10 January 2004 
[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TeachingAboutDarwinJan2004.html]
(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on
the WWW on January 9, 2004, for a workshop on January
10, 2004, sponsored by the Outreach Programs of the
California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) and held at
the Museum of Anthropology at California State University,
(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the WWW on January 9, 2004, for a workshop on January 10, 2004, sponsored by the Outreach Programs of the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) and held at the Museum of Anthropology at California State University, Chico.
ABSTRACT: Charles R. Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 and died on April 19, 1882. While primarily famous for his epoch-making 1859 publication entitled On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life Darwin is also noted for his 1871 publication entitled the The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex. [2nd edition of 1882].
This paper attempts to deal with the the phrase that "Human evolution is the most passionate aspect of the evolution-creation debate [stress added]." Larry A. Whitham, 2002, Where Darwin Meets the Bible: Creationists And Evolutionists In America (Oxford University Press), page 242. Darwin sailed from England on HMS Beagle on December 27, 1831 and after research in South America, the HMS Beagle entered the Pacific Ocean on June 11, 1834. Darwin reached the Galápagos Islands on September 15, 1835. After that, HMS Beagle continued around the globe, arriving back in England on October 2, 1836. Darwin never left England again but continued his research, married and raised a family, and published numerous volumes which have implications today. The year 2009 will be important for educators, since the ideas of Darwin will not go away, and 2009 will be the bicentennial of Darwin's birth and the sequicentennial of the publication of Origin. The paper also discusses four "Darwin Videos" available at http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/darwinvideo.htm.
[Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, Natural History Museum, London (1999).
ABSTRACT [see above]
BACKGROUND & VIDEOS: BASIC HUMANITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL
THE CONTEXT OF THE VIDEOS: CONTENT, CONDUIT, CONSUMER, AND COORDINATION!
EDUCATION, HMS BEAGLE, AND THE GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS
DARWIN AND ORIGIN (1859+)
DARWIN AND THE DESCENT OF MAN (1871) AND EXPRESSIONS (1872)
PROBLEMS IN NOT KNOWING ABOUT EVOLUTION TODAY AND "INTELLIGENT DESIGN"
REFERENCES (IN ADDITION TO THE ONES MENTIONED IN THE TEXT)
JANUARY 2004 POSTSCRIPT: SEARCH ENGINE REFERENCES
A FEW VISUALS
BACKGROUND & VIDEOS: BASIC HUMANITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL
"Yoo-hoo! It's the 2st century. But still the battle rages on in the classrooms of America and on the back bumpers of cars. It's the creationists versus the evolutionists, the fish with no feet versus fish with feet." Susan Faust, 2003, Darwin's origins, awesome creation. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 28, 2003, page M6.
Thus does Susan Faust begin her marvelous review of The Tree of Life: Charles Darwin: Naturalist, Geologist and Thinker (2003) by Peter Sis. It is the 21st century, yet the battle rages on! And why? Because individuals do not know enough about evolution, do not know enough about the research of Charles Darwin, and do not know enough about Charles Darwin! In this brief paper, I bring to my interpretation of Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) a passionate attempt to humanize the man. This web page documents some of the information I believe to be important if one wishes to "Teach About Darwin." I have also provided numerous print and non-print references, including links to my portrayal of Charles Darwin in the first person, available at http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/darwinvideo.htm. The idea of appearing as Darwin, in costume (and shaved head) is not a new one: Zoology Professor Richard Eakin (1910-1999), University of California (Berkeley), portrayed a variety of individuals, including William Harvey (1578-1657), Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), and Charles Darwin, to inspire students about science (R.M. Eakin, 1975, Great Scientists Speak Again). My interest in portraying Darwin in the first person in clearly inspired by the following: "Human evolution is the most passionate aspect of the evolution-creation debate [stress added]." Larry A. Whitham, 2002, Where Darwin Meets the Bible: Creationists And Evolutionists In America (Oxford University Press), page 242.
The 1973 Nobel Prize Winner Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) wrote: "I believe that even today we do not quite realize how much Charles Darwin knew [stress added]" (Konrad Lorenz, 1965, "Preface" in The Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals by Charles Darwin, 1872 [1965 University of Chicago Press edition], pages ix-xiii, pages xi-xiii) and I believe this to be perfectly true to this date and into the future. The year 2009 will be extremely important for educators, since the ideas of Darwin will not go away, and 2009 will be the bicentennial of Darwin's birth and the sequicentennial of the publication of Origin. It is important not only to understand the context of the times when Darwin did his research and published his works but his personality is also important for an understanding of his impact to date:
"Darwin was famous for his modesty and his ability to remain aloof from the condemnations and eulogies that poured in upon him for twenty-two years, yet his personal writings reveal an amazing self-concern, expressed with wonderful naiveté and candor. His fiancée considered him '...the most open transparent man I ever saw....'" Abram Kardiner and Edward Preble, 1961, They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Books), page 15.
Darwin was interested in the human condition and after his 1831-1836 trip around the world on HMS Beagle, he returned to England and in 1839 he married his cousin, Miss Emma Wedgwood (1808-1896). Emma Wedgewood was a very religious woman, one who attended church on a regular basis and she was greatly concerned about her husband's research. One of their daughters wrote that in Emma's youth "religion must have largely filled her life, and there is evidence in the papers she left that it distressed her in her early married life to know" that Charles Darwin did not share her faith (Nora Barlow, 1958, Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882, page 239). Emma Darwin expressed her concerns to her husband and in a letter she sent him shortly after they were married in 1839 she wrote that "everything that concerns you concerns me and I should be most unhappy if I thought we did not belong to each other forever." It was a known fact that Darwin was deeply moved by this and Emma found her letter to him among his notes after he died in 1892 and she read his following words: "When I am dead, know that many times, I have kissed and cryed over this" (Nora Barlow, 1958, Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882, page 237). Charles Darwin wrote a note to himself, wherein he carefully weighed the pro's & cons of marriage and he ended the note with the following: "Marry - Marry - Marry Q.E.D." The words that Charles Darwin wrote to Emma in a letter nine days before they were married in 1839 held true for all of their years: "I think you will humanize me, and soon teach me there is greater happiness than building theories and accumulating facts in silence and solitude [stress added]." Charles Darwin to Emma Wedgwood, dated Jan 20th 1839 (Francis Darwin, Editor, 1903, More Letters of Charles Darwin: A Record of His Work In A Series of Hitherto Unpublished Letters, page 29.) There were family and societal problems for Charles Darwin, but he accepted (and overcame) them.
Darwin was a prolific researcher and writer and it has been estimated that in his lifetime he published some "seven thousand pages, about three million words" (John Bowlby, 1990, Charles Darwin: A New Life, page 5). In questioning, reading, studying, and thinking about Darwin's numerous works and attempting to understand his ideas, please consider the following 20th century words (which most adequately summarize Darwin's 19th century ideas):
"All the theory of natural selection says is the following. If within a species there is variation among individuals in their hereditary traits, and some traits are more conducive to survival and reproduction than others, than those traits will (obviously) become more widespread within the population. The result (obviously) is that the species' aggregate pool of hereditary traits changes. And there you have it [stress added]." Robert Wright, 1994, The Moral Animal (NY: Pantheon Books), page 23.
THE CONTEXT OF THE VIDEOS: CONTENT, CONDUIT, CONSUMER, AND COORDINATION!
"The rationale of collaborative research is the synergism of two or more minds working towards the solution of the same problem (two or more people working together can accomplish more than the sum of what would have been possible if those same people had been working on their own)." Sir Peter Medawar, 1986, Memoir of a Thinking Radish (Oxford University Press), page 107.
Before reading about further information on Darwin, some comments must be made on the "teamwork" effort which allowed the videos to be created. The videotaping of "Urbanowicz as Darwin" took place over a four day period in April 1996 in Studio "A" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico, but prior to that, Ms. Donna Crowe (Instructional Media Center at CSU, Chico) did extensive research and wrote the script for the videotaping. After videotaping was completed, Donna coordinated and edited the creation and quest for graphics to add to the four videotapes and my interpretation of Charles Darwin was only possible because of a tremendous teamwork approach, spearheaded by Donna, who was the writer, producer, and co-director of the production. The other Co-Director was Mr. Clark Brandstatt (also of IMC). The narrator was Dr. Lynn Elliot (Department of English, CSU, Chico) and additional voices were provided by the following individuals: Alicia Croyle, Kris Frost, Brantly Payne, Michelle L. Smith, Alice Burkart-Roberts, Nanette Quintero, Jeff Hoheimer, Michael D. Jordan, Ryan Palmer, Karen Adelman, Steve Herman, Clark Brandstatt, and Terry Nolan. Camera operators were Kathleen Myers, Tony Bergman, and Karen Adelman. Costume and make-up were provided by Ms. Martha Acuña (now retired, from the Department of Theatre Arts, CSU, Chico). The teleprompter was handled by Karen Adelman and run-through readers were Marilyn Cervantes and C. Louis Nevins (both of IMC). Computer Graphics were created by H. Chris Ficken, Randy Wall, Derek Krauss, and Rachel Jupin (all of IMC). My appreciation and special thanks are also given to Dr. Randy Wonzong and Professor Marty Gilbert (Theatre Arts Department, CSU, Chico).
The content was Darwin and the conduit to deliver the information was a multimedia production. The eventual consumer was thought to be any individual (singly or in a classroom situation) who would have an interest in Darwin: this interest could be in anthropology, biology, history, or a host of other disciplines that have been influenced by the ideas put forward by Darwin. With all of this in mind, there is obviously the need for coordination! And Donna Crowe was the masterful coordinator of completing the production! Without coordination one inevitably has a fifth "C" and that is CHAOS! Below you have a brief diagram which may be useful in numerous teaching situations.
FIGURE #1: 4 C Paradigm.
EDUCATION, HMS BEAGLE, AND THE GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS
"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success." Peter Brent 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.
Charles R. Darwin definitely proved many individuals wrong, and nothing is as clear as his monumental 1859 publication (and subsequent editions of 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872): On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition]; Darwin himself was to write in his Autobiography that the Origin "is no doubt the chief work of my life [stress added]" (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882: With Original Omissions Restored Edited With An Appendix And Notes By His Grand-Daughter, page 122). A succinct statement on Charles Darwin is the following following:
"He was an Englishman who went on a five-year voyage when he was young and then retired to a house in the country, not far from London [sixteen miles southeast of London]. He wrote an account of his voyage, and then he wrote a book setting down his theory of evolution, based on a process he called natural selection, a theory that provided the foundation for modern biology. He was often ill and never left England again." John P. Wiley, Jr., 1998, Expressions: The Visible Link. Smithsonian, June, pages 22-24, page 22.
Charles Darwin's first college experience was in Scotland. The contemporary United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consists of the Principality of Wales and the Kingdom of Scotland. In 1603 the Scottish King James VI (1566-1625) succeeded to the English Crown after the death of Elizabeth I (1533-1603) and in 1707 Scotland officially became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In the early 19th century, when Dr. Robert Darwin (1768-1844) was considering a college for his son Charles, Edinburgh was the natural choice: Robert Darwin had attended Edinburgh as well as his father, the distinguished Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802):
"The Doctor had decided on Edinburgh University for Charles, the 'Northern Athens.' It was the family tradition. He would be a third-generation Darwin to study medicine here, following his father and grandfather. ... Edinburgh was better equipped, better staffed, and offered better hospital facilities than the cloistered English universities. It turned out not only better-educated MDs than Oxford and Cambridge, but vastly more of them." Adrian Desmond & James Moore, 1991, Darwin (NY: Warner Books), pages 21-22.
