Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office]; 530-898-6192 [Dept.] FAX: 530-898-6143
e-mail: / home page:

28 March 1999 [1]

[This page printed from:]

© This paper was originally dated May 15, 1991 and was prepared for (and presented at) the 17th Quadrennial Meeting of the Pacific Science Congress at the session entitled "Technologies for Development: Prospects for the 21st Century" held in Honolulu, Hawai'i, 27 May-2 June 1991. It was placed on the WWW on March 29, 1999, as an example of some of my earlier ideas concerning education and technology. No revisions have been made to the text since writing the paper in 1991, save for some format changes needed for this WWW version. Would the paper be written today, it would (of course) be different; this is, however, what I wrote in 1991: so be it!


Building on research and work since 1977, this paper brings the audience up to date on some of the telecommunication activities of California State University, Chico. Information is also presented on recent work dealing with the National Technological University's interest in expanding educational activities, via the electronic medium, into Japan.

CSU, Chico, part of the 20-campus California State University System, has pioneered in the utilization of information technologies throughout northern California (via a terrestrial ITFS/Microwave system). CSU, Chico has also installed C-Band and Ku-Band uplinks on campus and offers courses towards the B.S. and M.S. Degrees in Computer Science to selected industry locations in North America. Information technologies have proven themselves to be cost-effective for the delivery of distance education throughout North America and educational programs, perhaps along the lines of a Global/Pacific University, proposed by Utsumi, can be developed for the nations of the Pacific Basin.

Key Words: Distance Education, Global/Pacific University, ITFS/Microwave, National Technological University, and Satellites.



This paper builds on work since 1977 that has dealt with a single aspect of information technology, namely closed-circuit television and distance education. Various presentations have been made on this specific topic, the most recent of which was at the meeting of the American Association of Advancement of Science in March 1991 (C.L. Nevins and C.F. Urbanowicz 1991). Earlier versions of this paper have also been presented at meetings of the Pacific Telecommunications Council (C.F. Urbanowicz et al., 1986 and 1988).

In the broadest sense, information technology, "is a loosely defined term and is identified with a wider range of communication technologies" (J. Hanson and U. Narula 1990: 3). This paper focuses on closed-circuit television activities of a single institution of higher education and brings the audience up to date on some telecommunication activities of California State University, Chico as well as recent work dealing with the National Technological University's interest in expanding educational activities, via the electronic medium, into Japan. Information technologies have proven themselves to be cost-effective for the delivery of distance education throughout North America and educational programs, perhaps along the lines of a Global/Pacific University, proposed by Dr. Takeshi Utsumi, can be developed for the nations of the Pacific Basin.

Information technology is developing and some of the clearest successes in North America have come in the realm of education television programming. Television programming, educational and otherwise, has moved beyond the realm of science fiction into science fact. In addition to numerous single-continent examples of extra-terrestrial educational activities of the 1980's, the last decade also saw a variety of global educational activities conducted both by organizations (such as INTELSAT [International Telecommunications Satellite Organization], or the Society for Satellite Professionals International [SSPI]) and individuals (such as Utsumi) (V. Ostendorf 1988, T. Utsumi et al., 1989, and T. Utsumi 1990; also see Boeke 1990).

It has been a cumulative process that led us to where we are concerning closed-circuit educational television and we must avoid over-simplification when considering the impact of information technologies for the Pacific Basin: there are "differential rates of change" around the world, and obviously not all people have the same access to information technology.

While some take-for-granted 20th century information technologies, consider a report from the 1990 Conference on "Computers in Education" in Sydney, Australia. Research on computer availability in ten nations in the Pacific was presented, involving more than 8,300 Pacific Island students and the survey showed that students have access to a total of 231 computers, ranging from the greatest availability of computers on Guam to no computers in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (A.G. Baldwin, 1991: 50). The ten nations in the survey were the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Guam, Kiribiti, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Tonga, and Papua New Guinea. Work needs to be done dealing with information technologies in the Pacific basin and meetings such as these and the Pacific Telecommunications Council are excellent information-sharing vehicles.

