TAHITI: FROM 1971 TO 2004/2005!

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office: Butte 317]; 530-898-6192 [Department: Butte 311]; 530-898-6143 [FAX]
e-mail: curbanowicz@csuchico.edu / home page: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tahiti2005.html] [1]

5 May 2005

 (1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on 5 May 2005, for a presentation (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on May 5, 2005.

SOME 2004/2005 VISUALS



My wife (Sadie) and I were first in French Polynesia (Tahiti) in 1971, on our way back to the United States after fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1970 and 1971). That research was combined with archival work (1970-1971) in Australia, New Zaland, and Fiji. My wife and I were again in Tahiti in 1980 (accompanied by our eight year old son) when I led a group of students who accompanied us in what was then called a "travel study" program, sponsored by CSU, Chico. Today's 2005 presentation provides information dealing with some changes over the past 34 years. My wife and I were last in Tahiti in January 2005 where I had just completed being a "Destination Lecturer" in the "Scholarship@Sea Program" of the Princess Cruise Lines. While lecturing on the Tahitian Princess (December 2004 and January 2005), we cruised through numerous islands of French Polynesia (as well as the independent Cook Islands). Later this month, beginning on May 29, 2004, I shall once again be a "Destination Lecturer" on yet another Princess ship, the Pacific Princess and we will cruise through selected World War II battle-islands of the Pacific (with the cruise terminating for us on June 24, 2005 in China). I plan to present an "Anthropology Forum" on September 1, 2005, that deals with this working research trip back to the Pacific.



I once knew the anthropologist June Helm, who died in February 2004. June was born in 1924 and I in 1942, and although we were separated in age by eighteeen years, ideas in anthropology drew us together. I was reminded of June when creating the web page for today's Anthropology Forum. Nancy Oestrich Lurie wrote the following in the January 2005 issue of Anthropology News:

"June Helm, who died February 4, 2004, was president of the AAA [American Anthropological Association] (1985-1987).... Following the list of her publications she apppended the comment: 'NB: I have never included 'papers read' and 'invited lectures' in my CV. If there are no published versions, I consider them ephemera [stress added]." Nancy Oestrich Luries, Anthropology in the Liberal Arts. Anthropology Newsletter, January 2005, page 4.

I do not consider any presentations I make as "ephemeral" and that is why I "create" various web pages to go along with the visual presentation. It is important to keep a record of what we share with the public (and it is becoming increasingly complicated and interesting as the WORLD WIDE WEB develops and links us together).

Some instructors from my undergraduate and graduate days have died since I joined the faculty of California State Univeristy, Chicio in 1973 and it is always an excellent reminder of one's own mortality to read obituary pages! I now notice that some of my peers and colleagues are also dying: Keith Morton was a fellow graduate at the University of Oregon (a few years younger than I) who did his fieldwork Tonga just about the same time as I did mine and who also received his Ph.D. in 1972. Keith was born in 1945 and he died in 1998. I have come to appreciate the following words of Isaac Asimov (1920-1992):

"However, as I grew older, the obituary page slowly became at once more important to me and more threatening. It has become morbidly obsessive with me now. I suspect this happens to a great many people. Ogden Nash [1902-1971] wrote a line that I have always remembered: 'The old men know when an old man dies.' With the years, that line has become ever more poignant to me. After all, an old person to one who has known him for a long time is not an 'old person' but is much more likely to be thought of as the younger person who inhabits our memory, vigorous and vibrant. When an old person dies who has been a part of your life, it is part of your youth that dies. And although you survive yourself, you must watch death take away the world of your youth, little by little [stress added]." Janet J. Asimov, 2002, Isaac Asimov: It's Been a Good Life (NY: Prometheus Books), pages 242-243.

I attempt to do nothing ephemeral and will try to stay off the obituary pages as long as possible and over the Spring Break in March 2005, I submitted my retirement papers and will begin teaching for the Anthropology Department in Fall 2005 under FERP: Faculty Early Retirement Program. Teach in the fall and be a "destination lecturer" for the other months!



Today's presentation complements, builds on, and repeats some of the information presented in November 2004 under the title "Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook To Gauguin." In that paper I presented some information on the indigenous people, first European contacts, and various culture changes that took place in certain islands. Some of that information will be repeated today and for more detailed information, please consult that paper available on the web. In a nutshell, some of the islands of French Polynesia were first settled by approximately 500 B.C. (the Marquesas) and Tahiti itself by approximately 500 A.D. As Douglas Oliver, a noted Pacific Anthropologist, has written:

"To hail Europeans as discoverers of the Pacific Islands is ungracious as well as inaccurate. While they were still moving around in their small, landlocked Mediterranean Sea or hugging the Atlantic shores of Europe and Africa, Pacific Islanders were voyaging hundreds of open-sea miles in their canoes and populating most of the vast Pacific's far-flung islands [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands [Third Edition], page 19.