As the capital and largest city of Scotland, Edinburgh was the center of what has been termed the "Scottish Enlightenment" and Scottish education was outstanding: "Scotsmen boasted of their superiority in this respect" (John W. Derry, 1963, A Short History of Nineteenth-Century England [NY: Mentor], page 67). Charles Darwin, however, was not to go into medicine so he switched to Cambridge, and considered becoming a clergyman! Incidentally, it is with hindsight we praise Charles Darwin; consider the fact, however, that his father became frustrated with him, stating on one occasion that "You care for nothing but shooting, dogs and rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and your family [stress added]." (Julian Huxley and H.B.D. Kettlewell, 1965, Charles Darwin And His World, page 16). Charles Darwin himself was not enamoured of formal education, as Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) once wrote:
"Nevertheless, Darwin found on board the 'Beagle' that which neither the pedagogues of Shrewsbury, nor the professoriate of Edinburgh, nor the tutors of Cambridge had managed to give him. 'I have always felt that I owe to the voyage the first real training or education of my mind (I. p. 61 [Life And Letters];' and in a letter written as he was leaving England, he calls the voyage on which he was just starting, with just insight, his 'second life.' (I.p.214) Happily for Darwin's education, the school time of the 'Beagle' lasted five years instead of two; and the countries which the ship visited were singularly well fitted to provide him with object-lessons, on the nature of things, of the greatest value [stress added]." Thomas Henry Huxley, 1881, Obituary. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. 44; reprinted in Thomas H. Huxley, 1896, Darwiniana Essays [1970: New York AMS Reprint], pages 253-302, pages 270-271.
Earlier in the same volume Huxley wrote the following about the young Darwin and his college days:
"No doubt Darwin picked up a great deal of valuable knowledge during his two years' residence in Scotland; but it is equally clear that next to none of it came through the regular channels of academic education. Indeed, the influence of the Edinburgh professoriate appears to have been mainly negative, and in some cases deterrent; creating in his mind, not only a very low esteem of the value of lectures, but an antipathy to the subjects which had been the occasion of the boredom inflicted upon him by their instrumentality [stress added]." Thomas Henry Huxley, 1881, Obituary. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. 44; reprinted in Thomas H. Huxley, 1896, Darwiniana Essays [1970: New York AMS Reprint], pages 253-302, page 260.
The HMS Beagle, built by the Royal Navy in 1820, was a ten-cannon brig. It was a modest ship, measuring some 90 feet in length and with a crew of only 73 men, Commanded by Captain Robert Fitzroy (1805-1865). The HMS Beagle set sail from England on December 27, 1831 and Darwin was aboard as the unpaid naturalist. Incidentally, Darwin was not the first to be invited to join the HMS Beagle expedition. When he eventually met Captain FitzRoy, Fitzroy did not like the shape of Darwin's nose! As the delightful 1982 Darwin for Beginners, by Jonathan Miller & Borin Van Loon states it:
"On the 5th of September , Darwin was interviewed by Captain FitzRoy of HMS Beagle. At this point, the whole project nearly came to grief. FitzRoy, a devotee of the fashionable Science of Physiognomy, took exception to the shape of Darwin's nose, thinking that it betrayed signs of laziness and hesitancy. For some reason, FitzRoy overcame his scruples and Darwin was signed on." Jonathan Miller & Borin Van Loon, 1982, Darwin for Beginners (NY: Pantheon Books), page 64.
Incidentally, one must wonder how many individuals this month are aware of the significance of the (apparently) ill-fated Beagle 2 which was sent on a exploration visit to Mars:
"The Beagle 2 is named after the ship on which British naturalist Charles Darwin sailed on the voyage to the Galapagos Islands in the 1830s that inspired his evolutionary ideas and the book that shook the world, The Origin of Species. The new Beagle's mission is equally as ambitious: to search for life, present or past." [http://planetary.org/html/news/articlearchive/headlines/2003/mex_invades_mars.html} The Planetary Society, 25 December 2003]
Returning back to the 19th century, however, Darwin realized that he was not the first choice, for he wrote to his father as follows: "...they must have offered to many others before me the place of Naturalist." Charles Darwin to Dr. Robert Darwin, August 31, 1831. Nora Barlow, 1967, Darwin and Henslow: The Growth of An Idea - Letters 1831-1860 edited by Nora Barlow. (Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press), pages 34-35. Nevertheless, Charles Darwin did join HMS Beagle and the rest is history!
After years of research in South America the tiny ship finally arrived at the Galápagos Islands (some 600 miles west of the South American nation of Ecuador) on the15th of September 1835. They cruised though the islands for a little more than a month and Darwin was eventually to write that "nothing could be less inviting than the first appearance" of these islands. Galápagos means "tortoise" in Spanish and there are more than two dozen islands in the entire cluster, with their combined land mass being approximately 2,800 square miles. The islands themselves are approximately 175 miles across and there are six major islands, with the largest one (Albemarle) some sixty miles in length. As a point of comparison, Butte County is some 1,646 square miles in area Tehama County, to the north is similar in size to the Galápagos (2,953 square miles) as is Santa Barbara County (2,748 square miles) in the southern part of this state. Perhaps one of the most vivid description of the islands comes from the American Author Herman Melville (1819-1891), who stopped in the Galápagos on the whaler Acushnet, shortly after the visit of the HMS Beagle. Melville wrote:
"Take five-and-twenty heaps of cinders dumped here and there in an outside city lot--imagine some of them magnified into mountains, and the vacant lot the sea; and you will have a fit idea of the general aspect of the Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles. A group of rather extinct volcanoes than of isles; looking much as the world at large might, after a penal conflagration." Nigel Calder, 1973, The Life Game: Evolution And The New Biology, page 44.
Darwin and the crew gathered specimens of all sorts, including tortoises that weighed up to 500 pounds, iguanas that abounded on all of the islands, and a variety of small finch. Even though Charles R. Darwin was an exceptional naturalist at this point in time, it is quite clear that the facts of nature "do not speak for themselves" since someone has to do the interpreting. In a 1973 publication, Sir Nigel Calder wrote of an 1835 meeting that Darwin had in the Galápagos Islands with Mr. Lawson, the Englishman who was the Vice-Governor of the islands:
"When the Vice-Governor remarked that he could tell from which island any tortoise had been brought, Darwin pricked up his ears. he had been carelessly mixing up his specimens from different islands, never dreaming that the islands would have been 'differently tenanted'; he quickly mended his way [Calder continued]. He examined the mockingbirds collected by himself and his shipmates, and found to his astonishment that all the birds from one island belonged to one species and all from another to a different species. But he had hopelessly muddled most of his specimens of the finches that were to make the Galapagos and himself jointly famous [stress added].
Please re-read that part of the phrase: "BUT HE HAD HOPELESSLY MUDDLED MOST OF HIS SPECIMENS OF THE FINCHES THAT WERE TO MAKE THE GALAPAGOS AND HIMSELF JOINTLY FAMOUS." What a mess, but who would have thought about the impact of the finches? Calder continued:
"Who can blame him? They are small birds, the males being black and the females brown. When you glimpse them flitting among the thirsty trees of the Galapagos it is hard to acknowledge the impact such modest birds had on the human mind and its religious beliefs." Nigel Calder, 1973, The Life Game: Evolution And The New Biology, pages 45-46.
HMS Beagle departed the Galápagos Islands headed across the Pacific Ocean to return to England. Back in England the "mixed-up finches" were delivered to John Gould (1804-1881). Gould was an ornithologist who confirmed the "perfect gradation in the size of the beaks in the different species." There were some finches with massive beaks, like nutcrackers, while there were other finches with beaks so delicate that they could be used as tweezers. There were also numerous beaks which Gould would classify as being intermediate. Darwin wrote in the first published account on the voyage of the HMS Beagle in 1839:
"Seeing this gradation and diversity of structure in one small intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends." Chapter 17: The Galapagos Archipelago. Charles Darwin: The Voyage of The Beagle. Walter Sullivan [Introduction to edition] (NY: Bantam Books), page 328.
Towards the end of the voyage of the HMS Beagle, even while Darwin was still at sea, he began to question the fixity of species that was then prevalent in biological thought and he wrote:
"When I recollect the fact, that from the form of the body, shape of scale, and general size, the Spaniards can at once pronounce from which Island any tortoise may have been brought; when I see these Islands in sight of each other and possessed of but a scanty stock of animals, tenanted by these birds but slightly differing in structure and filling the same place in Nature, I must suspect they are only varieties. The only fact of a similar kind of which I am aware is the constant asserted difference between the wolf-like Fox of East and West Falkland Islands. If there is the slightest foundation for these remarks, the Zoology of Archipelagoes will be well worth examining; for such facts would undermine the stability of species [stress added]. Gavin De Beer, 1964, Charles Darwin: Evolution By Natural Selection, page 82.
The non-fixity of species and different tenanted islands continued to nag Darwin and within two years of his return to England in 1836, he began to take detailed and copious notes on the transmutation of species. Dov Ospovat stated it succinctly in 1981:
"When he left England on H.M.S. Beagle in 1831, Darwin believed, with most of his contemporaries, that each species has been independently created with characteristics that suit it admirably for the conditions under which it was destined to live. By the spring of 1837 he was a transmutationist, believing that each species has descended from some other previously existing species and that its characteristics have been determined largely by heredity [stress added]." Dov Ospovat, 1981,The Development Of Darwin's Theory: Natural History, Natural Theology, And Natural Selection, 1838-1859, page 6.
It should also be pointed out (as John Kricher did in 2002) that the islands did not suddenly solidify everything for the young Charles Darwin:
"Remarkably, however, Darwin wrote nothing in On the Origin of Species about the Galápagos finches, the very group that supposedly supplied the 'smoking gun' as evidence to bolster his case for evoluion. Instead, he referred to the mockingbirds, which he called mocking-thrushes: 'In the Galápagos Archipelago, many even of the birds, though so well adapted for flying from island to island are distinct on each; thus there are three closely-allied species of mocking thrush, each confined to its own island.' It would seem that by that point he had at least set the stage for a finch discussion, but Darwin asserted nothing. What a surprise, given the superb model of evolution that the Galápagos finches seemingly represent. Rather than being the very keystone example of evolution, rather than being prominently discussed throughout On The Origin of Species, they are most conspicuous by their absence. And that's not all that is missing. There is no discussion of the giant torroises, even though while on the islands Darwin became aware of how these large reptiles varied from one island to another. If the Galápagos, as is often stated in the popular literature, are a 'laboratory of evolution,' then why did Charles Darwin make so little use of the data from that laboratory when he assembled his case? What, exactly, was Charles Darwin's intellectual relationship with the Galápagos Islands? How much of the story of Darwin's conversion to evolution can be attributed to his experiences on the islands? Myths are part of our culture, and Darwin has certainly become part of a commonly promulgated myth [stress added]." John Kricher, 2002 in Galápagos (Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution), page 41.