Educational television programming, a subject with which I am more familiar, has definitely been a cumulative process and the same must hold true for other information technologies, such as data-base searches, "simple" facsimile transmission, and computer conferencing. Indeed, a very successful computer-text based distance learning situation has been described by Gast whereby a student in Australia is taking a Freshman Composition class from a California College. As the author of the report writes:

"Computer-text based distance learning has the potential to make education available to anyone, irrespective of location or available time, who has access to a computer, modem and a network. Formal and informal courses could be made available through network facilities. We have noticed certain difficulties related to the isolated position of the student. However, these problems concern all distance education courses, computerized or not. The student experiences a lack of support, stimulation and acceptance normally provided by peers on the campus. Yet, there is an excellent possibility to alleviate these problems by creating a "virtual" classroom atmosphere through the use of the networks conference facility. This will be our next task. It allows the student to interact with peers as well as with instructors in an open-discussion environment:" (G. W. Gast 1991: n.p.).

Just as educational programming via television developed from commercial television, computer conferencing for educational purposes will surely continue to develop (See, for example, J.E. Connick 1991 and her brief statement on the Global Dialog Association (GDA), which sounds similar to the world-wide computer conferencing work of Utsumi. GDA sees as its goal the pooling of "the intellectual resources and leading experts worldwide to resolve current problems in the economic, scientific, cultural and social spheres by means of international computer networks and systems, interactive TV, newspapers, and other media."). In 1933, educational programming utilizing the technology of full-motion television to meet educational needs began in North America when the State University of Iowa began the first instructional programming on the 25th of January 1933 and the 1989 Office of Technology Assessment publication entitled Linking For Learning: A New Course For Education points out the wide-array of distance education programs that are currently available throughout North America (N. Whittington 1986: 2 and L.G. Roberts 1989).

A few decades ago there were some institutions involved in educational activities utilizing burgeoning information technologies and today there are numerous institutions who are utilizing a wide variety of technologies. In Chico, California, for example, one can look to the information technology activities of California State University, Chico: within the Chico Community proper, there is a localized "multimedia distance learning" experiment involving the University and a Chico High School. In a May 1991 experiment, digital signals, sent over commercial telephone lines, are to control "a network of laser-disc players in remote classrooms: (Carl T. Hall, 1991: C1). In Northern California ITFS is utilized for distance education programs and throughout North American there are a variety of receive-sites for the University's satellite-delivered Computer Science courses. One must look to a wide variety of information technologies for a wide variety of situations.

One need go no further than this island of Oahu to observe the success of HITS (Hawai'i Interactive Television System).

"The Hawaii Interactive Television System (HITS) uses a telecommunications bridge to connect all the campuses of the UH system and allows a faculty member on one campus to teach students in HITS classrooms throughout the state. As an added feature of HITS courses, students use PCs with modems or computers at UH computing centers to communicate with their instructors and fellow students via electronic mail. This allows the class to keep in touch at all times making distance learning closer and more interactive" (Anon. 1991a, Summer 1991: University of Hawaii at Manoa, page 42).

In California, television for working professionals began in 1969 when Stanford established an "Instructional Television Fixed Services" (ITFS) system, the "Stanford Instructional Television Network," in the San Francisco area. As the Corporate Engineering Director for Hewlett Packard pointed out, Stanford actually began their program for working professionals in 1954 when the Stanford Honors Co-Op Program began and people went to campus for class. With ITFS, classes were delivered to students (C. House 1984: 41). In 1972 the University of Southern California created their ITFS network for professionals in the Los Angeles area and by 1975 a terrestrial ITFS system (Figure #1) was constructed for California State University, Chico. Courses are broadcast throughout Northern California and they are coordinated by The Center for Regional and Continuing Education. The system is maintained and operated by the Instructional Media Center and Chico faculty are provided with assistance for "teaching over television" (C.L. Nevins and L.J. Wright 1987).

