement that will boost salaries and provide medical benefits to workers who, in many cases, had been relying on taxpayer-funded government health-care programs. The Rumsey Rancheria of Wintun Indians, which operates the successful Cache Creek Casino, an hour's drive west of Sacramento, has agreed to a three-year contract that hikes wages 12% and provides affordable family health care. Labor leaders say it is the first binding collective bargaining agreement forged with a tribal casino in the United States. 'This is what we hope will be the beginning of a new standard for the industry," said Jack Gribbon, California political director for the Hotel Employees and Restaurant Employees International Union. ' We salute the tribe [stress added]." Eric Bailey, 2003, 1st Labor Union Contract Signed by Tribal Casino; Workers will get a 12% pay increase and family medical care under the three-year agreement. The Los Angeles Times, January 26.
D. COMPETITION AND SEMI-CONCLUSIONS
Gambling or gaming or entertainment is here to stay and is definitely a fertile ground for research! The growth among native American casino operations has been tremendous since IGRA of 1988 and one wonders what role will the World Wide Web play in "electronic" off-shore gambling? Consider, if you will, words from The New York Times of March 31, 2003:
"Congress took substantial action this month against internet betting, with a house committee passing a bill to curb online gambling and a nearly identical bill being introduced in the Senate. Similar bills have been introduced in Congress before, but none passed both houses in the same session. With increased Congressional interest now, the legislation may well reach the president's desk this year. Gambling operators--many of them American expatriates in the caribbean or Central America, where gambling laws are more relaxed--have already begun to make adjustments to the changing environment by shifting their marketing efforts to other countries and devising ways to circumvent new laws. 'Will the legislation hurt is? Yes,' said Dave, the owner of the online betting site triplecrownracebook.com, who would not give his last name. 'Will we find a way around it? Yes. people will laways find new ways to get money to us.' Internet gambling has surged well ahead of most e-commerce categories, reaching more than $6 billion in global sales this year, according to Christiansen Capital Advisors, a gambling industry research firm. Of the roughly 12 million online gamblers, 5.3 million are Americans [stress added]." Bob Tedeschi, 2003, E-Commerce Report. The New York Times, March 31, 2003, page C6.
In addition to the "electronic world" one wonders what will Las Vegas do to maintain its appeal? Las Vegas is already a major shopping destination andwill this be enough to draw in new "gamblers" (or individuals seeking "gaming" entertainment) to the state? How long will Hawai'i be able to be only one of two states in the United States of America which lacks any form of legalized gambling? (Utah is the other state without legal gambling.) I predict that one day Hawai'i will have casinos, with native Hawai'ians building on the "sovereignty" movement among North American Native Americans.
"The number of visitors increased slightly last year compared with the year before, but tourism officials said the total was still below 2000 levels. The las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority said there were 35,071,504 visitors last year [~96,000/day!]. In 2000, there were 35.85 million visitors [stress added]." Anon., 2003, USAToday, February 13, 2003, page 5A.
"Yet even within the Native American communities, many admit that gaming can be a mixed blessing, and often tribes are often split over the issue. More traditional tribal members worry about the effects of gambling on morals and values, fearing destruction of their cultures. Others worry about the future of children growing up amidst the new-found affluence. According to Victor Preston, a commissioner with the Modoc tribes Susanville Casino in Northeastern California, a possible pitfall can be that kids on reservations with successful gaming enterprises inherit large trust funds when they turn 18. For some, such easy money can be a disincentive to continue school or work [stress added]." Jennifer Sherman, 1997, http://www.cirsinc.org/rcr/casino.html.
"'Gaming is the return of the buffalo,' said Mrs. Bridgeman, who is part Cherokee and part Seneca-Cayuga. 'There is an Indian saying that the day the buffalo return, prosperity will return to the Indians." Anon., September 21, 1998, The Chico Enterprise-Record, page 3A.
There is much to study in looking at "Native American" gaming issues and since tribes have sovereign status, getting information is very difficult: there is competition "out there" and it will only get worse. Some casinos do survive and some don't (including Native American and non-Native American facilities):
"A plan to build the state's largest casino has turned into a crapshoot. Windsor Woodmont Black Hawk Resort could face default on $100 million in depts for its Black hawk Casino by Hyatt that opened in December  [stress added]." Anon., October 15, 2002, USA Today, page 15A.
My wife and I have made frequent trips back to Bellingham, Washington, and we have followed the "casino" activities of the Lummi Nation, located in Washington State (just north of Bellingham and south of Vancouver, British Columbia; incidentally, my wife's first teaching position in 1965-1967 was on the Lummi Indian Reservation). In August 1997 the Lummi Nation Casino was forced to close and 238 people lost their jobs, clearly demonstrating that not every single Native American casino can succeed. The casino was successful until Canadian "entertainment" (gambling) rules were changed and the Lummi's lost out. Indeed, in the publication entitled Indian Gaming (April/May 1998), while not specifically naming the Lummi Nation Casino, the following was reported: "In Washington, one of the 12 tribal casinos approved by the state was forced to close last summer and at least three more have stopped making required community-impact contribution" and for the American State of New Mexico it was reported that "Tribal leaders at Taos Pueblo say their gaming operation is in 'dismal financial condition' and it can afford to pay only $US4,516 of the $US169,000 it owes to the state" (Anon., Indian Gaming, 1998: 22). In June of 1998 Harrahs Skagit Valley Casino (owned by the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe), located 15 miles south of Bellingham, had to lay off approximately 5 percent of the more than 700 individuals employed at the casino because of changes in Canadian gaming rules.