But his research through the islands did get him thinking for he wrote the following in his 1839 Voyage of the Beagle publication:
"The natural history of these islands is eminently curious, and well deserves attention. Most of the organic productions are aboriginal creations, found nowhere else; there is even a difference between the inhabitants of the different islands; yet all show a marked relationship with those of America, though separated from that continent by an open space of ocean, between 500 and 600 miles in width. The archipelago is a little world within itself, or rather a satellite attached to America, whence it has derived a few stray colonists, and has received the general character of its indigenous productions. Considering the small size of the islands, we feel the more astonished at the number of their aboriginal beings, and at their confined range. Seeing every height crowned with its crater, and the boundaries of most of the lava-streams still distinct, we are led to believe that within a period geologically recent, the unbroken ocean was here spread out. Hence, both in space and time, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that great fact--that mystery of mysteries-- first appearance of new beings on this earth [stress added]. Chapter 17: The Galapagos Archipelago. Charles Darwin: The Voyage of The Beagle. Walter Sullivan [Introduction to edition] (NY: Bantam Books), page 326.
Incidentally, research in the Galápagos continues to this day and please consider the work of the Peter and Rosemary Grant, from Princeton University:
"The Galapagos Island finches once studied by Charles Darwin respond quickly to changes in food supply by evolving new beaks and body sizes, according to researchers who studied the birds for almost 30 years. Starting in 1973, husband-and-wife researchers Peter and Rosemary grant of Princeton University have followed the evolutionary changes in two types of birds, the ground finch and the cactus finch, on Daphne Major, one of the Galapagos islands. In a study appearing today in the Journal Science, the Grants report that climate and weather have a dramatic effect on the evolutionary path the finches follow. Ground finches most eat small seeds, and their beaks have adapted to that purpose. When the weather turned dry in 1977, most of the plants that produce small seeds on Daphne Major were killed, leaving little food for finches with modest beaks. Most died off, but some ground finches with bigger, stronger beaks survived [stress added]." Anon., 2002, Finches Shown To Be Able to Change. The Chico Enterprise-Record, April 26, 2002, page 11A.
DARWIN AND ORIGIN (1859+)
"The first fossils recognized as Neandertals were found in August 1856. Two quarrymen were shoveling debris from a limestone cave near Dusseldorf, Germany.... The quarrymen were digging in a cave in the Neander Valley. (In the nineteenth century, the German word for valley was thal, but the spelling was changed to tal at the beginning of the twentieth century, since German does not have a th sound.) The valley was named after a seventeenth-century composer and poet named Joachim Neumann (Newman in English), who signed his compositions with the Greek version of his name, Neander. Thus the irony of Neandertal man's literal translation: 'man of the valley of the new man.' The timing of the discovery could not have been better. Three years later Charles Darwin [1809-1882], in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, broached the unthinkable [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), pages 76-77.
When what is commonly called Origin was published in 1859, it was an immediate (and controversial) success. In attempting to understand Darwin, and the impact of his ideas through time, the following information should be of interest: every edition of Origin published in Charles R. Darwin's lifetime is different! He re-wrote every-single-version of Origin and all are different! The reason it is important to point out the various editions of Origin is demonstrated by the following chart, based on information in the excellent 1959 publication of Morse Peckham [Editor] entitledThe Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text). The concept of change is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself or reading about him and I include the following tabular information on Darwin's Origin in virtually everything I present or write:
If one is reluctant to read ALL of Darwin's Origin as indicated, there is a delightful book by Maurice Sagoff (1970) which is called to your attention: Shrinklits: Seventy of the World's Towering Classics Cut Down To Size (New York: Workman Publishing) wherein the following appears on page 99:
Out of this surge
'Throw the bum out!'
Is Nature's shout.
And 'Class will tell'
Sex-wise as well.
The age-old race
To win or place
(At least to show)
The way things look
None Dares make book."
Incidentally, Charles R. Darwin took great care not to write about Homo sapiens in Origin in 1859 and all he had to say about "man" was the following:
"In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. [Chapter XV: "Recapitulation And Conclusion"]
By the 6th edition of Origin in 1872, Darwin had re-written the above passage as the following:
"In the future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be securely based on the foundation already well laid by Mr. Herbert Spencer [1820-1903], that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Much light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. [Chapter XV: "Recapitulation And Conclusion"]
Even with this passing reference to "man" Darwin caused problems (and inspired individuals!).
"Although Darwin's Origin of Species, published in November 1859, had deliberately avoided speculation about humankind, the question of anthropogenesis was inevitably implicated in the emerging evolutionary debate, and during the next decade a number of influential texts were published on the issue of human origins and antiquity, most notably Thomas Henry Huxley's [1825-1895] Man's Place in Nature (1863), Lyell's [1797-1875] The Antiquity of Man (1863), and John Lubbock's [1834-1913] Pre-historic Times (1865), which covered the matter from the viewpoints of comparative anatomy (and paleontology), geology, and archaeology respectively.... [stress added]." Frank Spencer, 1988, Prologue to a Scientific Forgery. In} Bones, Bodies, Behavior [Edited by George W. Stocking, Jr.] (University of Wisconsin Press), pages 84-116, page 88.
Charles R. Darwin did not reject all religious beliefs and did not deny the existence of a supreme being. I not only study Darwin and portray Darwin, I believe that I think like him. In his 1876 Autobiography, Darwin wrote that at the time of Origin (1859) he could be viewed as a theist, or one who had the conviction of the existence of God. Ideas and perspectives change over time and in 1876 Darwin wrote
"When thus reflecting I feel compelled to look to a First Cause having an intelligent mind in some degree analogous to that of man; and I deserve to be called a Theist. I cannot pretend to throw the least light on such abstruse problems. The mystery of the beginning of all things is insoluble by us; and I for one must be content to remain an Agnostic [stress added]." Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882. With original omissions restored Edited with Appendix and Notes by his grand-daughter (NY: Norton 1969 paperback edition), pages 92-94.
Charles R. Darwin was not an atheist ("a person who denies or disbelieves the existence of God or Gods") but an agnostic, a word created in 1869 by his good friend and scientific associate, Thomas Henry Huxley. A contemporary dictionary definition of the term "agnostic" provides the following:
"1. a person who holds that the ultimate cause (God) and the essential nature of things are unknown and unknowable. 2. a person who denies or doubts the possibility of ultimate knowledge in some area of study. --adj. 3. of or pertaining to agnostics or agnosticism. 4. asserting the uncertainty of all claims to knowledge. [<Gk agnost(os) not known, incapable of being known...." Jess Stein, 1975, Editor-in-Chief, The Random House College Dictionary (NY: Random House), page 27.
Writing in 1889, Huxley had the following:
"...Agnosticism is not properly described as a 'negative' creed, nor, indeed, as a creed of any kind, except in so far as it expresses absolute faith in the validity of a principle, which is as much ethical as intellectual. This principle may be stated in various ways, but they all amount to this: that it is wrong for a man [or any individual!] to say that he is certain of the objective truth of any proposition unless he can produce evidence which logically justifies that certainty. This is what Agnosticism asserts; and, in my opinion, it is all that is essential to Agnosticism [stress added]." Thomas Henry Huxley, 1889, Agnosticism and Christianity. Reprinted in Alburey Castell, 1948, Selections from the Essays of T.H. Huxley (NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc.), page 92.
Moving into the 20th century, a celebrated individual associated with the "famous" Scopes Trial of 1925, wherein John T. Scopes (1900-1970) was accused of teaching "evolution" in the public schools of Tennessee, had the following to say:
"An agnostic is a doubter. The word is generally applied to those who doubt the verity of accepted religious creeds or faiths. Everyone is an agnostic as to the beliefs or creeds they do not accept. Catholics are agnostic to the Protestant creeds, and the Protestants are agnostic to the Catholic creed. Anyne who thinks is an agnostic about something, otherwise he [or she!] must believe that he is possessed of all knowledge. And the proper place for such a person is in the madhouse or the home for the feeble-minded. In a popular way, in the Western world, an agnostic is one who doubts or disbelieves the main tenets of the Christian faith [stress added]." Clarence Darrow [1857-1938], 1994, Why I Am an Agnostic and Other Essays (NY: Prometheus Books), page 11.
The Darrow-William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) confrontation was one of the most celebrated court cases concerning evolution and the schools, and although Scopes was convicted (and had was fined $100), the conviction was subsequently overturned in 1927...and court cases continue into the 21st century! (See http://www.ronaldbrucemeyer.com/rants/0721a-almanac.htm as well as http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/monkeytrial/peopleevents/p_scopes.html.]
DARWIN AND THE DESCENT OF MAN (1871) AND EXPRESSIONS (1872)
"Darwin considered his Origin of Species to be his life's work, but he continued to work on steadily for the remaining years. Emma did not like his Descent of Man, considering that it took Charles 'further from God'." Edna Healey, 1986, Wives Of Fame: Mary Livingstone, Jenny Marx, Emma Darwin (London: Sidgwick & Jackson), page 177.
Origin, Descent, and Expressions are three extremely interesting publications which all tie together: Origin deals with the struggle for life as it concerns living creatures (or biology), Descent dealt with humanity, and Expressions covered the influence of our primate heritage on present behaviors! As one has written:
"...much of the Descent of Man was taken up with evidence designed to convince the reader that the higher faculties were not unique to mankind. Darwin cited numerous examples of animal behaviour that seemed to indicate that dogs, apes and other higher animals possessed at least rudimentary lements of intelligence and even of the moral sense. ... it was important for Darwin to create the impression that all the human faculties had some origin in the lower animals. Mental evolution would thus consist of an increase in the level of these faculties, not the creation of something entirely new. Darwin devoted another book to making the opposite point that human behaviour shows many relics of our animal ancestry. His Expression of the Emotions in Man and the Animals was published one year later (1872) and was intended to demonstrate that our emotional behaviour follows patterns that are already visible in the lower animals. ... It was the Descent of Man, however, which tackled the critical problem of explaining how the human species had acquired mental powers that were, even by Darwin's admission, lifted far above the level enjoyed by our closest animal relatives [stress added]."Peter J. Bowler, 1990, Charles Darwin: The Man and His influence (Cambridge University Press), pages 186-187.
In 1871 in Descent Darwin postulated an African origin for mankind as follows:
"We are naturally led to enquire, where was the birthplace of man at that stage of descent when our progenitors diverged from the Catarhine stock. The fact that they belonged to this stock clearly shews that they inhabited the Old World; but not Australia nor any oceanic island, as we may infer from the laws of geographical distribution. In each great region of the world the living mammals are closely related to the extinct species of the same region. It is therefore probable that Africa was formerly inhabited by extinct apes closely allied to the gorilla and chimpanzee; and as these two species are now man's nearest allies, it is somewhat more probable that our early progenitors lived on the African continent than elsewhere [stress added]." Charles R. Darwin, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 6, page 199.
Please consider the following 21st century information pertaining to an African origin for human beings:
"Humanity's plot thickens. The 'Toumai' skull isn't much to look at: a nearly complete cranium, some jawbones and a few teeth. But scientists are calling him [or her!] the most important discovery since the first fossilized remains of human ancestors were found 75 years ago. Why? Because Toumai pushes back by a million years the date when humanity's family tree is believed to have sprouted. ... Who knows which theories will hold? The only thing Toumai's discovery proves beyond a doubt is that he's a tiny part of a still-mysterious story [stress added]." USAToday "Editorial" on July 12, 2002, Page 8A.