Although it was Samuel Wallis (1728-1795), a British navigator, who first "discovered" Tahiti for Europeans in 1767, it was the French Explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) who probably did more than any other explorer to create the image of the islands of love in the South Pacific.

"Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti Island in 1768. He stayed on the island for several months, bringing with him the first French influence. He named Tahiti "La Nouvelle Cythere", after the birthplace of the Greek goddess of love [Kythera, or Cerigo as it was once termed] [stress added]." [from: http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/t/te_ao_maohi.html]

Although we call them "Tahitians" in tradition times (before European contact) the indiogenous people of "Tahiti" referred to themselves as maohi (a term used to this date). This has been defined by Oliver as their "word for persons, customs, objects, and so forth, native to their archipelago, as distinct from those of elsewhere" (Douglas l. Oliver, 1974, Ancient Tahitian Society [Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press], page 6). Another has written as follows:

"The name 'Tahiti'--or, as Bougainville [1729-1811] first wrote it in 1768, Taiti,' and Cook in 1769, 'Otaheiti'--was the name the natives gave to their island and which Europeans came to apply to the indigenes. If the Tahitians had a name specifically identifying themselves, it is not known. What is known is that all of those living in the Society Archipelago, including Tahiti, referred to themselves as 'Maohi.'" Edwin N. Ferdon, 1991, Tahiti. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume II Oceania (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co.), pages 305-307, page 305.

With Euoropeans (and Americans) change rapdily came to Tahiti and after the three successful voyages of Captain James Cook (1728-1779) change in the Pacific accelerated, especially when the first English missionaries arrived in Tahiti in 1797.

The purpose of this "non-ephemeral" presentation is to present information about changes over the past three decades and to think about those changes; it is also interesting to compare information and observations from 1971 with information and observations from 2005. Consider, if you will, the following from a 1971 publication of the Foreign Areas Study Program of the American university, published by the Superintendent of Document (of the US Government Printing Office):

"In the sixty years between 1840 and 1900, the Western powers of Great Britain, France, Germany, and the united States gained political control over Oceania. During this period Spain lost its colonies, but the Netherlands retained the western half of the island of New Guinea.... France began its formal protection of much of what became French Polynesia in the 1840s [stress added]." John W. Henderson et al., 1971, Area Handbook for Oceania (Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents/DA PAM 550-94), page 11.

When we were in Tahiti in 2004/2005, one election had just been completed and another one was being planned: the candidates (Gaston Flosse and Oscar Temaru) have different political agendas (one advocating strong ties with France and the other eventual independence from France): from "protection" in 1971 to the call for separation from France in 2005!



"At daylight, Tahiti, an island which must forever remain classical to the voyager in the South Sea, was in view." Charles R. Darwin,1839, The Voyage of the Beagle [NY: Bantam Books 1958 edition], page 348. 

When my wife and I first went to Tahiti in 1971, the estimated population for all of the islands of French Polynesia was estimated to be 119,168 individuals. The island of Tahiti accounted for almost 67% of total population (or some 79,494 individuals). Pape'ete, the Capital of French Polynesia, and located on Tahiti had a population of 25,342 individuals (or 32% of Tahiti and 21% of the total population of French Polynesia). In 1980, when we made our second visit to Tahiti, the population of all of French Polynesia was approximately 181,400 (or an increase of some 52% since 1971). In 2004, the estimated population for all of French Polynesia was 266,339 with 170,457 on the island of Tahiti alone (or 54% of the total population of French Polynesia).

Even though the British were the first to "settle" this part of the world with their missionaries in 1797, it is called "French Polynesia" today since France exercised "gunboat diplomacy" and in the 19th century gradually acquired control over all of the islands known today as French Polynesia. Global politics operated in the 19th century (as it did in the 20th and continues to operate in the 21st) and after England took possession of New Zealand, the French realized something had to be done elsewhere in the Pacific:

"When [the French] Admiral Dupetit-Thours had left Vaitahu [in the Marquesas Islands] and sailed to Nukuhiva back in May 1842, he had expected to centre France's Pacific empire at Taiohae [in the Marquesas Islands]: his report of four years before, written shortly after his first expedition to the Pacific, had persuaded the French government to act quickly in establishing themselves in the Pacific. The Russians were developing Alaska and Kamchatka. North Americans had begun to pioneer the Rocky Mountains and had pre-empted influence on Hawaii. The British had their lucrative colonies in New Holland [Australia] and had narrowly beaten the French to New Zealand. The South American states of Chile, Peru and Bolivia were exercising their newly one independence and were promising new markets. The French whaling fleet, a hundred strong in the Pacific, was the navy's school for sailors and needed a base of operations that required no British passport. For these national and commerical purposes, the Marquesas seemed perfectly suitable. They were isolated. They lay on lines of communication. They had good harbours. Ships passed no British base to reach them. French missionaires were already established there [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), page 213.