Native American casinos in Washington State are not the only ones affected by changes in Canadian gaming: in June of 1998 it was also reported that:
"The Reno-Sparks area [of Nevada] has seen its share of Canadian visitors dwindle in recent years and could sustain more losses when gaming destination casinos begin operating in British Columbia next year....As Canadians who like Reno age and travel less, however, Reno needs to attract the younger customers who tend to prefer the glitter of Las Vegas....Szony [the Chief Executive of The Sands Regency Hotel Casino in Reno] expects the B[ritish] C[olumbia] casinos to have a chiseling effect on Reno similar to that felt from Indian casinos and California card clubs [stress added]." (John Stearns, 1998, "Canadian Casinos May Cut Tourism." Reno Gazette-Journal, June 16, page 1E and 3E.)
There are, however, positive stories on Native Americans and casinos profits in the Pacific Northwest as evidenced by an article in The Seattle Times of November 3, 2002:
"Having never made it past the eighth grade, Cathleen Schultz wanted more for her daughter. It wasn't a question of if Denise would go to college, but when, her mother would say over and over. But neither imagined Denise would go so far. Denise Dillon is the first in her family to go to college and the first in her tribe to earn advanced degrees from major east coast universities. Her remarkable journey is made more so by the fact that it was gambling that made it possible. The Muckleshoots are one of only a few Washinton tribes that own a profitable casino, enough so that the tribe is spending almost $1 million this year alone on scholarships for 132 tribal members. For Dillon and others, the casino profits and the tribe's commitment to education allowed them to beat the odds. In Washington, only about 4 percent of native Americans earn graduate or professional degrees, compared with almost 10 percent of whites. Dillon received a full-ride scholarship to Western Washington University in Bellingham.... [stress added]." Lynda V. Mapes, 2002, The Education Jackpot. The Seattle Times, November 3, 2002.
Traditional casinos versus Native American Casinos; Nevada versus Atlantic City and Atlantic City versus Connecticut! Then there is northern Nevada versus southern Nevada as well as northern Nevada versus the burgeoning northern California Casinos. One also has downtown las Vegas versus the Strip! And casinos on the "strip" competing for tourist dollars from non-gambling entertainment establishments:
"To keep sustomers and their cash inside the casinos--strategy No. 1 in las Vegas--gambling oeprators have decided that it's OK to show a little skin. Forget family destination. A sexy casino is a profitable casino. ... Persuading men to play exclusively in their casino nightspots won;'t be easy. Casinos are facing growing competition from strip clubs--both nude and topless. Thirty-one strip clubs operate in Clark County and Las vegas, compared with about 40 major casinos on the strip. ... The so-called gentlemen's clubs are increasingly sophisticated, well-financed ventures. ... The hotel-casinos are responding by making nightspots sexier or by rolling out new ones that will attract men--lots of men. Casinos sell sex, or at least the hint of it, on billboards around the city. The Las Vegas Convention and visitors Authority airs commercials with the not-so-subtle message that anything is possible in Las Vegas. What happens in Las vegas, stays in Las Vegas, according to the ads [stress added]." Adam Goldman, 2003, Vegas strip clubs pose threat to casino profits. The Sacramento Bee, April 6, 2003, page D7.
And, remember, Las Vegas versus southern California Native American casinos!
"San Diego, California's second-biggest city, now has nine tribal casinos sprinkled around its outskirts. One of them, the Barona Casino, owned and operated by the Barona Band of Mission Indians on its reservation near Lakeside, Calif., has targeted Las Vegas turf. While waiting for the tribe's new $260 million hotel-casino to open in mid-December, Barona casino executives already run a gambling operation most Las Vegas gaming bosses would envy [stress added]." Jeff Simpson, September 1, 2002, Gambling Beyond Nevada: California Dream. The Las Vegas Review -Journal. http://www.lvrj.com/lvrj_home/2002/Sep-01-Sun-2002/business/19393773.html
"American Indians in Southern California are giving just that a try, going Las Vegas in style to drain customers from Nevada. As a result, Californians, who account for about 35 percent of Nevada's gambling revenues, are beginning to have viable gambling alternatives at home. The threat from California to Reno area casinos has been better recognized than the danger in South Nevada, but the reality is starting to sink in in both areas. Said American Gaming Association President Frank Fahrenkopf: 'Historically, expanding markets in the U.S., including California, have not had a negative impact on Nevada. Now, the caveat is they could have an impact on Northern Nevada and even off-Strip properties (in downtown Las Vegas and Laughlin).' California casino operators' winnings have soared from $ 1.4 billion to more than $ 4.3 billion since the passage of Proposition 1A authorized the wave of Indian gaming, surpassing New Jersey and making the state second only to Nevada's $ 9.3 billion [stress added]." Rod Smith, 2002, Indian Casinos in Southern California Compete With Las Vegas Attractions. The Las Vegas Review-Journal, December 15.