"At between 6 and 7 million years old, this skull is the earliest known record of the human family. Discovered in Chad in Central Africa, the new find, nicknamed 'Toumaï', comes from the crucial yet little-known interval when the human lineage was becoming distinct from that of chimpanzees. Because of this, the new find will galvanize the field of human origins like no other in living memory - perhaps not since 1925, when Raymond Dart described the first 'ape-man', Australopithecus africanus, transforming our ideas about human origins forever. A lifetime later, Toumaï raises the stakes once again and the consequences cannot yet be guessed. Dart's classic paper was published in Nature, as have most of the milestones in human origins and evolution. To celebrate the new find, we are proud to offer a selection of ten of the very best from Nature's archives, including Dart's classic paper [stress added]." FROM: http://www.nature.com/nature/ancestor/ and see http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?articleID=000B16B6-AA5E-1D2C-97CA809EC588EEDF [Scientific American July 11, 2002 and in http://www.sciam.com/, December 26, 2002]
In the 19th century Darwin realized there would be problems with some of his ideas and he wrote the following in 1871:
"Important as the struggle for existence has been and even still is, yet as far as the highest part of man's nature is concerned there are other agencies more important. For the moral qualities are advanced, either directly or indirectly, much more through the effects of habit, the reasoning powers, instruction, religion, &c., than through natural selection; though to this latter agency may be safely attributed the social instincts, which afforded the basis for the development of the moral sense, may be safely attributed. The main conclusion arrived at in this work, namely that man is descended from some lowly-organised form, will, I regret to think, be highly distasteful to many. But.... [stress added]."Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882), The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Part II, Chapter XXI, pages 403-404.
In the "Preface" to the 2nd edition of Descent published in 1875, he commented on "the fiery ordeal through which this book has passed." Even though the term "evolution" is associated with the name of Darwin, Darwin actually did not use the specific term "evolution" in the first edition of Origin as Freeman pointed out in 1965; Darwin actually used the term "evolution" in his The Descent of Man publication before he used it in Origin:
"The word evolution occurs for the first time in all of Darwin's works on page 2 of the first volume of the first edition [of The Descent of Man], that is to say before its appearance in the sixth edition of The Origin Of Species in the following year [stress added]." R. B. Freeman, 1965, The Works Of Charles Darwin: An Annotated Bibliographic Handlist, page 29.
Stephen J. Gould also pointed this out some 37 years later in his 2002 publication entitled I Have Landed: The End Of A Beginning In Natural History:
"But we should also note that Darwin himself never used the word 'evolution' in his epochal book of 1859, the Origin of Species, where he calls this fundamental biological process 'descent with modification.' ... Although the word evolution does not appear in the first edition of the Origin of Species, Darwin does use the verbal form 'evolved'--clearly in the vernacular sense and in an especially prominent spot: as the very last word of the book! Most students have failed to appreciate the incisive and intended 'gotcha' of these closing lines, which have generally been read as a poetic reverie, a harmless linguistic flourish essentially devoid of content, however rich in imagery. In fact, the canny Darwin used this maximally effective location to make a telling point about the absolute glory and comparative importance of natural history as a calling [stress added]." Stephen J. Gould, 2002, I Have Landed: The End Of A Beginning In Natural History (NY: Harmony Books), pages 242-243.
Gould was indeed himself a "canny" individual when it came to writing about Darwin, for whenever he wrote he avoided making reference to editions two through six of Origin and consistently cited the first edition where Darwin did not use the term Creator! Paraphrasing Gould, most students would fail to appreciate tis ommision unless they have read Darwin in the original or have read a great deal about Darwin! In a 1993 publication Gould saw fit to quote Darwin's Origin as follows:
"And I remembered that Charles Darwin had drawn the very same contrast in the final lines of the Origin of Species. When asking himself, in one climactic paragraph, to define the essence of the differences between life and the inanimate cosmos, Darwin chose the directional character of evolution vs. the cyclical repeatability of our clockwork solar system [and Gould then quotes the following from Darwin]: 'There is a grandeur in this view of life.... [these "...." are placed by Gould in his quote, which continues as follows] Whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.'" S. J. Gould, 1993, Eight Little Piggies: Reflections In Natural History, pp. 216-217.
Gould must have had a reason for not mentioning Darwin's reference to the "Creator" (remember, added by Darwin in the second edition of 1860), but it is not be obvious to the casual reader. One deduces that Gould is quoting from the 1st edition since Peckham's Variorum work points out that in the 1st edition Darwin had a comma between "being" and "evolved" and by the 6th edition of 1872 Darwin changed it to "being evolved" (M. Peckham, 1959, page 105). Indeed, in an essay of 1844, Darwin introduced the term "Creator" into his writing and Darwin wrote the following:
"My reasons have now been assigned for believing that specific forms are not immutable creations. ... It accords with what we know of the laws impressed by the Creator on matter that the production and extinction of forms should, like the birth and death of individuals, be the result of secondary means. It is derogatory that the Creator of countless Universes should have made by individuals His will the myriads of creeping parasites and worms, which since the earliest dawn of life have swarmed over the land and in the depths of the ocean [stress added]." Gavin De Beer, 1958, Evolution By Natural Selection: Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace (Cambridge University Press), pages 252-253; and see Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2002, There Is A Grandeur In This View Of Life. In Darwin Day Collection One: The Single Best Idea Ever (2002) Edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled Bank Press), pages 67-70, page 69.
This is why I honestly believe dates are important for an understanding of virtually everything: who influenced whom and when was it done! Darwin's 1871 publication of The Descent of Man, And Selection In Relation To Sex, was reissued in 1981, and the following 20th century words are well worth reading:
"Descent of Man addresses an extraordinary number of problems that are, at this moment , on the minds of many biologists, psychologists, anthropologists, sociologists, and philosophers. It is the genius of Darwin that his ideas, clothed as they are in unhurried Victorian prose, are almost as modern now as they were when they were first published. John Bonner and Robert May, "Preface" to the Princeton University Press Edition of 1981, page vii.
Darwin's 1872 The Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals was reissued in 1965 and some words from the "Preface" to that volume by the Nobel Prize Winner Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) are well worth considering. Lorenz was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1973 in the category of "Physiology or Medicine" and he had this to say about Charles R. Darwin:
"Like all really great scientific discoverers, Darwin possessed an almost uncanny ability to reason on the basis of hypotheses which were not only provisional and vague but also subconscious. He deduced correct consequences from facts more suspected than known, and verified both the theory and facts by the obvious truth of the conclusions reached. In other words, a man like Darwin knows much more than he thinks he knows, and it is not surprising that the consequences of his knowledge reach far and in different directions. ... The branch of behavior study commonly called ethology, which can be defined succinctly as the biology of behavior, has a special right to claim Charles Darwin as its patron saint. ...I believe that even today we do not quite realize how much Charles Darwin knew [stress added]. Konrad Lorenz, 1965, "Preface" in The Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals by Charles Darwin, 1872 [1965 University of Chicago Press edition], pages ix-xiii, pages xi-xiii.
PROBLEMS IN NOT KNOWING ABOUT EVOLUTION TODAY AND "INTELLIGENT DESIGN"
"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. If, now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment and the interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprising identity emerges: the unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" [italics in original; stress added]." Gregory Bateson [1904-1980], 1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), page 483.
Darwin did his work within the context of a certain physical and social environment and I write (and teach) within my own environment. Bateson's words are very powerful, for as thinking organisms we are part of the environment. Darwin taught us that and there are numerous contemporary problems which we face as a species if we do not understand the implications of evolutionary theory! Consider, if you will, the following information published on December 22, 2003, concerning the latest "influenza" epidemic which was in North America quite recently; and not the use of the term "pandemic" which appeared in several other newpaper articles in December 2003:
"After three of the mildest flu seasons in recent memory, Americans are enduring a major outbreak of influenza that has emptied classrooms and filled hospitals from California to New York. The difference, it appears, is a new strain of the flu virus, known in laboratory circles as A/Fujian/411/2002. In the Darwinian world of virus evolution, the Fujian A strain has out-competed its older cousin, a strain known as A/Panama/2007/99, which was responsible for the last few unremarkable flu seasons--and it's all due to a tiny change in a viral gene [namely evolution!] [stress added]." Sabin Russell, 2003, New flu strain could be harbinger of a pandemic. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 22, 2003, page A4.
Evolution has occurred, is occurring, and will continue to occur (until something becomes extinct) and what is the best way to avoid becoming extinct?
"What's the best way to keep from being eaten: Keep mustering new defenses, or create a single overwhelming one and warn potential attackers that they'll be sorry? Both approaches seem to work, according to new research. Some plants and beetles adapt to one another by evolving new attack and defense strategies, while poisonous frogs develop bright colors to warn predators that biting them can be a fatal error. ... The plants and beetles forced each other to continue adapting as they alternated strategies in a process call co-evolution. [Judith] Becerra said her study, by dating the ploy and counter ploy between specific species, provided the first direct evidence of synchronous changes [stress added]." Randolph H. Schmidt, Frogs have coats of many (quite poisonous) colors. The San Francisco Chronicle, October 9, 2003, page D8.
The ideas of Darwin have value today, if we understand such concepts like "evolution" and "natural selection" and the overall environment in which organisms live and breed and die! As other have written:
"The great value of Darwinism, it seems to me, was that it jolted modern men into questioning various sentimental beliefs about nature and man's place in it. In this, Darwin's influence closely parallels that of Galileo [1564-1642]. Just as the first modern astronomers and physicists destroyed a naive geocentrism, so Darwin and his successors overwhelmingly displaced what may be called homocentrism, the belief that nature exists for the sake of man [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 72.
"In the complex history of modern biology, only Darwin's theory of evolution has so shocked the mind as to raise serious questions about man's place in the universe. Darwin forced men to consider that they are animals, and that the designs of creation are played out on a much wider stage than was imagined. From the point of view of the theory of evolution, mankind is only one species among thousands which have their place within the field of organic life on earth. The fact that people took the theory of evolution as an enemy of religion only shows how rigidly they understood the idea of God [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 64.
Consider, if you will some of the following examples of "problems" when one does not accept evolutionary ideas:
"Evolution does not make predictions, species don't know where they're going, humans did not have to evolve. In fact, if we were to rewind the tape to ten million years ago, when apes dominated the primate world, there would be no assurance that humans would evolve again. But humans have evolved, we are here today. Like no other species that has ever lived, we control the life of all living things--including ourselves. When we understand and accept that we are part of the continuum of life, we will be in a better position to make informed choices--choices which will ensure a better world for all species. Extinction is forever. We must not let it happen. Education is the great liberator. It frees us to think objectively. My studies of human evolution have taught me to respect the natural world. They have also taught me that all humans have a common origin and, therefore, a common destiny--the outcome of which will be determined by humankind itself. We do have the capacity to make the future a long and fruitful one, if only we will take the time to learn who we are and how we fit into the natural world [stress added]. Donald C. Johanson, 1993, from the "Forward" to Ian Tattersall's 1993, The Human Odyssey: Four Million Years of Human Evolution (Prentice Hall), page xiii.
"Self-centered creatures that we are, we pay the greatest amount of attention to our own evolution. Like moneys, apes, lemurs, and tarsiers, we are primates. Our closest living relative is the chimpanzee. Humans and chimpanzees are genetically very close. They share about 98.5 percent of their DNA. But we are not, of course, descended from chimpanzees or from any other living ape. The human and ape lines diverged about five million years ago. In other words, humans and apes have a common ancestor, and both have been evolving for 5 million years since the split [stress added]." Richard Morris, 2001, The Evolutionists: The Struggle for Darwin's Soul (NY: W.H. Freeman and Co.), page 34.