As Dening later wrote, interests shifted from the Marquesas to Tahiti:

"Admiral Dupetit-Thouars dream that Nukuhiva would become a naval base on the crossroads of the Pacific commerce was never realized. Only twice in a hundred years did the islands have any strategic naval importance. In 1854, during the Crimean War, ships of the British and French navies made their rendevous at Taiohae. ... Its only other historic moment was made by the German raider Scharnhorst in 1914. It took on coal and supplies at Taipivi. In hiding there the Germans showed how forgotten and strategically unimportant the islands were [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), pages 222-223.

The French eventually gained control over Tahiti and other islands and the people changed. There were battles in French Polynesia in the 19th century and the French military prevailed and France began its "protection" of the islands! Tahiti (and all of Polynesia) changed as a result of factual and fictional information about the people of the islands as presented by numerous individuals! Perhaps the most famous of the Frenchmen to go to Tahiti was Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) who departed Marseilles on the first of April 1891 and arrived in Pape'ete, Tahiti on 9 June 1891. As David Stanley wrote in his excellent 2003 publication: "The most unlikely PR man of them all was a once-obscure French painter named Paul Gauguin, who transformed the primitive color of Tahiti and the Marquesas into powerful visual images seen around the world" (David Stanley, 2003, Moon Handbooks: Tahiti Including the Cook Islands,, Fifth Edition [Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing], page 76; and see: David Stanley, 2004, Moon Handbooks: South Pacific, Eighth Edition [Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing]).



Tahiti will continue to change, just as the rest of the world continues to change. Tourism will continue to be an important industry for Tahiti and, perhaps (one day) the French will curtail their colonial attitude and "free" Tahiti. Who knows? One cannot predict the future, merely invent it, and Tahitians are continuing to invent their future! In 1980, and again in 2004, my wife and I flew from Los Angeles to Tahiti: this year, one will be able to fly directly from New York City to Tahiti as French Polynesians attempt to encourage tourism to Tahiti from the East Coast of the United States. With that in mind, one reads the following in April 2005:

"A delegation of traditional Tahitian craft workers will fly to New York tomorrow (Tuesday) to promote local artisans and tap into the American market. French Polynesia's minister of traditional arts and traditional crafts, Natacha Taura is leading the delegation. Five artisans will represent four different types of craftwork. The delegation will exhibit their creations at the Time Warner Center and Grand Central Station." [from: http://www.abc.net.au/ra/news/stories/s1352505.htm} Tahiti craft workers prepare to take on New York. ABC Radio Australia, 25 April 2005]

"April may be the cruelest month but not for New Yorkers. The Big Apple takes on an enthusiastic infusion of tropical warmth as Tahiti Non-Stop Week unfolds around town April 26 - 29 in a series of artistic, culinary and cultural events celebrating the unbroken line that is about to connect Tahiti and Her Islands with New York and her East Coast neighbors (http://www.nyctotahitinonstop.com). For travelers eager to try out the first-ever non-stop flights between New York and Tahiti beginning July 4th on Air Tahiti Nui (the national carrier of French Polynesia), Tahiti Non-Stop Week will preview the temptations of the legendary South Seas destination -- just as the flights will make the islands used as the model for James Michener's Bali Hai a viable alternative to vacations in Hawaii and the Caribbean. Some 150 Tahitians will be on hand for the festivities -- including performing members of the celebrated Les Grands Ballets de Tahiti, newly elected Tahitian President Oscar Temaru, Tahiti tourism officials, general managers of fabled island resorts and the thrilling Nuku A Haka dance troupe from the remote Marquesas Islands [stress added]." [From: http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/050426/nytu179.html?.v=6]

Tahiti will continue to change (and hopefully for the better).