Then there are also Native American casinos versus Native American casinos and then Native Americans within a particular tribe versus other Native Americans within the same tribe! See The Sacramento Bee (February 4, 2001) and an article on "Gaming Tribes" and a listing of those "experiencing internal membership disputes" (mentioning the Berry Creek Rancheria as well as the Mooretown Rancheria of Butte County). "
"A coalition of card rooms and charities is asking a Sacramento judge to block federal acquisition of San Francisco Bay Area property for use as an American Indian casino. The proposed casino, on a parcel 20 minutes from downtown San Francisco in Contra Costa County, would operate under the auspices of the Lytton Band of Pomo Indians, the coalition contends. But it would actually benefit 'a group of wealthy non-Indian investors and their allies,' according to a motion submitted late Friday [October 4, 2002] to U.S. District Judge David F. Levi [stress added]." Denny Walsh, October 5, 2002, Halt sought on Casino deal. The Sacramento Bee, Pages A1 and A6, page A1.
It is interesting to see what is occuring all around us. Here in Butte County, the process continues.
"With plans for a casino and their own reservation in the heart of Butte County, the Mechoopda Indians stand on the threshold of an economic and cultural rebirth, said Steve Santos, the tribal chairman. ... If all goes as he hopes, within two years, the federal government will take into trust for the tribe 645 acres northeast of the intersection of highways 99 and 149. Then the Mechoopda, Chico's original residents, will once again have their own reservation. Plans can then proceed to devleop a casino, which Santos said could end the poverty that has plagued the tribe [stress added]." Larry Mitchell, April 6, 2002, The Chico Enterprise-Record, pages A1 and A12, page A1.
There is no mistaking that the potential dollar amounts are amazing for recognized tribal members; the previously cited December 2002 Time article had the following:
"In California, Christmas came early this year for the 100 members of the Table Mountain Rancheria, who over Thanksgiving picked up bonus checks of $200,000 each as their share of the table mountain Casino's profits. That was in addition to the monthly stipend of $15,000 each member receives [stress added]." Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58, page 47.
As quoted above: "'Gaming is the return of the buffalo" but others phrase it as follows: "Some Indians say it's payback time for the land, culture, resources and human rights robbed from them at gunpoint, or stolen with broken treaties" [stress added]." Stephen Magagnini, 2003, On their land, tribes' law is word. The Sacramento Bee, April 6, 2003, page A1, A19, and A20, page A19; and as Marc Macarro (Chairman of the Pechanga Band of Luiseno Indians and who have a "$262 million casino-resort on its reservation in Riverside County") stated it:
"'There's an indignant self-righteousness: 'How dare these tribes come in and impact our quality of life?'' he said. 'A few generations ago when we were being kicked out of our villages at gunpoint, we were saying the same thing, but we were powerless to stop it.' His solution is for every California schoolchild to learn Indian history and every California law student to study tribal law [stress added]." Stephen Magagnini, 2003, Some learn Indian justice the hard way. The Sacramento Bee, April 7, 2003, page A1, A16, and A17, page A16.
There are definite problems when one looks at tribal sovereignty, gaming, or gambling and the state of California is attempting to increase the revenue share it receives from allowing Native American California casinos to operate, but there is opposition:
"An Inland tribe has launched a statewide TV campaign attacking Gov. Davis' bid to get more money from Indian casinos to help balance California's budget. Rhe San Manuel Band of Mission Indians, with a reservation and casino near Highland, began running a 30-second commercial Monday on broadcast and cable stations throughout the state. The advertisement, titled 'Responsibility,' lambastes officials for asking the tribes to share more money with the state and says the tribe already pays its fair share. 'Thanks to the people of California, Indian gaming is making its contribution to local communities,' Vince Duro, a tribal council member, says in the commercial as water rushes over rocks in the background. 'Now, some politicians in Sacramento want to take that money and waste it on financial problems they've created' [stress added]." Michelle DeArmond, 2003, San Manuel Band Launches TV Ad Opposing Davis Plan. The Press-Enterprise (Riverside, CA), April 3.
It will be interesting to see what develops when one considers the current budget crisis for the state of California!
I believe that we all "gamble" to some extent and the opportunities to gamble are increasing an lightning speed! From driving to Oroville or Anderson or Colusa or just being "entertained" on the Internet: the choices are incredible and it can be dangerous:
"Gambling could be the fastest-growing cause of the record rates of bankruptcy in America this year  , a consulting group says. ... The study found bankruptcy rates are 18 percent higher in counties with one gambling facility and 23 percent higher in counties with five or more gambling facilities. ... Between April and June, for example, bankruptcy filings hit a record 367,000, up 24 percent from 297,000 in the same period of 1996 ... The SMR [Research Corp. of Hackettstown, New Jersey] found that the counties with the highest bankruptcy rates in the nation were close to Tunica [Mississippi]. They are Shelby County (Memphis), Tenn., Marshall County, Miss., Crittenden County, Ark., Tipton County, Tenn., and Madison County, Tenn. The bankruptcy rate in Atlantic City, N.J. was 71 percent higher than in any other country in New Jersey last year, while Clark County, Nev., where Las Vegas is located, has the highest bankruptcy rate in that state [stress added]. Lance Gay, September 4, 1997, Why is bankruptcy soaring? Gambling, commission told. The Chico Enterprise-Record, page 7C.