"The serious outbreak of staphylococcus infections resistant to antibiotic treatment.... The more an antibiotic is used, the more quickly bacteria mutate and develop resistance to the antibiotic [EVOLUTION!]. This resistance crisis is growing because of the overuse of antibiotics both in human medicine (the largest single cause of antibiotic resisance) and in animal agriculture (a lesser known but significant cause as well) [stress added]. Stephan E. Follansbee, 2003, Weak Links in the Food Chain: Antibiotic alert. The San Francisco Chronicle, February 21, 2003, page A25.
"Doctors are giving fewer antibiotics to U.S. children than they did in the mid-1990s, a trend that may slow the increase in germs resistant to those drugs, according to an extensive study out today. This reversal of a 20-year rise in antibiotic prescriptions is good news to many public health experts, who have long considered many antibiotic prescriptions unnecessary. Health officials around the world have voiced concerns about increasing levels of antibiotic-resistant bacteria....." Marilyn Elias, 2003, Children Taking Fewer Antibiotics: Experts Hail Reversal of a 20-year trend, USA Today, September 2, 2003, page 1.
"Alarmed by the growing ability of disease-causing microbes to fight off once-effective drugs, the World Health Organization warned Monday that the medical and veterinary professions must use antibiotics and other medicines more wisely or face the likelihood they will not effectively combat disease in the future [stress added]." Marc Kaufman, 2000, World Health Organization Warns of Antibiotic Misuse. The Sacramento Bee, June 13, 2000, page A6.
"About 70% of the antibiotics produced in the USA each year - nearly 25 million pounds in all - are fed to healthy pigs, chickens and cattle to prevent disease or speed growth, says a report released Monday [January 8, 2001]. Such 'excessive' use of antibiotics in livestock is contributing ...[to] many of the microbes that plague humans....[stress added]." Anita Manning, 2001, Healthy Livestock Given More Antibiotics Than Ever. USA Today, January 9, 2001, page 8D
"Roughly 20 million pounds of antibiotics are given each year to U.S. cattle, pigs, and chickens [stress added]." Sirley Leung, 2003, McDonald's Wants Suppliers Of Meat to limit Antibiotic Use. The Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2003, page B2.
"McDonald's Corp. said Thursday [June 19, 2003] it is directing its meat suppliers worldwide to phase out the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in animals because of concerns that the practice lessens the drugs' effectiveness in humans. ... Doctors are increasingly confronting germs that have become antibiotic-resistant. Many scientists believe that the overuse of antibiotics in humans and livestock is causing many drugs to lose their efffectiveness by speeding up [EVOLUTION!!] the rate at which bacteria become resistant [NATURAL SELECTION!!] [stress added]." Anon. 2003, Consumer demand leads McDonald's to cut antibiotics in meat. The Chico Enterprise-Record, June 20, 2003, page 5A.
"McDonald's said it was making the change because of growing evidence that the use of antibiotics in farm animals was creating antibiotic resistance in animals and in the bacteria that cause diseases in humans [stress added]." David Barboza with Sherri Day, 2003, McDonald's Asking Meat industry to Cut Use of Antibiotics. The New York Times, June 20, 2003, Page A1 + C2, page A1.
"In a frustrating development in the medical fight against drug-resistant bacteria, scientists report that the first entirely new type of antibiotic [Zyvox] in 35 years has been beaten by a super-germ little more than a year after the drug was introduced. Researchers at Harvard Medical School describe in the Lancet medical journal this week...." Associated Press, The San Francisco Chronicle, July 20, 2001, page A3.
"A hidden epidemic of life-threatening infections in America's hospitals is needlessly killing tens of thousands of patients each year. These infections are often characterized by the health-care industry as random and inevitable byproducts of lifesaving care. But a [Chicago] Tribune investigation found that in 2000, nearly three-quarters of the deadly infections--or about 75,000--were preventable, the result of unsanitary facilities, germ-laden instruments and unwashed hands. ... Deaths linked to hospital germs now represent the fourth-leading cause of mortality among Americans, behind heart disease, cancer and strokes, according to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ... Even a term adopted by the CDC -- nosocomial infection -- obscures the true source of the germs. Nosocomial is Latin for 'hospital.' CDC records show that the term was used to shield hospitals from the 'embarrassment' of germ-related deaths and injuries [stress added]." Michael Berens, 2002, Death by Hospital infection. The Sacramento Bee, July 21, 2002, page 1 and A20.
"Infections caused by germs that resist treatment with antibiotics kill more than 14,000 Americans each year [Urbanowicz Adds} approximately 38 people a day!], says a coalition of federal and private groups that met Tuesday [April 15, 2001] in Washington, D.C., to launch an education campaign called Save Antibiotic Strength. Pilot programs will begin in San Diego, Norfolk, Va., and the state of Connecticut to raise awareness of the dangers of overprescription and misuse of antibiotics, which can lead to drug resistance [Urbanowicz adds} as a result of "evolution"]. 'It is estimated that 50 million antibiotic prescriptions for illnesses such as cold or flu are given each year [or ~136,986/day!], and are of no benefit in treating such conditions,' says Richard Roberts, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians [stress added]." Michelle Healy, 2001, A Better Life. USA Today, April 18, 2001, page 6D.
"What makes the situation so desperate, experts agree, is that new and more effective drugs are not, in themselves, enough. As Richard Colonno, vice president for infectious disease at Bristol-Myers Squibb, sees it, what new drugs do is reset a pathogen's biological clock. They buy time, but eventually resistance to these compounds will also arise. Why? In a word, evolution [stress added]." J. Madeline Nash, 2001, The Antibiotic Crisis. Time, January 15, 2001, No Page Number.
"To stop an infection, most doctors automatically reach for an antibiotic, the most effective way known to kill off infectious germs. But antibiotics are the nuclear weapons of medicine--they often also wipe out helpful bacteria and forster the growth of drug-resistant germ strains [stress added]." David P. Hamilton, 2002, Toothless Germs Can't Bite. The Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2002, page D8.
"One Scary Bug: A New Virus from Asia raises a host of unnerving questions." ... "And as nature constantly reshuffles the genes in her microbial repertoire, new diseases or variations of old ones keep appearing in new places at an alarming rate. The 'Nipah' virus jumped from pigs to humans in Malaysia in 1998, for instance, killing 105 people before being stamped out. West Nile virus swepat across the U.S. last year, killing 277 people. 'It is the nature of these organisms to change [EVOLUTION!] in order to survive,' explains Dr. John B. Bruss, Pharmacia Corp's clinical director for infectious disease research in Kalamazoo, mich. 'As they change [or EVOLVE!], they can become more pathogenic to humans.' And a global urbanization and travel continue to increase, 'this type of worldwide outbreak will be more prevalent,' says Dr. Neil O. Fishman, director of health-care epidemiology and infection control and the university of Pennsylvania Medical Center [stress added]." John Carey et. al, 2003, One Scary Bug: A New Virus from Asia raises a host of unnerving questions. Business Week, April 14, 2003, pages 56-57, page 56.
"In terms of sheer numbers, the SARS epidemic so far pales in comparison to other worldwide epidemics. The Spanish flu of 1918-1919 killed roughly 30 million people, including about 675,000 Americans. Over the past 20 years, the slow-motion funeral march of AIDS has carried off 20 million people; 40 million more are poised to die in the next decade [stress added]." Steve Sternberg, 2003, World health experts treat SARS as if it's the Big One. USA Today, April 24, 2003, pages 1-2, page 2.
In addition to all of the above, one then has the latest in the anti-evolutionary ideas (it is no longer being called "scientific creationism" but "intelligent design"):
"A parent's request that Roseville high schools teach ideas that rebut Darwin's theory of evolution could set the stage for debate over what critics call the newest version of creationism. When Roseville Joint Union High School District trustees took the first step toward approving a new biology textbook earlier this month, parent Larry Caldwell asked that supplementary materials be taught in conjunction with the text, which, like most biology books, presents the theory of evolution to explain the origins of life. ... Caldwell said he would like to work with district officials in gathering educational materials that present a theory called 'intelligent design.' ... Intelligent design proponents say natural selection doesn't adequately explain the complexity of the universe. Instead, they say, life is the product of a directed process with intention [stress added]." Laurel Rosen, 2003, Darwin faces a new rival. The Sacramento Bee, June 22, 2003, page B1 + B3.
October 27,2003} "Should evolution be taught in high school science classes? RICHARD ANDERSON Editor's note: Ted Dickason, a candidate for Modesto City Schools board of trustees, has stated that he believes evolution and creationism should be taught side by side in high school science classes. This position has generated substantial debate in the community, including this article opposing the teaching of creationism in schools and the two letters to the editor to the right supporting creationism and/or Dickason.At the recent League of Women Voters' forum for the Modesto City Schools board, a candidate advocated teaching intelligent design (ID) in science classes. Intelligent design is the belief that life is too complex to have developed without an intelligent designer.While this claim may be true, it is a religious or philosophical belief because it invokes causes not investigable by science. Any voter wanting to avoid imposing more economic hardship on the Modesto City Schools should avoid candidates espousing ID in science classes. The California Science Content Standards (http://www.cde.ca.gov/standards/science/biology.html) make it clear that evolution is to be taught in ninth through 12th grades, but not creationism. Any California school board that recommends teaching creationism in science classes invites lawsuits by concerned parents and science education groups. Why can't we balance science classes by teaching intelligent design and evolution 'side by side,' as one candidate suggested? When U.S. school boards have tried to teach scientific creationism, courts have struck them down.For example, in the 1987 Edwards vs. Aguillard case, the U.S. Supreme Court found it illegal for Louisiana to require equal time for creationism whenever evolution is taught in science classrooms. For more cases, see 'Eight Significant Court Decisions' at http://www.ncseweb.org/article.asp The problem is that biblical creationism is not science, no matter what it is called. Furthermore, it is not the only nonscientific alternative to evolution. For true balance, one would need to give equal time to the Mewuk story of how Coyote created man, plus more than a hundred other creation stories. (See, for example, Raymond Van Over, 'Sun Songs: Creation Myths From Around the World.') These stories are delicious reading, but they must compete for time in social studies classes, not science classes. Most mainstream American churches are not threatened by the concepts of biological evolution. M. Matsumura's 'Voices for Evolution' has reprinted excerpts from Jewish, Episcopal, Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Unitarian, Methodist and Presbyterian official documents that view evolution as compatible with their religions. Concerned parents should examine the issue broadly before voting for a candidate who espouses creationism or intelligent design in science classes. There is a truly vast literature on the subject; a good place to start is the National Center for Science Education (www.natcenscied.org). The spiritual needs of our students are very important, as several candidates have pointed out. A student certainly has a free speech right to be respected if they express their belief that biological evolution does not occur. But it should be made clear that such belief is religion, not science. Let us keep religious education in Modesto's synagogues, churches, temples, mosques and private schools, and out of public school science classes. Anderson is a professor of biology at Modesto Junior College [stress added]." [from: http://www.modbee.com/opinion/letters/story/7652165p-8557964c.html]
My personal favorite concerning "intelligent design" comes from The Skeptical Enquirer of November 2003 (available at http://www.csicop.org/si/2003-11/intelligent-design.html) and the article entitled "Neither Intelligent nor Designed" by Bruce and Frances Martin wherein they begin with the following: "Are you puzzled by the appearance of the words "Intelligent Design" in recent anti-evolution discourse? Most of us lack time to follow the history of this term .... But as the phrase Intelligent Design shows up more and more often in public debate over science education, skeptical citizens need a handle on this topic" and they end their essay with the following: "...the premise of Intelligent Design fails to meet even the most fundamental elements of rational inquiry. By being able to account for everything by divine edict, Intelligent Design explains nothing." The Skeptical Enquirer is a publication of CSICOP, the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims Of the Paranormal which "encourages the critical investigation of paranormal and fringe-science claims from a responsible, scientific point of view and disseminates factual information about the results of such inquiries to the scientific community and the public." Please see http://www.csicop.org/, as well as The National Center for Science Education (http://www.ncseweb.org/) and The Darwin Day Program (http://www.darwinday.org/). These, and other Darwin-related references are provided below.