FIGURE #1: CSU, Chico Northern California ITFS Sites

Although terrestrial educational systems predominated in the 1980s, certain individuals began to pursue extra-terrestrial educational delivery-systems in North America. What was once within the realm of "science fiction" was rapidly moving into the area of science fact and educational paradigms began to shift.

In 1981, the Hewlett Packard organization began constructing a satellite network, designed to link Palo Alto, California, with more than one hundred downlink sites throughout North America. In 1982 The National University Teleconference Network (NUTN), which would eventually offer a wide variety of programs via satellite, was created. In January of 1984 the National Technological University (NTU) was incorporated in Colorado and on September 4, 1984, CSU, Chico began broadcasting, live via satellite, Computer Science courses leading to the M.S. degree in Computer Science and California State University, Chico, has had a number of graduates of this program.

The advantage of a satellite to deliver electronic signals is clear when one considers that a satellite in geosynchronous orbit, at 36,000 kilometers above the equator and travelling at 6,879 miles per hour, is a transmitting tower with an exceptionally large receive area (or "footprint" ), please see Figure #2 for a North American "Footprint." In theory, such a satellite can "see" one-third of the globe at this position at 36,000 kilometers above the equator.

FIGURE #2: Satellite 'Footprint" For North America.

NTU has used satellites for the delivery of live television instruction and instructional videotapes and NTU awarded its first M.S. degree in November of 1986; by the Spring of 1990, 57 additional degrees had been awarded. On 1 August 1990, 63 individuals received their M.S. degrees in a televised ceremony and Lionel Baldwin (President of NTU) believes that "by the mid-1990s, NTU will be one of the top 10 universities in the U.S. in the annual number of Master of Science degrees awarded in engineering fields" (Anon., 1990a and also see Mays and Lumsden 1990). With more than 3,600 enrollments in North America in the 1989-1990 school year and with 964 students admitted to various degree programs, NTU (with 325 North American receive sites) is a formidable institution and Baldwin's projections will probably be realized (See Baldwin 1991 where he points out that the 325 receive sites involve 113 organizations, from Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. to Xerox Corporation).

NTU has been pursuing expansion plans and in 1991 a survey was undertaken to look into expanding NTU into Japan: initiated by Utsumi, a pioneer in the concept of global educational since 1972, this is part of the Global University Utsumi has been working on for years, utilizing, the latest information technology in the sense of E-Mail, Computer Conferencing, facsimile services, full-motion, and slow scan video (and at times, all of these in a single international teleconference!) (See Utsumi 1974a, 1974b, 1986, and Urbanowicz 1988b). One teleconference of Utsumi spanned fourteen time-zones and actually took place on two calendar days and his words speak for themselves:

"GLOSAS/USA has conducted many demonstrations of a 'Global Lecture Hall (GLH),' where participants in several countries can hear, talk, and see each other with inexpensive methods for third world countries. The demonstrations included uplinking to satellites, combined with audio and slow-scan teleconferencing, global computer conferencing as well as facsimile for interactive question-and-answer exchanges. The most ambitious demonstration encompassed fourteen sites linked together, from the East Coast of the United States to the Republic of Korea, and from Anchorage, Alaska, to Brisbane, Australia. This demonstration spanned fourteen time zones and two calendar dates! Themes of panel discussions were 'Global Education in the 21st Century,' 'Environment and Sustainable Development,' etc., with many prominent distance educators from various locations. Such GLOSAS projects have clearly demonstrated how people can be linked across various boundaries for joint study, discussion, debate, research, planetary problem-solving, and political action. They have also helped foster a participatory spirit and sense of transnational identity among participants. Also these demonstrations have helped GLOSAS discover any technical, regulatory, economic and marketing impediments to the creation of a Global (electronic) University system so as to show, combining a variety of improved and presently more affordable technologies, that global educational exchange via international telecommunications is a feasible endeavor. A series of GLH demonstrations is a step toward the establishment of a Global (electronic) University (GU) consortium for global education in the Age of Knowledge. GU is an evolutionary concept with no global precedent. The goal is to empower under-served people of third world countries by giving them access to the educational excellence of many countries via various telecommunication media. Institutions that currently are limited to one country will be able to extend their services to learning centers and learners in regions where there may be a shortage both of trained faculty and of resources in technical and other fields of study. Students could access some of the world's finest resources with a far greater variety of educational philosophies, courses and instructional styles than they could ever encounter on single campus. The exchange of knowledge among/between countries can make major contributions to world peace, helping to ease frictions, to promote joint research and development and mutual exchange and understanding. We have received considerable interest from various organizations around the Pacific rim, Latin America, Europe, and Africa" (T. Utsumi 1990: n.p.).