You should be aware that Tunica, Mississippi, is the home of several major casinos, within easy driving distance of Memphis, Tennessee; and one could argue that the situation in Nevada is equally grim:
"Pick almost any index of social well-being and Nevada ranks at or near the very bottom of the 50 states, though it ranks near the top in personal wealth. Besides having the highest suicide rate (almost twice the national average), Nevada has the highest adult smoking rate and the highest death rate from smoking, the highest percentage of teenagers who are high school droupouts, the highest teenage pregnancy rate, and the highest rate of firearm death. Nevada ranked 45th among the states for overall health last year , just above states such as West Virginia and Arkansas, compiled by United Health Group, a Minnesota-based health care company. Over the last 11 years, Nevada has scored between 43rd and 50th in the group's ranking, because of its high rate of smoking, big lack of health insurance and high premature death rate, among other problems. 'You name it, we go it,' said bill Thompson, a professor of public admiistration at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and an expert on the state's reigning industry, gambling [stress added]." Todd S. Purdum, 2001, Nevada's glitz masks ailing society. The Sacramento Bee, May 19, 2001, pages A1 and A19.
I have some theories and statements: the first theory is that we all "gamble" to some extent and the opportunities to gamble are increasing an lightning speed! The second theory is that I believe that individuals gamble because so much of our daily lives are beyond our control and we "gamble" to take back some control (and perhaps we are "entertained" by the games of chance). The third theory I have is that Native American "entertainment facilities" will continue to grow and grow throughout California (and the nation) and some will collapse upon themselves; I do not know, but it will happen. Some statements I believe in are as follows: first, if you wish to "gamble" in any casino (or take any sort of risks in life), it is best if you "know before you go!" The second statement comes from an "industry" professional: Thomas Austin Preston (also known as Amarillo Slim) who stated it well when he was quoted as saying that some "dudes [are] in the category of guessers, and guessers are losers [stress added]. Anthony Holden, 1990, Big Deal: A Year As A Professional Poker Player, page 164.
IV. THIRTY-THREE YEARS OF INTEREST(S) AND TEMPORARY CONCLUSIONS
I began this paper with comments about my initial 1970 research on the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and begin ending with some words from the 18th Century distinguished statesman Edmind Burke (1729-1797) w ho wrote that "gaming is a principle inherent in human nature" and I argue that we all "gamble" to some extent. In 1996 Peter L. Bernstein published Against The Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk, and he wrote the following:
"The essence of risk management lies in maximizing the areas where we have some control over the outcome while minimizing the areas where we have absolutely no control over the outcome and the linkage between effect and cause is hidden from us [stress added]." Peter L. Bernstein, 1996, Against The Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk, page 197.
Issues concerning Native Americans and "gaming / gambling" will be fascinating to follow for the immediate future: states are trying to generate additional revenue in these times from Native American casinos and there is a great deal of concern about that issue; and, as stated above:
"What do the Indian nations of Arizona, California, Connecticut, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington and several other states have now that they did not have 15 years ago? The answer is political clout. ... [stress added]." Tim Giago, July 30, 2000, Jury Still Out On Indian Gaming's Impact. The San Francisco Chronicle, page 5.
And the political clout is going to get bigger, as exemplified in the following March 2003 headline: Indian Tribes Exempt From New Limits on Campaign Gifts:
"In their rivalry with other gambling interests, Indian tribes have now one advantage: they are exempt from the overall donor limits included in the nation's new campaign law that took effect this election cycle. The tribes, which for the 2002 election spread around $7 million in federal donations, do not have to abide by the overall individual donor limit of $95,000 in contributions to candidates, political action committees and parties. And unlike companies, the tribes can give donations directly from their treasuries. While unlimited donations known as soft money are not outlawed for everyone, including the tribes, the special treatment of Indian nations in the campaign finance rules has some competitors crying foul. ... Tribal leaders dismisss the criticism as jealousy over Indians' efforts to raise their political standing. ... Among top donors, the Mississippi Band of Choctaw indians in Choctaw, Miss., gave at least $615,000 to federal candidates and political organizations, and the Ho-Chunk Nation, based in Black River Falls, Wis., donated at least $512,000. The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians in Palm Springs, Calif., gave roughly $429,500. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal nation, whose Foxwoods casino in Connecticut is one of the world's biggest and most profitable, contributed at least $419,895 [stress added]." Anon, 2003, Indian Tribes Exempt From New Limits on Campaign Gifts, The New York Times, March 18, 2003, page A22.
The future, as is the present, will be very interesting.
My research interests have definitely shifted from the South Pacific to the local scene, but this is inevitable with the passage of time and changing perspectives. What the next 33 years will bring is anyone's guess but I shall continue pursuing studies dealing with human beings, for as Darwin wrote: "There is a grandeur in this view of life...."
V. SELECTED URBANOWICZ REFERENCES: 1965->2003
1965 Darwin - 1859: An Important Historical Event. (For SPEECH 100, Western Washington State College [now Western Washington University], Bellingham, Washington, June 30).
1972 Tongan Culture: The Methodology of an Ethnographic Reconstruction. Copyrighted Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon; also available from Ann Arbor, University Microfilms 73-7972). [In The Meriam Library at GN/671/T5/U7/1972a]
1973 Tongan Adoption Before The Constitution of 1875. Ethnohistory, Vol. 20, No. 2: 109-123.
1975a Change in Rank and Status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Psychological Anthropology, edited by T. R. Williams (Mouton), pp..559-75 [identical to 1979a].
1975b Drinking in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Ethnohistory, Vol. 22, No. 1: 33-50.