The Scopes Trial of 1925, briefly mentioned above, continues to reverberate to this day and I truly like and appreciate the work of Jane Goodall (born 1934) and her following words: "How sad that so many people seem to think that science and religion are mutually exclusive [stress added]." Jane Goodall [with Phillip Berman], 1999, Reason For Hope: A Spiritual Journey (NY: Warner Books), page 174. Perhaps it was at the Scopes Trial in 1925 when Clarence Darrow best summarized the dangers of education by legislation, especially when it came to evolution:
"If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers. Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men. If you can do one you can do the other. Ignorance and fanaticism is ever busy and needs feeding. Always it is feeding and gloating for more. Today it is the public school teachers, tomorrow the preachers and the lecturers, the magazines, the books, the newspapers. After while, your honor, it is the setting of man against man and creed against creed until with flying banners and beating drums we are marching backward to the glorious ages of the sixteenth century when bigots lighted fagots to burn the men who dared to bring any intelligence and enlightenment and culture to the human mind [stress added]. The World's Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee Evolution Case (1925) (1990 Reprint Edition published by Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee), page 87.
The ideas associated with Charles R. Darwin are extremely important for the 21st century (and beyond!) and one can only begin to end with the following statements:
"Career advice for the 21st century: Stay away from any job that can be done online.... profiting from the Darwinian labor economics of the Internet [stress added]." Mani and Me: Hearing 'Mister,' I work Cheap' From Across The Globe. Lee Gomes, June 3, 2002, The Wall Street Journal, page B.
"Financial-service companies in the U.S. say they expect to transfer 500,000 jobs, or 8% of industry employment to foreign countries over the next five years [2003-2008]....Why? A call-center employee earns $20,000 a year in the U.S. but only $2,500 in India. And overseas cable costs have fallen as much as 80% since 1999. At the higher end, a researcher with a few years of experience might earn $250,000 on Wall Street, compared with $20,000 in India. Those sorts of savings are expected to help the U.S. financial industry cut annual costs [domestic positions] $30 billion a year by 2008.... [stress added]." Daniel Kadlec, 2003, Where Did My Raise Go? Time, May 26, 2003, pages 45-54, page 50.
"Off the coast of Venezuela, three 400-ft. ships are laying down miles of high-speed fiber-optic cable capacious enough to carry 600,000 calls simultaneously. In a high mountaintown outside Cuzco, Peru, a co-op of native farmers has found a way to get more than 10 times the local price for its potato crop by selling it to a New York City organic-food store it found on the Internet [stress added]." Sandy M. Fernandez, Latin America Logs On. Time, May 8, 2000, pages B2-B4, page B2.
"At least once a day in this village of 2,500 people, Ravi Sham Choudhry turns on the computer in his front room and logs in to ther Web site of the Chicago Board of Trade. He has the dirt of a farmer under his fingernails and pecks slowly at the keys. But he knows what he wants: the prices for soybean commodity futures. A drop in prices on the Chicago Board, shown in red, could augur a drop in prices here, meaning that he and fellow soybean farmers should sell their crop now. An increase argues that the farmers should wait for prices to rise. 'If it goes up there, it goes up here,' Mr. Choudhry said. The correlation is rough but real. Real, too, is the link betweem farmers in rural central India and around the globe, thanks to a company's innovation. The concept is the e-choupal, taken from the Hindi word for village square, or gathering place. ... E-choupal allows the farmers to check both futures prices across the globe and local prices before going to market. ... E-choupals may offer a model for all developing countries [stress added]." Amy Waldman, 2004, Indian Soybean Farmers Join the Global Village. The New York Times, January 1, 2004, page A1 + A8, page A8.
"Man may be excused for feeling some pride at having risen, though not through his own exertions, to the very summit of the organic scale; and the fact of his having thus risen, instead of having been aboriginally placed there, may give him hopes for a still higher destiny in the distant future. But we are not here concerned with hopes or fears, only with the truth as far as our reason permits us to discover it. I have given the evidence to the best of my ability; and we must acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creatures, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system--with all these exalted powers--Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin [stress added]." [The final paragraph of Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882), The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex, 1871 [1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May.], page 405.
In the 1860s and 1870s various events occurred to almost make Darwin's ideas almost passé while he was still alive! There was the celebrated 1860 debate at Oxford (between Huxley and Wilberforce [1805-1873]) and in 1860, seven English Churchmen published an item entitled Essays and Reviews, wherein certain orthodox religious doctrines were questioned. Other events influenced the view of Darwin (and Darwinian ideas) held by many individuals:
"In 1862 Bishop [John William] Colenso [1814-1883] started to publish his doubts about the Pentateuch. In 1863 Sir Charles Lyell [1797-1875] produced his evidence on the antiquity of man, which seemed to be inconsistent with the account of creation in the Bible. In 1863 Renan's [1823-1892] humanizing Vie de Jésus appeared. In 1865 J. R. Seeley of Cambridge published another humanizing work on Christ called Ecce Homo. In 1870 the British Association at Exeter generally accepted evolution. [AND] In 1871 Darwin published his Descent of Man. Thus in these ten to twelve years orthodox religion received a series of body blows, which seemed to be aimed at its existence [stress added]." G. Kitson Clark, 1967, An Expanding Society: Britain In 1830-1900, pp. 95-96.
When Descent of Man was published in 1871, the "controversy" was almost over in Darwin's time! A 1984 author had a nice summary statement of Darwin's 1871 publication:
"Despite its more explicitly materialistic interpretation of man's essence, Descent was not met with the rancor that earlier had engulfed Origin . In barely more than a decade the concept of evolution--even human evolution--had become installed as a familiar feature on the landscape of popular ideas. If the scientific community's judgment of the work did not always convey unbridled admiration, rarely did it concede less than sober respect. The reviews of Descent were for the most part favorable (Mivart's [1827-1900] aside, of course), and the tone of criticism politely muted. A number of reviewers took the occasion to deliver the satisfying news that science posed no threat to religion after all [stress added]." Kenneth Korey, 1984, The Essential Darwin (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co.), page 286.
In all of my Darwin papers and presentations, I attempt to stress the basic humanity of Charles R. Darwin, a point others have also noted; I also stress the importance of reading items for yourself and forming your own opinions! Do your own research and go back to the "original" whenever possible and not to what some "commentator" says about the "original" (even though that commentator be Gould or Urbanowicz or ....). Darwin was human and was:
"...very sensitive to criticism, and tried hard to satisfy all his critics by making appropriate alterations and accommodating conflicting points of view. This process is far more evident in Origin, where the first edition nowadays seems much superior to the sixth and last edition. John Bonner and Robert May, 1981, "Preface" in Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man And Selection In Relation To Sex, page xxxv.
In reading Darwin, which "Darwin are you reading?" Origin is readily available, but what edition of Origin do you have? Darwin took his critics to heart and the various revisions in Origin (for example) have been documented above:
"...in response to numerous criticisms Darwin undertook constant revisions between the book's first appearance in 1859 and the sixth edition of 1872. The later editions thus differ considerably from the first, and the last edition contains an additional chapter (chapter 7) dealing with objections to the theory. These changes tend to obscure the original argument and the first edition is thus by far the clearest expression of Darwin's insight [stress added]. Peter J. Bowler, 1990, Charles Darwin: The Man And His Influence (Cambridge University Press) page 144.
There is something which is known as the "Darwin Industry" and these include such publication as Merryl Davies's Darwin And Fundamentalism (2000), Gabriel Dover's Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (2000), Phillip E. Johnson's Defeating Darwinism By Opening Minds (1997), Randal Keynes's Darwin, His Daughter, and Human Evolution (2002), Janet Browne's outstanding 2002 publication entitled Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (Volume II of a Biography, which is an excellent companion volume to her earlier 1995 volume entitled Charles Darwin: Voyaging (Volume I of a Biography), S. Alter's Darwin and The Linguistic Image (1999), Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search For Common Ground Between God And Evolution (1999 by Kenneth R. Miller), Gerald Weissmann's 1998 Darwin's Audubon: Science and The Liberal Imagination, Matthew Chapman's 2000/2001 Trials Of The Monkey, as well as Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (a 2002 publication edited by John Hart and John Terrell). Indeed, it is in this last item that the editors have an excellent statement, well-summarizing "why" interest in Darwin took off so rapidly after 1859 (and why it continues to this day):
"But what then is evolution? Although it may sound unconventional to say so, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution is above all else a theory of history. While initially offered as an encompassing theory about the origin of new species by means of NATURAL SELECTION, Darwin's insights into the causes of biological evolution and persistence soon proved to be so powerful that many have sought to apply Darwinian theory to human affairs--to use Darwin's ways of thinking about history and evolution to explain not only our own oigins as a remarkably clever kind of animal (see BIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS), but also our human ways and the history of human institutions and social practices (major elements of what many anthropologists and others call CULTURE) [stress added]." John Terrell and John Hart, 2002, Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey), page 2.
Each of us can read anything we wish into virtually everything and just as in the 19th century, "Darwinism" meant different things to different people at different times, so it goes today. As Michael Ruse wrote in 1998:
"We have a veritable Hegelian contradiction. Darwinism is sexist. Darwinism is feminist. How can this be? The obvious answer is that, in some sense, Darwinism is simply a clotheshorse on which people will hang any ideology that they find comforting. You are a sexist? Darwinism will accommodate you. You are a feminist? Darwinism will accommodate you, too [stress added]." Michael Ruse, 1998, Is Darwin Sexist? (And If It Is, So What?). A House Built on Sand: Exposing Postmodernist Myths About Science (NY: Oxford University Press), edited by Noretta Koertge (pages 119-129), page 121.
The aforementioned Darwin Industry is alive and well and as Gillian Beer pointed out in her second edition of Darwin's Plots, published in the year 2000:
"Darwin has grown younger in recent years. He is no longer the authoritative old man with a beard substituting for God. Instead his work and life are again in contention and debate. Sociologists, microbiologists, linguists, sociobiologists, philosophers, feminists, psychologists, biographers, geneticists, novelists, poets, post-colonialists, have their say." Gillian Beer, 2000, Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative In Darwin, George Eliot and Nineteenth-Century Fiction (Second Edition) (Cambridge University Press), page xvii.