Before creating a global education network, one must be aware of what has already happened: in 1978 there were a total of nine non-entertainment satellite video networks in North America and by 1988 the number stood at thirty-two (C.F. Urbanowicz 1988a). At the end of 1990, according to a professional publication, there were fifty-four "Networks" involved in various aspects of educational programming via satellite throughout North America (E.M. Gold 1990: 19-20). As comprehensive as this list appeared, it did not list the massive Hewlett Packard Network nor non-North American networks: in 1990 Mitsubishi Electric Corporation established a 15-site satellite education system in Japan. With the studio in Tokyo, in-house training via satellite is provided to employees in 22 classrooms. The system utilizes Ku-band compressed video (Anon., 1990b: 22). In 1990 an additional journal had eighty-seven "originators" of satellite programming with an additional forty-three groups also involved in provided some sort of education via satellite (Anon., 1990c: 13).

Numerous individuals are interested in distance education via the information technology of television. Given other technologies, various policy-makers and others must be aware of what is going on right now. There is no "future shock" but there is ignorance of the present and as a leading telecommunications industry author wrote:

"Satellite delivery of educational programming is recognized as one of the key growth areas for the [telecommunications] industry in the coming decade. The business of education via satellite is offering newer opportunities to satellite transmission service providers, equipment manufacturers, production studios and related businesses: (S. Chase 1990: 4).



"The tragedy of the world is that those who are imaginative have but slight experience, and those who are experienced have feeble imaginations. Fools act on imagination without knowledge; pedants act on knowledge without imagination. The task of a university is to weld together imagination and experience" (A.N. Whitehead 1929: 94).

Established in 1887 as the second Teacher's Normal School in the state, California State University, Chico, is part of the public system of higher education in California. A four-year Liberal Arts institution within the 20-campus California State University System, CSU, Chico has the responsibility of providing educational services to an area of northern California exceeding 84,470 square kilometers (or approximately 21% of the State of California). Two other segments of public higher education in California are the 107 Community Colleges and the 9 campuses of the University of California.

The population in northern California is approximately 650,000 individuals (or roughly 2.1% of the state's population) and with such a large and rural service area, CSU, Chico could not expect the people of the region to come to the campus for their educational needs and an external degree program was established to take some of the faculty out to some of the communities in the region. Having faculty travel to communities continued until the 1970's when an electronic distribution system was completed (C.F. Urbanowicz 1978).

ITFS has expanded to 16 sites in northern California. At CSU, Chico ITFS stands for "Instructional Television For Students." Courses and degree programs are delivered electronically in northern California. In January of 1976, the "Instructional Television For Students" network became operational in northern California. In recognition of CSU, Chico's telecommunications activities, in 1984 the University was ranked the most "innovative" of the then 19 campuses of the California State University system. The California State University System, in the Fall of 1990, had 368,766 enrollments, and has now expanded to 20 campuses; in Fall 1990, fifteen other campuses had established their own ITFS systems in their service areas, adapting the ITFS letters for their own region. At California State University, Sacramento, for example, ITFS stands for "Instructional Television For Sacramento."