1976 John Thomas, Tongans, and Tonga! The Tonga Chronicle (Nuku'alofa, Tonga), Vol. 13, No. 7: 7.
1977a Integrating Tourism With Other Industries in Tonga. The Social and Economic Impact of Tourism on Pacific Communities, edited by B. H. Farrell (Center for South Pacific Studies, UC Santa Cruz), pp. 88-94.
1977b Tourism in Tonga: Troubled Times. Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 83-92.
1977c Motives and Methods: Missionaries in Tonga in the Early 19th Century. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 86, No. 2: 245-263.
1978a Brève note sur l'inflation, le tourisme et le Pétrole au Royaume polynésien des Iles Tonga. Journal de la Sociétédes Océanistes, Vol. 36, No. 60:137-138.
1978b Review of A Polynesian Village: The Process of Change In the Village of Hoi, Tonga (1977) by P. Tupouniua. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 87, No. 3: 288-289.
1979a Change in Rank and Status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Political Anthropology: The State of the Art, edited by S. L. Seaton and J. M. Claessen (Mouton: The Hague), pp. 225-242 [identical to 1975a].
1979b Comments on Tongan Commerce, With Reference to Tourism and Traditional Life. Pacific Viewpoint, Vol. 20, No. 2: 179-184.
1981a Review of The Nobility and the Chiefly Tradition in the Modern Kingdom of Tonga (1980) by G.E. Marcus. Pacific Studies, Vol. 5, No. 114-116.
1981b Pacific Women: Some Polynesian Examples. Discussion Paper 81-1 in Discussion Paper Series (College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, CSU, Chico).
1988 Review of Early Tonga as the Explorers Saw It: 1616-1810 (1987) by E. N. Ferdon. The American Anthropologist, Vol. 90, No. 4: 1021.
1989 Tourism in Tonga Revisited: Continued Troubled Times? Hosts And Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, edited by V. Smith, 2nd Edition (University of Pennsylvania), pp. 105-117.
1989 The Islands of Hawai'i: 750A.D. to 1989. (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 21.)
1990 Charles R. Darwin: My Life and My Times. (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, October 4.)
1991a Another Look at Tourism With Regards to Tonga. Hosts and Guests, edited by V. Smith (Tokyo: Keisó Shobo), pp. 147-164 [Japanese Translation of 1989a].
1991b Tonga. Encyclopedia of World Cultures, edited by D. Levinson (Boston: Hall-Macmillan), pp. 336-339.
1991e Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.)
1993a Charles R. Darwin: (1809-1882). (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, February 11.)
1993b Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 30).
199c3 Charles R. Darwin: Happy 116th Anniversary! (For the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., November 17-21.)
1994 Review of Islanders of the South: Production, Kinship and Ideology in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1993) by Paul Van Der Grijp (translated by Peter Mason). Ethnos (Stocklhom), Vol. 59, No. 3- 4: 276-278.
1996 Gambling or Gaming: Which Is It? (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, April 11.)
1996a Urbanowicz on Darwin. The Chico Anthropological Society Papers, Number 16, pages 55-114.
1996b To Gamble, Or Not To Gamble? Is There A Question? (For the Chico Breakfast Lions Club Meeting, Chico, California, December 10.)
1996c An Anthropologist looks At The Geography of Gaming. (For the Meeting of the Northern California Geographical Society, December 8.)
1997a When Does It End? Urbanowicz & "Gaming" (Again!). (For the Northern California Geographical Society, November 9.)
1997b "Darwin Continues To Evolve: Urbanowicz On Darwin (Again!)." (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 11.)
1997c Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part One: The Beginning, Seventeen Minute Instructional Videotape: Reflections: Part One, Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico) [available via the Internet with a REAL PLAYER].
1998a Folklore Concerning Charles Darwin. For the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California Folklore Society, Sacramento, CA (April 16-18).
1998b Gambling (Gaming) In The United States of America From An Anthropological Perspective. Presented at the 14th ICAES [International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences] Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism for the 1998 Congress held at Williamsburg, Virginia, July 29-August 2, 1998.
1998c Proposition 5 And Native American Gaming Issues. (For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, October 8.)
1999a Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage, ~Twenty-two Minute Instructional Videotape (Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico) [which may be viewedvia the Internet with a REAL PLAYER].
1999b The Gamble of Gaming: Where Does It Go From Here? (For the AAUW [American Association of University Women] Meeting in Chico, California, March 19.)
2000a Charlie on Darwin (For the 26 October 2000 CELT [Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching]/Anthropology Forum Presentation at California State University, Chico (http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTFall2000ConfSubm.html).
2000b Teaching As Theatre: Some Classroom Ideas, Specifically Those Concerning Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) for the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, California (November 15-19, 2000).
2000c Review of Unto Others: The Evolution And Psychology of Unselfish Behavior by Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson (1999 Harvard University Press Paperback edition) for Dr. Christian Perring, Book Review Editor for Metapyschology--Mental Health Net . [And please see http://mentalhelp.net/mhn/bookstore/db.cgi?db=books&uid=default&Title=Unto+Others&Author=&ISBN=&mh=10&keyword=&view_records=++Search+Now++
2000d Mnemonics, Quotations, Cartoons, And A Notebook: "Tricks" For Appreciating Cultural Diversity Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 132-140.
