A VISUAL INTELLECTUAL HISTORY OF CHARLES DARWIN

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology
California State University, Chico / Chico, California 95929-0400
530-898-6220 [Office: Butte 317]; 530-898-6192 [Department: Butte 311]; 530-898-6143 [FAX]
e-mail: curbanowicz@csuchico.edu / home page: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban

November 7, 2004 [1]

 [This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldExplorationFall2004Darwin.htm]

© [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on November 5, 2004, for a presentation on November 7, 2004, at the monthly lecture series entitled "World Explorations" sponsored by The Museum of Anthropology, California State University, Chico.

SUMMARY: Charles R. Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 and died on April 19, 1882 and is famous for his epoch-making 1859 publication entitled On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life .

Darwin sailed from England on HMS Beagle on December 27, 1831 and after research in South America, the HMS Beagle entered the Pacific Ocean on June 11, 1834. Darwin reached the Galápagos Islands on September 15, 1835. After that, HMS Beagle continued around the globe, arriving back in England on October 2, 1836. Darwin never left England again but continued his research, married, and raised a family, and published numerous volumes which have implications today. The year 2009 will be important for educators, since the ideas of Darwin will not go away, and 2009 will be the bicentennial of Darwin's birth and the sequicentennial of the publication of Origin.

Four Darwin Videos were created on this campus, wherein I portrayed Darwin in the first person. Today's presentation will show only the introductory video and the final video: Beginning and Man of Science. All four videos are on the web and may be viewed at your leisure. An overview of "The Darwin Project: 1996 to 2004" (with references to the four videos) is available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTOctober2004Darwin.html.

I. INTRODUCTION
II.THE PRESENTATION
III. WHY DARWIN?
IV. DARWIN, THE HMS BEAGLE, AND THE GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS: VERISIMILITUDE!
V. CONCLUSIONS
VI. SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ DARWIN ITEMS
VII. EPILOGUE: NOVEMBER 2004 POSTSCRIPT: SEARCH ENGINE REFERENCES
VIII. SELECTED VISUALS

 

I. INTRODUCTION

Initial videotaping of "Urbanowicz as Darwin" took place over a four day period in April 1996 in Studio "A" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico. I was first encouraged to "perform" as Darwin in the first person by Professor Lou Nevins (now retired from the Instructional Media Center, or IMC, at California State University, Chico). That presentation as Darwin was for the (now defunct) closed circuit television campus network known as ITFS (or Instructional Television For Students). That Darwin presentation was made in February 1993. Prior to the 1996 videotaping, Ms. Donna Crowe (also of IMC) did extensive research and wrote the script for four-day videotaping in 1996. After videotaping was completed, Donna coordinated and edited the creation and quest for graphics to add to the four videotapes and my interpretation of Charles Darwin was only possible because of a tremendous teamwork approach, spearheaded by Donna, who was the writer, producer, and co-director of the production. The other Co-Director was Mr. Clark Brandstatt (also of IMC). The narrator was Dr. Lynn Elliot (Department of English, CSU, Chico) and additional voices were provided by the following individuals: Alicia Croyle, Kris Frost, Brantly Payne, Michelle L. Smith, Alice Burkart-Roberts, Nanette Quintero, Jeff Hoheimer, Michael D. Jordan, Ryan Palmer, Karen Adelman, Steve Herman, Clark Brandstatt, and Terry Nolan. Camera operators were Kathleen Myers, Tony Bergman, and Karen Adelman. Costume and make-up were provided by Ms. Martha Acuña (now retired, from the Department of Theatre Arts, CSU, Chico). The teleprompter was handled by Karen Adelman and run-through readers were Marilyn Cervantes and Lou Nevins (both of IMC). Computer Graphics were created by H. Chris Ficken, Randy Wall, Derek Krauss, and Rachel Jupin (all of IMC). My appreciation and special thanks are also given to Dr. Randy Wonzong and Professor Marty Gilbert (Theatre Arts Department, CSU, Chico).

 

II.THE PRESENTATION

The finished videos are available on the World Wide Web (as indicated below). The first video was completed in 1997 and is entitled Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: The Beginning and is approximately seventeen minutes in length. The description for that video is as follows:

VIDEO #1: Imagine that you could visit with Charles Darwin as he remembers his youth. Perhaps you could learn what early experiences sharpened his power of observation and contributed to his unique perspective of the world. Join Dr. Charles Urbanowicz as he portrays the fascinating and very human Charley Darwin in the first program of the series Charles Darwin: Reflections: The Beginning.  