CSU, Chico's activities in the 1990's is no longer unique: numerous institutions across the nation are delivering courses to students via television systems, be they terrestrial or extra-terrestrial or full-motion or non-full motion video. Today I would like to point out some of the specific aspects of the terrestrial ITFS system. In operation since 1976, thousands of individuals have availed themselves of the courses and in the Spring of 1991, twenty-four upper division CSU, Chico courses were broadcast for seventy-four hours a week to the residents of Northern California via the ITFS system (Please see Figure #1 for the distribution in Northern California). The courses, received at 15 sites throughout the region generated 579 off-campus enrollments for the University. While these courses were being broadcast (from 8a.m.-10p.m. Monday-Thursday, 8a.m.-7p.m. on Friday, and 8:30a.m.-3:30p.m. on Saturday) they also had on-campus enrollments of 433 in those same courses.

Analyzing these educational courses distributed via ITFS, modest mathematics reveals that if these courses were taught in the "traditional" manner in Northern California (with faculty driving to locations), the cost to the University for Spring 1991 would have been in excess of $200,000 in Motor Vehicle Operating expenses and some 16,000 personnel hours would have been expended driving throughout the region to deliver courses to generate the enrollments for the University. It is probably safe to say that if the twenty-four Spring 1991 courses had to be taught in the "traditional" manner throughout Northern California for automobile operating expenses in excess of $200,000, the University would not have offered those courses to the residents of the region; this doesn't even consider the 16,000 hours of driving time (which is equivalent to approximately 9 personnel years alone!). (The calculations take into consideration the distribution of enrollments throughout the region, round-trip distance from Chico (at $0.26/mile and travelling at an average of 50 miles per hour), and number of classroom contacts. An instructor going to Colusa, for example, would have a round-trip of 98 miles, taking almost two hours, and it would cost the University $25.48. If the instructor for a Monday-Wednesday-Friday class, were to travel to Colusa 45 times throughout the semester (15 weeks x 3 times/week) then it would cost the University $382.20 and the instructor would be on the road some 88.2 hours! Doing this for all Spring 1991 courses would generate a figure in excess of $200,000 and 16,000 travel hours for the 579 off-campus enrollments.)

ITFS instruction in Northern California provides savings for CSU, Chico. Perhaps more importantly, it represents savings to the individuals, for if those 579 Spring 1991 off-campus enrollments wanted to take those 24 courses by coming to the Chico campus for them, it would have cost them some $200,000 and 16,000 hours of driving time!

This statement is hard to prove, for chances are many of those individuals would not have come to campus (or they would have car-pooled or they would have . . . .); anyway, one gets the idea of the value of the distance education service the institution provides via ITFS. An independent statement concerning CSU, Chico' is found in a 1989 Ph.D. Dissertation from the University of Oregon: "The key factor revealed by this study is that the basic program is good from the point of view of students and instructors" (J.C. Lal 1989: 92). After CSU, Chico's success with ITFS, satellite-delivered education was clearly the next step in utilizing information technologies. In the 1980s both C-band and Ku-band uplinks were installed on the campus:

"Satellite networks make sense for distance learning because they are flexible, easy to install, are relatively inexpensive and permit an evolutionary educational system rather than a revolutionary change" (P. Rash 1990: 2).

CSU, Chico currently offers courses leading to both the B.S. and M.S. Degrees in Computer Science from the institution to corporate receive locations across the nation and to date, CSU, Chico has produced additional teleconferences received across North America.



The magnitude of CSU, Chico's educational television should be evident and a 4-C Framework is suggested (Figure #3). Three variables must come together: Content, Conduit, and Client. The Content is found among the faculty in the field. Conduit is the technology and the people who understand its function and its management. The Client is the student with their specific needs. If the three variables of Content, Conduit, Client, are not tied together by a fourth variable, namely Coordination, then Chaos results!