2000e, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Fa2000Anth138.html [September 20, 2000 for ANTH 138]
2001 Gambling Into The 21st Century. Hosts And Guests Revisited: Tourism Issues of the 21st Century, edited by Valene Smith and Maryann Brent (NY: Cognizant Communication Corp.), pp. 69-79. (NOTE: this is based on a 1998 item, Gambling (Gaming) In The United States of America From An Anthropological Perspective. Presented at the 14th ICAES [International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences] Meetings on the Anthropology of Tourism for the 1998 Congress held at Williamsburg, Virginia, July 26-August 2, 1998.)
2002a There Is A Grandeur In This View Of Life. In Darwin Day Collection One: The Single Best Idea Ever (2002) Edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled Bank Press), pages 67-70.
2002b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinSacFeb2002.html [On Darwin: Countdown to 2008/2009]. For "Darwin Day" activities, sponsored by HAGSA [The Humanist Association of the Greater Sacramento Area], Sacramento, California, February 10, 2002].
2002c Teaching As Theatre. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 147-149.
2002d, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FALL2002ANTH162.html [November 4, 2002 for ANTH 162]
2003a, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Jan2003Hawai'iDarwin.html [Teaching As Theatre Once Again: Darwin in the Classroom (And Beyond). (For the Hawai'i International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, Hawai'i, January 12-15, 2003.)
2003b, Native Americans: Gaming, Gambling, and Growth. [April 8, 2002 for ANTH 161]
2003c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldExplorationSpring2003.htm [FORTHCOMING: May 4, 2003]
2003d http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/30YearsOfAnthroForums.html [FORTHCOMING: May 15, 2003]
VI. THE CHANGING NATURE OF ANTHROPOLOGICAL FIELD WORK:
A. THE PACIFIC
[a "massive" Pacific Site]
http://pidp.ewc.hawaii.edu/pireport/[Pacific Islands Report [up-to-the-date news]
http://126.96.36.199/[Pacific Islands Development Program]
http://www.netstorage.com/kami/tonga/[The Kingdom of Tonga in Cyberspace]
http://www.tongaonline.com/news/ [The Tonga Chronicle]
http://coombs.anu.edu.au/SpecialProj/PNG/WWWVL-PNG.html [Papua NG WWW]
http://www.govt.nz/ [New Zealand Government On-Line]
http://www.pim.com.fj/ [Pacific Islands Monthly (PIM)]
http://www.pacificMagazine.com/ [Pacific Magazine]
http://starbulletin.com/ [Honolulu Star-Bulletin]
http://www.abc.net.au/news/ [ABC News (Australia)]
http://www.press.co.nz/ [The Press On-Line (New Zealand)]
http://sunsite.anu.edu.au/region/spin/GENINFO/ciaindex.htm [As well as The Central Intelligence Agency]
B. THE GAMING INDUSTRY (Part 1)
[The Mashantucket Pequot, Connecticut]
http://www.mohegansun.com/index.jsp [The Mohegan Sun, Connecticut]
http://www.ctnow.com/news/local/hc-casinopolls1003.artoct03,0,4027809.story?coll=hc%2Dheadlines%2Dlocal [October 3, 2002} "Two public opinion polls released Wednesday show strong opposition to a third casino in Connecticut."
http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/gamb04.shtml [September 4, 2000} Indians losing in gambling business. The Seattle Post-Intelligencer.] http://www.online-casinos-rated.com/n45.htm [Most Indians haven't Benefited from the 1990s Casino Boom.]
http://www.indiancountry.com/ [Indian Country} "The Nation's Leading American Indian News Source."]
http://www.library.ca.gov/CRB/97/03/crb97003.html#toc [California State library} 1997} Gambling in California. By Roger Dunstan]
http://www.lao.ca.gov/12998_gambling.html [January 1998} Gambling in California} Overview from the Legislative Analyst's Office]
http://www.americancasinoguide.com/News/7-20-01-Rincon.shtml [July 27, 2001} Casinos News} Harrahs and the Rincon Band of San Luiseno Mission Indians]
http://www.sacbee.com/content/news/environment/story/4031521p-5056992c.html [August 18, 2002} The Sacramento Bee} In Casino Wars, Indians Hold the cards.]
http://www.gamingfloor.com/Indian_gaming.html [Native Indian Casino News} Good jumping off site.]
http://www.pechanga.net/indian_casinos.htm [Pechanganet] Listing of Indian Casinos]
http://www.pechanga.net/documents/california_indian_casinos.htm [California Indian Casinos]
http://dmoz.org/Games/Gambling/Casinos/Native_American/ [Open Director} Games, Gambling, Casinos, Native Americans]
http://www.casinos-online-casinos-gaming-gambling.com/native-american-indian-gaming.htm [Native American Indian Gambling]
http://www2.dgsys.com/~niga/ [American Indian Gambling and Casino Information Center sponsored by The National Indian Gaming Association]
http://www.online-casinos-locator.com/n44.htm [Las Vegas Continues to Lure California Visitors]
http://www.lvrj.com/lvrj_home/2002/Sep-01-Sun-2002/business/19393773.html [September 1, 2002} Gambling Beyond Nevada: California Dream} from The Las Vegas Review-Journal].
http://standup.quiknet.com/indian_gambling/ [Indian Gambling} "Stand Up For California is a grassroots, citizen-organized group dedicated to opposing the expansion of gambling in California."]
http://www.casino-gambling-reports.com/GamblingStudy/Tribal%20Gambling/ [National Gambling Impact Study Commission, Final Report} Native American Tribal Gambling.]
http://www.gamblingmagazine.com/articles/14/14-1138.htm [Gambling Magazine} Gambling News]
http://www.gamblingmagazine.com/articles/42/42-42.htm [Gambling Magazine} Trends]
http://www.nmai.si.edu/ [National Museum of the American Indian, Washington, D.C.} scheduled to open in the year 2004]
B. THE GAMING INDUSTRY (Part 2)
Kurt Anderson, 1994, Las Vegas, U.S.A. Time, January
10, Vol. 143, No. 2, pages 42-51.