The fourth and final video, completed in 2003 Charles Darwin: Part Three: A Man of Science is approximately twenty-four minutes in length.

VIDEO #4: Within a few years of his return to England, Charles Darwin happily settled into marriage, moved to a quiet house in the country, and begun a routine of research and writing which would occupy the rest of his life. In this episode discover why Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) waited over 20 years to publish his groundbreaking work Origin of Species, and learn how ill health, family tragedies, friends, respected colleagues and ardent supporters shaped his life and career.

I began the evening with a brief slide show available only on the DVD: it provides an autobiograpical overview of Charles R. Darwin. Incidentally, should you care to view them via the World Wide Web, the descriptions for Tape number two and Tape number three are as follows:

VIDEO #2: Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage [ ~twenty-two minutes. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] Sail along with Charley Darwin on the first half of his historic journey around the world aboard the HMS Beagle. In this second video in the series, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz ) travels from England to unexplored reaches of South America and along the way he confronts slavery, rides with gauchos, experiences gunboat diplomacy, encounters a future dictator of Argentina, explores uncharted rivers, and discovers dinosaur bones.

VIDEO #3: Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [ ~twenty-seven minute. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] The second half of the historic journey of the HMS Beagle finds Charles Darwin exploring more of South America and several islands in the Pacific. In this episode, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) views several active volcanoes, experiences an earthquake, treks to the Andes, explores the Galapagos Islands, and then heads for home.

 

III. WHY DARWIN?

I have been interested in Charles R. Darwin since 1965 and I attempt to "humanize" Charles R. Darwin and place him within the context of his times, and discuss some of the impact (and interpretations) of his work and, working with others, have created the four videotapes wherein I portray Darwin in the first person. An interesting statement by a Darwin scholar is the following:

"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success." Peter Brent 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.

Darwin definitely proved many individuals wrong, and nothing is as clear as his monumental 1859 publication (and subsequent editions of 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872): On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition]; Darwin himself was to write in his Autobiography that the Origin "is no doubt the chief work of my life [stress added]" (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882: With Original Omissions Restored Edited With An Appendix And Notes By His Grand-Daughter, page 122); and a succinct statement on Charles Darwin is the following:

"He was an Englishman who went on a five-year voyage when he was young and then retired to a house in the country, not far from London [sixteen miles southeast]. He wrote an account of his voyage, and then he wrote a book setting down his theory of evolution, based on a process he called natural selection, a theory that provided the foundation for modern biology. He was often ill and never left England again [stress added]." John P. Wiley, Jr., 1998, Expressions: The Visible Link. Smithsonian, June, pages 22-24, page 22.

The 1973 Nobel Prize Winner Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) wrote: "I believe that even today we do not quite realize how much Charles Darwin knew [stress added]" (Konrad Lorenz, 1965, "Preface" in The Expression Of The Emotions In Man And Animals by Charles Darwin, 1872 [1965 University of Chicago Press edition], pages ix-xiii, pages xi-xiii) and even today, in 2004, Darwin's influence is still with us. The year 2009 will be important for me, since the ideas of Darwin will not go away, and 2009 will be the bicentennial of Darwin's birth and the sequicentennial of the publication of Origin. (The world-wide activities should actually begin in 2008, since that will be the sesquicentennial of the joint papers that Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) presented to the Linnean Society on July 1, 1858. Darwin is definitely still important and his ideas of evolution and natural selection are still with us:

"All the theory of natural selection says is the following. If within a species there is variation among individuals in their hereditary traits, and some traits are more conducive to survival and reproduction than others, then those traits will (obviously) become more widespread within the population. The result (obviously) is that the species' aggregate pool of hereditary traits changes. And there you have it [stress added]." Robert Wright, 1994, The Moral Animal (NY: Pantheon Books), page 23.