FIGURE 3: 4-C Framework

At CSU, Chico the coordination of televised education (ITFS and Satellite) is coordinated by The Center for Regional and Continuing Education; elsewhere, coordination is accomplished by a college (or department unit), a media center, or by consortia offices on a campus. These models all exist when one considers Oklahoma State University, George Washington University, the National Technological University or the National University Teleconference Network. Outside of academe, a similar 4-C framework has been utilized by private sector individuals and organizations. As stated elsewhere: "This framework applies to numerous situations, and all variables must work together to create a successful project. If they do not, there is chaos" (Urbanowicz et al., 1988: 49).



"While theoretically and technically television may be feasible, commercially and financially I consider it an impossibility, development of which we need waste little time dreaming." (Lee DeForest [1873-1961], The New York Times, November 6, 1926)

These words, by a twentieth century scientist and 1906 inventor of the triode, the basis of the radio, points out the danger of making predictions. With no predictions in this paper, I would, however, like to paraphrase the March 1991 paper and the recommendations made at the American Association for the Advancement of Science meeting and the session entitled "Satellite Delivery of Education: From Elementary School to the Working World" (C.L. Nevins and C.F. Urbanowicz op. cit.). Organizations that have a history of established and time-tested procedures and policies will survive over newer organizations that attempt to jump in without learning about what has gone on in the past (or what is actually going on right now around us).

Institutions that will find success in their use of information technology will be those that build upon the best of what they have by using the 4-C paradigm discussed above.

Advances in information technology are happening rapidly. Those who sit waiting on the sideline will be passed by those who are doing it.

To be successful, individuals and institutions must be committed to the challenge of delivering educational activities via satellite by providing "continuous learning" as part of the educational mission.

The 1989 report entitled Linking For Learning: A New Course For Education, pointed out that satellites are currently available, but "A shortage of satellite capacity (both C- and Ku-band) may develop" within the immediate future and we may be witnessing this sooner rather than later (L.G. Roberts 1989: 67). The definitive industry newsletter Satellite News pointed out that as of 31 July 1990, 436 operating transponders, or 90 per cent of the transponders available in geostationary orbit for CONUS (Continental United States) were being used! It would appear that there will be a surge of availability of transponders over the 1993-1995 time period, but after that, satellites which were launched in the 1980's will begin to go out of service, and then the crunch really begins! (D. Bross 1990a: pp. 6-7).

It is clear that as demand exceeds supply, pricing schedules will increase and new compression technologies will have to be developed. Consider the Direct Broadcast Satellite plans of the Seattle-based SkyPix organization: they plan to have 80 DBS channels on a satellite in 1991: compressed digital technology, with eight channels per transponder! (D. Bross,1990b, page 3; also see D. Bross 1990c and G. Stephens 1991).

Institutions and organizations which do not avail themselves of the capabilities of the option of "non-full-motion-video" for distance education purposes will find themselves priced out of the competitive market place by those individuals and organizations who will be utilizing such technologies like digital transmission systems.

In April of 1991, for example, a compressed videoconferencing system was established between CSU, Sacramento and CSU, Bakersfield and as pointed out: "With the state's fast-rising population and geographic vastness, video teleconferencing will be a key tool in meeting the needs of new students" (Larry Hicks 1991, page E3).

Will institutions outside of traditional education lose out to the entrepreneurs who will utilize the latest technologies? Distance education via satellite, using the new information technology, doesn't have to be full-motion video, a point made several years ago. Digital technology is available and COMSAT (the Communication Satellite Corporation) has announced TMTV (Time-Multiplexed Television) which can compress and combine "three separate NTSC-format TV source signals and stereo audio pairs into a single TV signal which then can be transmitted within a 36 MHz satellite transponder" (Anon., 1991b, page 9).

Educational institutions, either singly or as consortia, should be looking into such technology for future applications when the transponder marketplace becomes saturated or when there are insufficient transponders for all who wish to utilize them.