Anon., 1992, Secret Scent Increases Urge To Gamble, Casino Tests Show. The San Francisco Chronicle, September 9.
Anon., 1998a, The Chico Enterprise-Record, September 21, page 3A.
Anon., 1998b, Indian Gaming, page 22.
Anon., 1999, Pequot Times, February, page 3.
Anon., 2001, USA Today, February 14, page 6A.
Anon., 2002a, Foxwoods' August slot win - $73.3M. Pequot Times, October 2002, page 11.
Anon., 2002b, USA Today, October 15, page 15A.
Anon., 2003a, Strong showing in November Slots. Pequot Times, January 2003, page 14.
Anon., 2003b, USAToday, February 13, 2003, page 5A.
Anon, 2003c, Pequot Times, March, page 11.
Anon., 2003d, USA Today, March 11, 2003, page 6A.
Anon, 2003e, Indian Tribes Exempt From New Limits on Campaign Gifts, The New York Times, March 18, 2003, page A22.
Anon., 2003f, Seeing the need to diversify, tribes looking beyond casinos. The Chico Enterprise-Record, March 30, 2003, page 4B.
Donald Bartlett and James B. Steele, 2002, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Misfortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58.
Eric Bailey, 2003, 1st Labor Union Contract Signed by Tribal Casino; Workers will get a 12% pay increase and family medical care under the three-year agreement. The Los Angeles Times, January 26.
Peter L. Bernstein, 1996, Against The Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk, page 12.
Donald L. Bartlett and James B. Steele, Indians Casinos: Wheel of Fortune, Time, December 16, 2002, pages 44-58.
Eugene Martin Christiansen, 1998, "A New Entitlement" in International Gaming & Wagering Business, August 1998, pages 3-35.
Matt Connor, 1998, Nevada's Bad California Dream. International Gaming & Wagering Business, July 1998, page 1, pages 26-31.
Matt Connor, 2002, A Taxing Situation." International Gaming & Wagering Business, Vol. 23, No. 3, pages 1, 34-35.
Larry Copeland, 2003, Money woes drive some states to gambling. USAToday, March 5.
Jm Drinkard, 1998, Casinos, lobbying are winning combination for tribes. USA Today, February 12, 1998, page 10A.
Timothy Egan, 2002, Lawsuite in California Asks, Whose Tribe Is it, Anyway? The New York Times, April 10.
Gillian Flaccus, 2003, Indian tribes look beyond casinos for cash. The San Francisco Chronicle, April 8.
Amy Gamerman, 1998, Pequot Museum: It Makes A Village. The Wall Street Journal, September 2, page A16.
Elysa Gardner, 2003, Vehas 'ultralounges' ooze cool sophistication. USA Today, March 28, 2003, page 6D.
Lance Gay, 1997, Why is bankruptcy soaring? Gambling, commission told. The Chico Enterprise-Record, September 4, page 7C.
Tim Giago, 2000, Jury Still Out On Indian Gaming's Impact. The San Francisco Chronicle, July 30, page 5.
Adam Goldman, 2003, Vegas strip clubs pose threat to casino profits. The Sacramento Bee, April 6, page D7.
Robert Goodman, 1995, The Luck Business: The Devastating Consequences and Broken Promises of America's Gambling Explosion (NY: Free Press).
Peter Hecht, 2002, Tribes protest W. Sac casino. The Sacramento Bee, April 5.
Anthony Holden, 1990, Big Deal: A Year As A Professional Poker Player.
David Johnston, 1992, Temples of Chance: How America inc. Bought Out Murder Inc to Win Control of the Casino Business (NY: Doubleday).
David Littlejohn [Editor], 1999, The Real Las Vegas: Life beyond The Strip (Reno: University of Nevada Press).
Stephen Magagnini, 2003a, On their land, tribes' law is the last word. The Sacramento Bee, April 6, 2003.
Stephen Magagnini, 2003b, Some learn Indian justice the hard way. The Sacramento Bee, April 7, 2003, page A1, A16, and A17.
Lynda V. Mapes, 2002, The Education Jackpot. The Seattle Times, November 3, 2002.
Carla Marinucci, 2003, Casino profits pit 'brother vs. brother.' The San Francisco Chronicle, February 9.
Pamela Martineau, 2002, Accord reached on Yolo casino expansion. The Sacramento Bee, October 3, Page A1 and A14.
N. McKay, 1991/92, The Meaning of Good Faith In The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Gonzaga Law Review, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 471-486.
Eugene P. Moehring, 1989, Resort City in the Sunbelt: Las Vegas, 1930-1970 (Reno: University of Nevada Press).