What have Iearned or thought about in almost 35 years from the first visit to Tahiti in 1971 to the return of 2004/2005? I shall reiterate the following words:

When my wife and I first went to Tahiti in 1971, the estimated population for all of the islands of French Polynesia was estimated to be 119,168 individuals. The island of Tahiti accounted for almost 67% of total population (or some 79,494 individuals). Pape'ete, the Capital of French Polynesia, and located on Tahiti had a population of 25,342 individuals (or 32% of Tahiti and 21% of the total population of French Polynesia). In 1980, when we made our second visit to Tahiti, the population of all of French Polynesia was approximately 181,400 (or an increase of some 52% since 1971). In 2004, the estimated population for all of French Polynesia was 266,339 with 170,457 on the island of Tahiti alone (or 54% of the total population of French Polynesia).

Population growth and development in Tahiti has been tremendous! But this is simply a reflection of world-wide population increases.

Consider, if you will, some recent statistics for Chico, California, the nation, and the planet! The current population of the Chico urban area in May 2005 is approximately 101,955 individuals (http://www.chico.ca.us/), considerably more than it was in 1973 when my wife and I (and our nine-month old son) arrived in Chico. The growth in the Chico area is simply a reflection of growth in California and the estmiated population of California in 2003 was 35,484,453 (see http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06000.html). On April 21, 2005, the following was published:

"The Golden State is in the midst of a population swell from 33.87 million in the year 2000 census to [an estimated] 46.44 million in 2030.... California's projected growth of 37 percent by 2030 ranks 13th behind rapidly expanding neighbors Nevada and Arizona as well as relatively tiny states like Alaska and Idaho [stress added]." Anon., 2005, Steady population growth projedcted for state. The Chico Enterprise-Record, April 21, 2005, page 5A.

On that same date, USA Today had the following front page information: "U.S. is getting old fast. Seniors will outnumber school-age children in many states by 2030, the Census bureau says in a report out today. That promises to intensify the political tug-of-war between young and old for scarce resources [stress added]." Anon., 2005, USA Today, April 21, 2005, page 1. Incidentally, try "Google" with: Census 2030 population - and see what results you get! As I was finishing this paper, I went to the U.S. Bureau of the Census and found the following: The resident population of the United States, projected to May 5, 2005 at 7:09am [Pacific Standard Time] was 296,041,433 [http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/popclock]. This means there is one birth every 8 seconds, one death every 13 seconds, one international migrant (net) every 26 seconds, for a net gain of one person every 12 seconds. If you have come across this on the web, for some reason, what is the population figure for the United States of America when you are reading this page? What has been the increase since this was posted to the web on the morning of May 5, 2005?

Population growth in Tahiti in the past 35 years is reflected by population growth on the planet, but what about the "scarce resources" of the planet? The distinguished American Anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) once wrote the following: "The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself." Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), 1972: 483. Reflect upon the "Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" report of March 2005 (http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.aspx ) and the following information:

"A landmark, four-year study sponsored by the United Nations reveals that rising world populations and pollution are damaging the planet faster than ever. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, conducted by 1,300 experts from 95 countries, reported that humans had ruined approximately 60 percent of ecological systems to meet demands for food, fresh water, timber and fuel....The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment cost some $20 million and was funded by the Global Environmental Facility, the United Nations Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the World Bank and others [stress added]." Anon., March 31, 2005, Humans' basic needs destroying planet rapidly, report says, The San Francisco Chronicle, March 31, 2005, page A17; but see: "Earth's environment in peril, but fixes possible, study says" by Seth Borenstein in The Sacramento Bee, March 31, 2005, page A1 and A16.

If the planet is too big to deal with, just consider the following statements concerning California from the years 2002, 2003, and 2004:

"California's population continues to grow by more than 500,000 people a year. Such growth brings a host of challenges--how to provide enough affordable housing, adequate transportation, schools and jobs. In order to address these challenges, local cities and governments should be encouraged to work together and create regional growth management policies [stress added]." Elizabeth Klementowski, 2002, Flawed solution to an imaginary problem. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 18, 2002, page A19.

"About 90,000 acres of California farmland were lost to urbanization from 1998 to 2000, the largest move to urban acreage in the state in a decade [stress added]." Anon., 2003, Sprawl consumes 90,000 acreas of farms. The San Francisco Chronicle June 5, 2003, page A18.

"California builders on Monday reported starting 191,866 homes and apartments in 2003 [or ~526/day!], and predict slightly more next year before rising interests rates force a slowdown in 2005. ... State official have said the state needs to build more than 220,000 new residences a year until 2020 to handle annual population growth of 600,000 and overcome a 1990s construction slowdown [stress added]." Anon., 2004, California builders report most new houses since 1989. The Chico Enterprise-Record, January 4, 2004, page 3D.