Darwin lives and all (and that is such an understatement!) all that Darwin researched and demonstrated in his lifetime (with an immense amount of data that every educated person of the times could comprehend) is that while human beings consciously practice domestic selection, nature practices natural selection. Natural selection means that the population which is best adapted to the environment, be it bird or plant or domesticated horse or cow or pig, or human being, survives and may pass its genes unto the next generation; or it may not!
"In the big scheme of things, extinctions are a constant, having occurred in every significantly long period of geological time. Of all the species that ever lived, more than 95 percent (indeed, probably more than 99 percent) are now extinct....Nonetheless, the generative power of evolution has always compensated. Since the emergence of the first nonmicroscopic animals some 600 million years ago the graph of life has been on the rise [stress added]." David Harmon, 2002, In Light of Our Differences: How Diversity In Nature And Culture Makes Us Human (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press), page 27.
Consider, if you will, the "big picture" (and the importance of context and the overall environment) and the following information published in the United States on Thursday January 8, 2004:
"Global warming has species facing extinction, study says. In the first study of its kind, researchers in spots ranging from northern Britain to the wet tropics of northeastern Australia and the Mexican desert said Wednesday that global warming at currently predicted rates wil drive 15 percent to 37 percent of living species towards extinction by midcentury [stress added]." Guy Gygliotta, 2004, The Sacramento Bee, January 8, 2004, page A7.
"If global temperatures continue to rise as predicted in the next 50 years, more than 1 million plant and animal species will vanish from the Earth, scientists say in the first authoritative attempt to gauge the impact of climnate change on wildlife [stress added]." Jane Key, 2004, Dire warning on global warming. The San Francisco Chronicle, January 8, 2004, page A1 + A4, page A1.
"An international group of 19 scientists, analyzing research around the globe, has concluded that a warming climate will rival habitat destruction in prompting widespread extinctions in this century [stress added]." James Gorman, 2004, Scientists Predict Widespread Extinction by Global Warming. The New York Times, January 8, 2004, page A4.
"More than one-third of all species in several regions of the world are at risk of extinction by 2050 if global warming isn't controlled, an international study reports today. In the report in the journal Nature, the most comprehensive analysis to date of potential species loss from man-made climate change.... Air pollution has caused the climate to warm, meaning some plant and animal species must move to higher, cooler ground. At the same time, their natural migratory paths have often been blocked by development, trapping them in an environment that no longer supports their life [stress added]. Robert Davis, 2004, Cost of global warming: 1 million species. USA Today, January 8, 2004, page 5D.
Human beings can also become extinct.
In beginning to end, I attempt to answer the question posed at the beginning of this presentation, namely "Why are there so many different kinds of living things?" In his closing words of the 1860 edition of Origin Darwin had the following:
"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object of which we are capable of conceiving, namely the production of higher animals directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved [stress added]."
"The notion that the Church was unanimous in an obscurantist rejection of Darwin in 1859 is as ignorant and incorrect as is also the belief that the scientific community was unanimous in welcoming him. The black-and-white accounts of those intellectually tempestuous times, so assiduously propagated in the media and in certain kinds of popular scientific writing, are just not true [stress added]." John Polkinghorne, 2000, Faith, Science & Understanding (New Haven: Yale University Press), page 29.
Once again, as stated at the beginning of this paper, Darwin was a prolific researcher and writer: some three million words flowed from his mind in his lifetime and found their way into print. Darwin was never a teacher in a formal classroom, per se, and he had no legions of graduates or undergraduate students to listen to his presentations. However, should Darwin have been fortunate enough to be in any classroom, I think he would have wished to convey the vital importance of individuals finding their own patterns in the data, looking for the patterns of nature or for the patterns of human behavior. Someone once wrote about a leading 20th century Californian, Frank Oppenheimer of the San Francisco Exploratorium: "Letting people find the patterns in nature, Oppenheimer believed, empowered them and helped them make informed decisions in an increasingly technical age." If our world is not knowable, it is "at least understandable" (as cited by Gerald George in a book review of The Exploratorium: The Museum As Laboratory, by Hild Hein  in The San Francisco Chronicle Review, July 15, 1990, page 11). Darwin was a determined researcher and a prolific writer and took his critics to heart; part of the problem, however, of teaching about Darwin, is that there is so much to learn (and so much to teach)!
Darwin was conducting research and writing until the 73rd year of his life and while visiting a friend in London in December 1881, he suffered a mild heart seizure. On the 12th of February 1882, his 73rd birthday, he wrote to a friend that "my course is nearly run" (Julian Huxley and H.B.D. Kettlewell, 1965, Charles Darwin And His World, page 126). When Darwin had his fatal heart attack on Wednesday April 19, 1882, he made no deathbed statement as to his faith. However, had he been asked the question, "Darwin, have you made peace with God?" I think that he would have responded with the words attributed to Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) who, on his deathbed, is said to have replied to that question with "I didn't know we had quarreled" (Huston Smith, 1958, The Religions of Man, page 328). Over the years a "story" has appeared concerning Darwin's death: "Did you know that Charles Darwin became a Christian before he died? It's true. I read about it once in a book--or was it a magazine. I forget. Anyway...." (J. Moore, 1994, The Darwin Legend, page 21). Moore proves the story false by citing Francis Darwin (1848-1925), son of Charles and Emma Darwin:
"Lady Hope's account of my father's views on religion is quite untrue. I have publicly accused her of falsehood, but have not seen any reply. My father's agnostic point of view is given in my 'Life and Letters of Charles Darwin,' Vol. I., pp. 304-317. You are at liberty to publish the above statement. Indeed, I shall be glad if you will do so. Yours faithfully, Francis Darwin. Brookthorpe, Gloucester. May 28, 1918."
Although Charles Darwin wished to be buried in the village of Down, Kent, where he and his wife Emma had lived for forty years (1842-1882) it was not to be; on April 24, 1882, as a result of a request by various individuals, Charles R. Darwin was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). Darwin's pall bearers included various notables, including the three leading British biologists of the times who were among Darwin's closest scientific friends: Thomas Huxley, Sir Joseph Hooker, and Alfred Russel Wallace. On Darwin's ceremony, it was written that "A choir sang a hymn adapted from the Book of Proverbs" as follows:
"Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding.
She is more precious than rubies: and all the things thou canst desire are not to be compared unto her.
Length of days is in her right hand; and in her left hand riches and honour.
Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace."
Carl Zimmer, 2001, Evolution: The Triumph of An Idea (NY: Harper Colins), pages 343-344.
How should one remember Charles Robert Darwin? He was described in a 20th century encyclopedia as "an affectionate husband and father . . . and a steadfast friend to several eminent scientists" of his time (Ralph Colp, Jr., 1988, Darwin, Robert Charles (1809-1882)" in Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia, edited by Sally Mitchell, pp. 208-210, page 209). As Emma and Charles Darwin grew older, so did their children: William became a wealthy banker, Horace an engineer, and George went into astronomy. One day, simply because there was no holding back the passage of time, Darwin recalled that the boys decided that they were too old to call him "Papa" anymore and would call me "Father" instead and he wrote that "I would sooner be called Dog" but time does serve as a great equalizer (Walter Karp, 1968, Charles Darwin And The Origin Of Species, page 139). After Darwin's death, perhaps it was one of his own children who best summarized his life:
"My first remembrances of my father are of the delights of his playing with us. He was passionately attached to his own children, although he was not an indiscriminate child-lover. ... He cared for all our pursuits and interests, and lived our lives with us in a way that very few fathers do. But I am certain that none of us felt that this intimacy interfered the least with our respect and obedience. ... Another characteristic of his treatment of his children was his respect for their liberty, and for their personality. Our father and mother would not even wish to know what we were doing or thinking unless we wished to tell. He always made us feel that we were each of us creatures whose opinions and thoughts were valuable to him, so that whatever there was best in us came out in the sunshine of his presence [stress added]." Francis Darwin, 1950, Charles Darwin's Autobiography: With His Notes And Letters Depicting The Growth of The Origin of Species, pp. 96-98).
Thomas Henry Huxley wrote Darwin's obituary for the April 27, 1882 issue of Nature (London) and he wrote that the words applied to Socrates "Apology" were appropriate for Darwin and the words ring:
"...in our ears as if it were Charles Darwin's farewell:--'The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways--I to die and you to live. Which is the better, God only knows.'" Thomas H. Huxley, 1882, Charles Darwin. April 27, 1882, Nature (London); reprinted in Thomas H. Huxley, 1896, Darwiniana Essays [1970: New York AMS Reprint], pages 253-302, pages 244-247, page 247.
SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ DARWIN ITEMS (in reverse chronological order):
The Darwin Videos (all available at http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/darwinvideo.htm or):
2003 Charles Darwin: - Part Three: A Man of Science. [ ~Twenty-four Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/Darwin/RV/darwin4.ram] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].
Within a few years of his return to England, Charles Darwin happily settled into marriage, moved to a quiet house in the country, and begun a routine of research and writing which would occupy the rest of his life. In this episode discover why Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) waited over 20 years to publish his groundbreaking work Origin of Species ,and learn how ill health, family tragedies, friends, respected colleagues and ardent supporters shaped his life and career.
2001 Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-seven Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwin3.ram] Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].
The second half of the historic journey of the HMS Beagle finds Charles Darwin exploring more of South America and several islands in the Pacific. In this episode, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) views several active volcanoes, experiences an earthquake, treks to the Andes, explores the Galapagos Islands, and then heads for home.
1999 Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwinvoyage.ram] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].
Sail along with Charley Darwin on the first half of his historic journey around the world aboard the HMS Beagle. In this second video in the series, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz ) travels from England to unexplored reaches of South America and along the way he confronts slavery, rides with gauchos, experiences gunboat diplomacy, encounters a future dictator of Argentina, explores uncharted rivers, and discovers dinosaur bones.
1997 Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: The Beginning. [ ~Seventeen Minutes Video. Darwin in England]. [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwinreflections.ram]. Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].
Imagine that you could visit with Charles Darwin as he remembers his youth. Perhaps you could learn what early experiences sharpened his power of observation and contributed to his unique perspective of the world. Join Dr. Charles Urbanowicz as he portrays the fascinating and very human Charley Darwin in the first program of the series Charles Darwin: Reflections: The Beginning.
Urbanowicz-Generated Darwin Self-Tests:
2003 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestThree.htm (Darwin Self-Test Three).
2001 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestTwo.htm (Darwin Self-Test Two].
2000 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestOne.htm (Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One).
Others Urbanowicz Darwin-Specific Sites:
2003 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Jan2003Hawai'iDarwin.html [Teaching As Theatre Once Again: Darwin in the Classroom (And Beyond). (For the Hawai'i International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, Hawai'i, January 12-15, 2003.) [Also published in The Conference Proceedings, CD-ROM: ISSN#1541-5899.]
2002a, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinDayCollectionOneChapter.html [There Is A Grandeur in This View Of Life. Darwin Day Collection One: The Single Best Idea Ever (2002) Edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled Bank Press), pages 67-70. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of 2002b below.]
2002b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinSacFeb2002.html [On Darwin: Countdown to 2008/2009]. For "Darwin Day" activities, sponsored by HAGSA [The Humanist Association of the Greater Sacramento Area], Sacramento, California, February 10, 2002].
2002c Teaching As Theatre. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 147-149. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of 2000a below.]