Joel Millman, 2002, House Advantage: Indian Casinos Win By Partly Avoiding Costly Labor Rules. The Wall Street Journal, May 7.
Larry Mitchell, 2002, It's easy to be optimistic. The Chico Enterprise-Record, April 6, pages A1 and A12.
Jennifer Morita and Roger Phelps, 2003, Tribe buys land. The Sacramento Bee, March 8, 2003.
Judy Pasternak and Eric Bailey, 2002, A Game of Casino Hardball: Corruption Charges Fly in a Tribal Dispute Over Land Use And Lots of Income. The Los Angeles Times, November 5.
Iver Peterson, 2003, One Casino in the East Beats Two in the West, Indians Say. The New York Times, March 24, 2003, page A14.
Mark Porter, 1997, Lummis close casino. The Bellingham Herald, August 26.
Todd S. Purdum, 2001, Nevada's glitz masks ailing society. The Sacramento Bee, May 19, 2001, pages A1 and A19.
Richard Sackley, 1998, Cabazon's Break Ground on $6.8 Million Tire Recycling Center. Indian Gaming, September.
Marie Sanchez, 1999, Growing Up in Las Vegas. David Littlejohn [Editor], 1999, The Real Las Vegas: Life beyond The Strip (Reno: University of Nevada Press), pages 75-96.
Jeff Simpson, 2002, Gambling Beyond Nevada: California Dream. The Las Vegas Review -Journal, September 1.
Sebastian Sinclair, 1998, "Go-Go Times Roll On For Foxwoods, Mohegan Sun." Indian Gaming Business: A Quarterly Supplement to International Gaming & Wagering Business, May, pages 8-9.
Rod Smith, 2002, Indian Casinos in Southern California Compete With Las Vegas Attractions. The Las Vegas Review-Journal, December 15.
David Spanier, 1992, Welcome to the Pleasuredome: Inside Las Vegas (Reno: University of Nevada Press).
John Stearns, 1998a, Canadian Casinos May Cut Tourism. Reno Gazette-Journal, June 16, page 1E and 3E.
John Stearns, 1998b, California tribal gaming could hurt northern nevada. Reno Gazette-Journal, September 24, page 1.
John Stearns, 2001, California Tribal Casinos Threaten Northern Nevada Economy. The Chico Enterprise-Record, November 18, page 4G.
Bob Tedeschi, 2003, E-Commerce Report. The New York Times, March 31, 2003, page C6.
Jim VandeHei, 2002, GOP's Odds Improve on the Reservation. The Wall Street Journal, April 11.
Denny Walsh, 2002, Halt sought on Casino deal. The Sacramento Bee, October 5, Pages A1 and A6.
Jenna Ward, 1999, Water for the Desert Miracle. David Littlejohn [Editor], 1999, The Real Las Vegas: Life beyond The Strip (Reno: University of Nevada Press), pages 132-145.
Joseph J. Weissmann, 1993, Upping The Ante: Allowing Indian Tribes To Sue States In Federal Court Under The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. The George Washington Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 1, pages 123-161.
Steve Wiegand, 2003a, Tribes branch out beyond casinos. The Sacramento Bee, March 4, 2003, page A1 and A15.
Steve Wiegand, 2003b, Casino school draws full house. The Sacramento Bee, March 16, 2003, page A1 + A20.
Kitty Bean Yancey, 2002, Many stars orbit Mohegan Sun. USA Today, June 24, page 2D.
The following chart is a "very rough approximation" of casino space in various locations in the USA and, over the years, I have been to every one of these facilities (except for the future La Reve, Las Vegas, Nevada). You note that I did not include the Picayune Rancheria of Chukchansi Indians below, even though they are planning a 296,000 square foot building (as mentioned above): how much of that will be actual "casino space" is not readily available. The figures below are "actual" gambling spaces; also note, "expansion" has probably taken place at many of these facilities since this research was originally conducted in the late 1990s.
FACILITY & LOCATION "APPROXIMATE" CASINO SPACE IN SQUARE FEET Foxwoods, Connecticut In excess of 320,000 square feet Mohegan Sun, Connecticut 315,000 Rumsey Band (Capay Valley), California 263,000 (after expansion) MGM Mirage, Las Vegas, Nevada 175,000 Bellagio, Las Vegas, Nevada 155,000 Grand Casino, Tunica, Mississippi 140,000 Excalibur, Las Vegas. Nevada 123,944 Taj Mahal, Atlantic City, New Jersey 120,000 Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada 118,000 Rumsey Band (Capay Valley), California 113,000 (existing) La Reve (proposed for 2005 in Las Vegas, Nevada) 111,000 The Reno Hilton, Nevada 100,000 Harvey's, Lake Tahoe, Nevada 91,296 Luxor, Las Vegas, Nevada 90,000 Harrahs, Lake Tahoe, Nevada 83,646 The Nugget, Sparks, Nevada 73,900 Paskenta Band (Corning), California 70,000 Bally's Las Vegas, Nevada 70,000 Harrahs, Reno, Nevada 62,300 An American "Football" field 57,600 square feet Rincon Band (San Diego area), California 45,000 One Acre of land 43,560 square feet
SELECTED "GAMING/GAMBLING" VISUALS
# # #
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Copyright © 2003; all rights reserved by Charles F. Urbanowicz
14 April 2003 by cfu