Please keep in mind that the CSU, Chico campus located in the City of Chico (and not counting the acreage of the University Farm) is approximately 119 acres: from 1998 to 2000, approximately 756 CSU, Chico campuses have disappeared from California! How much growth and development is too much growth and development? (For a "whimsical" view of Chico in the year 2027, please see the Urbanowicz 2002 reference below.)

Incidentally, I am interested in Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and appreciated the following words by Janet Browne:

"He [Charles Darwin] believed that the natural world was the result of constantly repeated small and accumulative actions, a lesson he had first learned when reading Lyell's Principles of Geology on board the Beagle and had put to work ever since. ... No one, not even Lyell himself, or any of Darwin's closest friends and supporters, accepted as ardently as Darwin that the book of nature was about the accumulative powers of the small [stress added]." Janet Browne, 2002, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), page 490.

The book of nature is about the accumulative powers of the small and little-by-little and step-by-step we become who we are and people (and places) are the result of "the accumulative powers of the small."



I may seem to have gone afield from Tahiti and back to California and Chico, but I think everything we are concerned with should relate to other things: I am interested in Tahiti and concerned about Chico, so I make the connections. I also adhere to the words of John Muir:

"'When we try to pick out anything by itself,' wrote wilderness wanderer John Muir , 'we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.' Thus did Muir who founded the Sierra Club in 1892, become on of the first to define in 25 words or less what ecology is all about [stress added]." John G. Mitchell, 1970, Ecotactics: The Sierra Club Handbook for Environmental Activitists, p. 23.

The Bateson quote was given above, but let me repeat it (with some additional words in the same paragraph):

"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. If, now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment and the interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprising identity emerges: the unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" [italics in original; stress added]." Gregory Bateson [1904-1980], 1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), page 483.

The "unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" and if we are aware of the problems we can possibly deal with them in a constructive manner.

Later this year, in November 2005, I hope to make a presentation at the104th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association on a topic I have thought about for many years. The November 2005 paper is entitled "On Intelligence: SETI And Terrestrial" and it will be a reflective piece based on a 1977 presentation entitled "Evolution of Technological Civilizations: What is Evolution,Technology, and Civilization?" This 1977 item was presented at a Symposium (sponsored by the NASA/Ames Research Center) entitled "The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence." In observing the world as a professional anthropologist for almost four decades, at times I do question the fact of "terrestrial intelligence" on this planet (but I continue to be optimistic). As a former colleague at California State University, Chico, once remarked: "The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide" (Harlen Adams,1904-1997).

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Charles F. Urbanowicz:

in progress (under consideration) http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TripleADC2005.html [On Intelligence: SETI And Terrestrial Intelligence. Submitted to the American Anthropological Association to for consideration for the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association (with the overall theme of "Bringing the Past into the Present"), Washington, D.C., November 30-December 4, 2005, and the session being organized by Dr. Douglas A. Vonich, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA, and the session on "Historical Perspectives on Anthropology and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)].

in progress http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificReferences.html [Various Pacific References] 

in progress http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! To be submitted for the Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico for September 1, 2005.)

2004a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TahitiAndEuropeansFa2004.html [Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook to Gauguin. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 4.]  

2004b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html [Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin). For a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-31, 2004, at CSU, Chico.]  

2003a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DestinationPolynesia.html [Destination Polynesia: Tahiti And The Neighbor Islands. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 6.]

2003b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/30YearsPartTwoAnthroForums.html [The Anthropology Forum: 1973->2003, Part II. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 4, 2003.)

2003c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/30YearsOfAnthroForums.html [The Anthropology Forum: 1973->2003. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, May 15, 2003.)

2002 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/aStoryof2027.html [A "Story" (Vision of Nightmare?) of the Region in 2027.]

1993 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html [Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 30.]

1977 Evolution of Technological Civilizations: What is Evolution,Technology, and Civilization? (For the Symposium on "The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence at NASA/Ames Research Center Moffett Field, California, February 24-25.)

SOME 2004/2005 VISUALS

FIGURE I: 23 December 2004 -> 2 January 2005
FIGURE II: 2 January 2005 -> 12 January 2005

FIGURE III: 29 May 2005 -> 24 June 2005

SOME 2004/2005 VISUALS:


View out to sea; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
Fa'a'a International Airport, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].


Highway Sign into Pape'ete; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
Pomare Boulevard Traffic, Pape'ete; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

Pape'ete Market; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
Inside the Pape'ete Market; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

Le Truck, Pape'ete, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
The French Polynesia Assembly Building, Pape'ete, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

Presidential Palace, Pape'ete, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

(1) [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on 5 May 2005, for a presentation (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on May 5, 2005. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

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5 May 2005 by cfu

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