2001a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CorningSp2001.html (For a presentation to the 7th grade "Life Science" classroom of Ms. Tiana Scott, Maywood Middle School, Corning, CA, February 28).
2001b The Galápagos Islands: Every Little Bit Helps. The Chico Enterprise-Record, Sunday, February 25 (page E1 and E2) and see: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/GalapagosIslandsoilspill.htm.
2000a Teaching As Theatre: Some Classroom Ideas, Specifically Those Concerning Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) for the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, CA (November 15-19).
2000b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/darwinvisualsonly.htm [Darwin Visuals} November 10, 2000].
1998 Folklore Concerning Charles R. Darwin. Presented at the 1998 Meetings of the Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California Folklore Society, Sacramento, CA, April 16-18. [Dealing with various "myths" concerning Darwin and the general public.
1990 A Letter To The Editor [Concerning Charles R. Darwin]. [Chico Enterprise-Record], September 26, page B4.] [A brief dossier on Charles R. Darwin.]
Some of the references below were discovered as a result of those specific web pages being "linked" to some of my web pages. I have only listed a few items, but if you consult http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/UrbanowiczCitations.html [Urbanowicz Citations on the Web} An on-going "Work-in-Progress"] you will come across numerous other web links for various academic courses: several AP (Advanced Placement) instructors have made reference to some of my Darwin work.
http://pages.britishlibrary.net/charles.darwin/ [The Writings of Charles Darwin on The Web]
http://www.literature.org/Works/Charles-Darwin/voyage/ (The Voyage of the Beagle)
http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/biomed/his/darwin/darintro.htm (Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle - Birds)
http://www.literature.org/Works/Charles-Darwin/origin/ (The Origin of Species)
http://diogenes.baylor.edu/WWWproviders/Larry_Ridener/courses/DARWIN.HTML (Darwin} Origin of Species)
http://www.uib.no/zoo/classics/descent.html (The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex)
http://cc.owu.edu/~librweb/f2darwin.htm (Darwin's Paper Read at the Linnean Society Meeting )
http://www.dca.uac.pt/acores/darwin/edarwin.htm (Charles Darwin in the Azores)
http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/victorian/darwin/darwinov.html (Darwin and Evolution Overview)
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/evolution.html (Evolution Entrance: University of California, Berkeley)
EIGHTEEN OTHER DARWIN-RELATED WEB REFERENCES:
http://www.darwinday.org/ [The Darwin Day Program]
http://www.ncseweb.org/ [National Center For Science Education]
http://www.calacademy.org/events/darwin/history.htm [California Academy of Sciences} History of Charles R. Darwin]
http://www.darwinfoundation.org/ [Galápagos Islands} The Charles Darwin Foundation]
http://www.darwinfoundation.org/links/lnkspage.html [The Charles Darwin Foundation} External links and References]
http://www.chromosome.com/Charles_Darwin.html [Information on Charles Darwin, Down House, and The Origin of Species]
http://www.rit.edu/~rhrsbi/GalapagosPages/Galapagos.html [Natural History of the Galápagos Islands]
http://www.dropbears.com/l/links/beagle.htm [Links to Resources} Darwin and HMS Beagle]
http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/Departments/Darwin/ [Cambridge University} The Darwin Correspondence Project]
http://www.aboutdarwin.com/timeline/time_01.html [Charles Darwin Timeline]
http://darwin.baruch.cuny.edu/biography/shrewsbury/ [Shrewsbury, England} Charles Darwin]
http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/bi/1995/darwin.html [Darwin's Obituary} For School Children]
http://www.darwincountry.org/category.php3?trail=2989 [Charles Darwin on Garden Roses]
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/darwin_charles.shtml [BBC History} Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
http://tyrrell.magtech.ab.ca/tour/evoltion.html (Royal Tyrrell Museum Tour: Evolution)
http://web.raex.com/~ej0c/darwin.htm [Charles Darwin]
http://www.users.waitrose.com/~victorian/darwin/mount1.jpg [A Tour around the Darwin Sites of Shrewsbury U.K.]
http://academy.d20.co.edu/kadets/lundberg/darwin/CharlesDarwin.html [The House of Charles Darwin} Down House]
FIFTEEN DARWIN-RELATED WEB REFERENCES:
http://www.nhm.ac.uk/darwincentre/ [The "Darwin Centre" at the Natural History Museum, London} Note: they also have archived videos]
http://anthro.palomar.edu/evolve/default.htm [Early Theories of Evolution Tutorial} Palomar College, San Marcos, California] [Important Note: This Palomar College site has fifteen other excellent tutorials--check the "menu" out!]
http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/home.html [ENSI/SENSI: Evolution]
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/darwin/index.html [Darwin} From WGBH/PBS "Evolution" Show]
http://www.reptiland.com/onlinecourse/session2/resources.html [Evolution: Online Course for Teachers]
http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stiling4/chapter1/essay13/deluxe-content.html [Interactive Case study on Galápagos Finches']
http://www.calacademy.org/events/darwin/scavengerhunt.htm [California Academy of Sciences} Darwin Scavenger Hunt]
http://www.gpc.peachnet.edu/~pgore/geology/historical_lab/evolutionlab.htm [Evolution Assignment} Geology course by Pamela J. W. Gore, Department of Geology, Georgia Perimeter College]
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1990/6/90.06.09.x.html [Creation, Evolution, and the Human Genome} Anthony B. Wight, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/explorations/tours/fossil/ [Getting Into The Fossil Record} Collins & Lindstrom: UC Berkeley Modules, Sponsored by the National Science Foundation]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/IU/template/tour1B.html [Life Has a History Lesson} ISTAT Digital Curriculum Guide]
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/education/explorations/tours/geotime/ [Understanding Geologic Time} UC Berkeley]
http://curry.edschool.virginia.edu/it/projects/Museums/Teacher_Guide/Science/Unit.on.Dinosaurs.html [Unit on Dinosaurs} University of Virginia Museum]
http://www.anselm.edu/homepage/jpitocch/resevol.html [Evolutionary Biology Resources} St. Anselm College, Manchester, New Hampshire].
http://www.darwinawards.com/ [Official Darwin Awards} "...showing us just how uncommon common sense can be." Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolution in Action (Dutton)
Jeffrey C. Brautigam & Stephen C. Zelcik, 1997/1999, A Student Introduction to Charles Darwin (Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.).
David Burne, 1999, Get A Grip On Evolution (England: Ivy Press/Time-Life Books).
Merryl Wynn Davies, 2000, Darwin And Fundamentalism: Postmodern Encounters (Cambridge: Icon Books).
Dylan Evans and Howard Selina, 2001, Introducing Evolution (Cambridge: Icon Books).
Pete Goldie, 1997, Darwin 2nd Edition Multimedia CD-ROM for MACs, PCs, and UNIXs (San Francisco: Lightbinders, Inc., 2325 Thurd Streetm Suite 324m San Francisco, CA 94107). [Extremely useful item with complete text of many of Darwin's publications.]
Gill Hands, 2001, Darwin: A Beginner's Guide (London: Hodder & Stoughton).
Leslie Alan Horvitz, 2002, The Complete Idiot's Guide To Evolution (Indianapolis: Pearson Education, Inc.)
Jonathan Howard, 1982/2001, Darwin: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press).
Morton Jenkins, 2000, 101 Key Ideas: Evolution (Illinois: NTC/Contemporary Publishing).
Richard Milner, n.d., Charles Darwin: Line & In Concert (NY: Richard Milner, 2067 Broadway, Suite 49, New York, New York, 10023). [Marvelous presentation by the Senior Editor at Natural History Magazine at the American Museum of Natural History.] [Also available through http://www.darwinday.org/arts/entertain-milner.html.]
Jonathan Miller & Borin Van Loon, 1982, Darwin For Beginners (NY: Pantheon Books).
Ahunur Ozharahan, 2001, Darwin for 5th and 6th grade children : an interactive multimedia CD-ROM / )Californ ia State University, Chico: Meriam Library Call #: AS111 095 2001 (Thesis).
Rebecca Stefoff, 1996, Charles Darwin And the Evolution Revolution (Oxford).
Patrick Tort, 2000, Charles Darwin: The Scholar Who Changed History (2001 English translation) [London: Thames & Hudson Ltd.).
Jonathan Weiner, 1994, The Beak of the Finch: A Story of Evolution in Our Time (New York: Vintage Books)
In 2000 there was a delightful book entitled Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior, wherein the author has Darwin saying:
"I am so glad you have taken the time and trouble to write to me. It is one of the saddest aspects of human existence that, as soon as one passes away, it is generally assumed that the deceased has no further interest in what he or she spent a great part of life investigating. From what you tell me of the Darwin industry of scholars in your day, busy seeking out every nuance of my life and thoughts, I have to conclude that there is indeed life after death [stress added]." Gabriel Dover, 2000, Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson), page 3.
For-virtually-every web page I do I try to "update" the following information concerning "Darwin" and "Search Engines" on the World Wide Web. Before examing the "Search Engine References" below, please consider the following:
"Google--or any search engine--isn't just another website; it's the lens through which we see that information, and it affects what we see and don't see. At the risk of waxing Orwellian, how we search affects what we find and by extension, how we learn what we know [stress added]. Lev Grossman, 2003, Search And Destroy. Time, December 22, 2003, pages 46-50, page 50.
On January 4, 2004, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 251,000 items; Alta Vista Search had 89,979 items; WiseNut had 26,209 items; and AllTheWeb had 568,418 web pages.
On September 27, 2003, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 278,000 items; Alta Vista Search had 81,607 items; WiseNut had 39,116 items; and AllTheWeb had 463,572 web pages.
On November 27, 2002, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 143,000 items; "Power Search" by Northern Light had 2,720 items; Alta Vista Search had 84,274 items; MonkeySweat had numerous items; and WiseNut had 76,294 items (and AllTheWeb had 516,281 web pages for "Charles R. Darwin").
On May 2, 2002, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 130,000 items; "Power Search" by Northern Light had 2,623 items; Alta Vista Search had 36,608 items; MonkeySweat had numerous items; and WiseNut had 64,940 items.
On February 6, 2002, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 118,000 items; "Power Search" by Northern Light had 2,587 items; Alta Vista Search had 40,131 items; and MonkeySweat had numerous items!
On October 17, 2001, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 120,000 items; Northern Light had 51,939 items; Alta Vista Search had 65,975,088 items; and MonkeySweat had numerous items!
Two things should be obvious: (#1) interest in Darwin continues and (#2), obviously, just as with people, all "search engines" are not created equal and there is "cultural selection" involved in everything we do! How does one "evaluate" and "use" this wide range of information? One does it just as Darwin did, carefully, patiently, and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:
"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex[1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.
A FEW VISUALS
PLEASE see: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/darwinvisualsonly.htm [Darwin Visuals} November 10, 2000] for numerous other visuals pertaining to Charles R. Darwin and the Galápagos Islands.
(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the WWW on January 9, 2004, for a workshop on January 10, 2004, sponsored by the Outreach Programs of the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) and held at the Museum of Anthropology at California State University, Chico. To return to the beginning of this page, please click here.
[~18,476 words]} 9 January 2004
to the Department of Anthropology;
to the Museum of Anthropology,
to California State University, Chico,
to California Academy of Sciences.
[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TeachingAboutDarwinJan2004.html]
Copyright © 2004; all rights reserved by Charles F. Urbanowicz
9 January 2004 by cfu