CSU, Chico's involvement with ITFS and the satellite activities, combined with computerized library support, is a clear indication of long-range planning and commitment to higher education, utilizing the available information technologies. In the 1980's a suggestion was made that since educational institutions had effectively gathered into a NUTN organization, perhaps now akin to EINSTEIN was needed: Educational INSTitutions Exchanging INformation on a world-wide basis (C.F. Urbanowicz 1988b and Nevins and Urbanowicz 1991). Whether this will actually develop has yet to be decided but the future is exciting.



"I don't envy anyone who has to advise his [or her] country what to buy--or to accept as a gift--in the telecommunications field during the next few years. Or for that matter, for the rest of the century. By 2001 everything we have will still be operating somewhere. And it will all be obsolescent" (A.C. Clarke 1984: 20).

Clarke's words are true for all aspects of information technology. Individuals must keep up with high-technology . It is also important that the technical advances for communication be utilized by the Industrial/Education complex to meet those needs.

Consider a satellite occupying an orbital position at 36,000 kilometers at 130 Degrees East Longitude and Zero Degrees Latitude, the proposed location for a satellite called Tongasat from a company registered in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. That satellite has an excellent view of a large portion of the globe (Please see Figure #4) (M. C. Nilson 1991: 688). Tongasat could alter the delivery of electronic information to this part of the world and there could be international repercussions. Other entrepreneurs are also planning satellites for this particular part of the geosynchronous orbit (Anon., 1991c: 4)

FIGURE #4: Earth from 130 Degrees East Longitude/Zero Latitude.

Situations are changing rapidly in information technologies. We must all continue to stay on top of things, remembering the words of Bagdikian: "Technology does not necessarily change simply because it would be good for the consumer" (B.H. Bagdikian 1971: xix). Utsumi is working on the deregulation of Japanese telecommunication policy to allow receive-only antennas for educational television signals from an INTELSAT satellite for Japan. If INTELSAT and the Japanese do not change existing policies, perhaps Tongasat can provide an alternative delivery system for this part of the Pacific Basin.

To deal with various information technologies, a wide range of social and political issues must be addressed. These are partially dealt with in such publications as The Information Society as Post Industrial Society (Masuda), Many Voices, One World (MacBride and the "new world communication order"), Global Talk (Pelton), and To Inform or To Control: The New Communications Networks (Y. Masuda 1980, S. MacBride 1980, Pelton 1981, and Ganley & Ganley 1982). In addition to extensive research and reading, meetings such as these are also an excellent way to stay on top of, and address, various global issues. Thank you.



Urbanowicz received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon in 1972 based on 1970-1971 fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and he presented his first Pacific Science Congress Paper in 1975 on a specific Tongan topic (C.F. Urbanowicz 1975). After teaching at the University of Minnesota in 1972-1973 he joined the faculty of California State University, Chico, and is now a Professor of Anthropology. As Associate Dean in the Center for Regional and Continuing Education from 1977-1988, he was involved in the University's distance education activities and although no longer involved in CSU, Chico's television plans, he follows aspects of information technologies and distance education on a global scale. He has been a Member of the Board of Directors of the Pacific Telecommunications Council, the Public Service Satellite Consortium, and the Society for Satellite Professionals, International.



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1. © As stated at the beginning, this paper was originally dated May 15, 1991 and was prepared for (and presented at) the 17th Quadrennial Meeting of the Pacific Science Congress at the session entitled "Technologies for Development: Prospects for the 21st Century" held in Honolulu, Hawai'i, 27 May-2 June 1991. It was placed on the WWW on March 29, 1999, as an example of some of my earlier ideas concerning education and technology. No revisions have been made to the text since writing the paper in 1991, save for some format changes needed for this WWW version. Would the paper be written today, it would (of course) be different; this is, however, what I wrote in 1991: so be it! To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

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Anthropology Department, CSU, Chico
28 March 1999 by CFU