"Whatever the controversies that surround him, Charles Darwin was certainly the most important natural scientist of the past century; he may become the most important social scientist of the next. His great insight--that humans are animals and that their behavior, like that of all animals, is shaped by evolution--is now making its way into social theory. In economics, linguistics, anthropology and psychology, scholars are attempting to see how our evolved nature, interacting with particular environments, generates the ways we trade and speak, live with others and with ourselves [stress added]." Anon., The Wall Street Journal, May 27, 1999, page A24

Depending on how one counts Darwin's publications, he published more than thirty majors items in his lifetime on such diverse (yet related!) topics as flowers (1877), vegetables (1876), breeding animals (1839), vegetable mould (1881), climbing plants (1876), zoology (1836-1838), worms (1869), coral reefs (1842), as well as The Expression of the Emotions in Man And Animals (1872) and A Monograph of the sub-class Cirripedia, With Figures Of All The Species (1851 and 1854). (This last two-volume work was the result of eight years of research into this barnacle!) Darwin is important for many things!

Interest in Darwin continues to today! Indeed, the November 2004 issue of the National Georgaphic magazine has a cover title "Was Darwin Wrong?" and as one reads the volume, one get to the clear and well-written article by David Quammen: "NO. The evidence for Evolution is overwhelming" (pages 4-35).

 

IV. DARWIN, THE HMS BEAGLE, AND THE GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS: VERISIMILITUDE!

"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success." Peter Brent 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.

Charles R. Darwin definitely proved many individuals wrong, and nothing is as clear as his monumental 1859 publication (and subsequent editions of 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872): On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition]; Darwin himself was to write in his Autobiography that the Origin "is no doubt the chief work of my life [stress added]" (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882: With Original Omissions Restored Edited With An Appendix And Notes By His Grand-Daughter, page 122).

Darwin was chosen by Captain Robert FitzRoy (1805-1865) to accompany him as an unpaid nauralist on a trip around the world on HMS Beagle over the period of 27 December 1831 through 2 October 1836. After spending several years along the South American coast (and on South American countries) the HMS Beagle weny to the Galápagos Islands for several weeks (16 September through 20 October 1835) and Darwin continued with his data-gathering and thinking processes. After he returned to England he continued with his scholarly research and on January 30, 1839 Charles Darwin married his cousin Ms. Emma Wedgwood (1808-1896). They had ten children, seven of which survived to adulthood ("sex and love"). After living in London for a few years, in 1842 Mr. & Mrs. Darwin moved with their two young children (William Erasmus Darwin and Anne Elizabeth Darwin) to the village of Down (Kent), some sixteen miles southeast of "the city" and they remained there the rest of their lives. William was born in 1839 and died in 1914. Anne Elizabeth, on the other hand, was born in 1841 and died in 1851, and was Charles Darwin's favorite child. Anne's death affected him deeply.

In my attempts to "understand" Darwin and some of the individuals involved with him during his time, I have seen to FitzRoy's home in London (38 Onslow Square, SW7) as well as the area where Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood Darwin lived (110 Gower Street, WC1), and where Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895) maintained his residence (38 Marlborough Place, NW). I have also visited Down House, Luxted Road, Downe, Kent (where Mr. and Mrs. Charles Darwin moved to, from London, in September 1842) and in North America, I have visited the Rhea County Courthouse (Dayton, Tennessee) where the celebrated "Scopes Trial" of 1925 was held. I reside in Chico, California, a community that Joseph Hooker (1817-1911) visited in the 19th century and my wife and I have been to the Gálapagos Islands.

Incidentally, in virtually everything I write about Darwin I point out that when what is commonly called Origin was published in 1859, it was an immediate (and controversial) success. In attempting to understand Darwin, and the impact of his ideas through time, the following information should be of interest: every edition of Origin published in Charles R. Darwin's lifetime is different! He re-wrote every-single-one and all are different! The reason it is important to point out the various editions of Origin is demonstrated by the following chart, based on information in the excellent 1959 publication of Morse Peckham [Editor] entitledThe Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text). The concept of change is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself or reading about him and I include the following tabular information on Darwin's Origin in virtually everything I present or write:

THE VARIOUS EDITIONS FROM 1859-1872:

YEAR/Ed.
COPIES
Sentences
Sentences
Sentences
TOTAL
% CHANGE
1859/1st
1,250

3,878

1860/2nd
3,000
9 eliminated
483 rewritten
30 added
3,899
7 %
1861/3rd
2,000
33 eliminated
617 rewritten
266 added
4,132
14 %
1866/4th
1,500
36 eliminated
1073 rewritten
435 added
4,531
21 %
1869/5th
2,000
178 eliminated
1770 rewritten
227 added
4,580
29 %
1872/6th
3,000
63 eliminated
1699 rewritten
571 added
5,088
21-29 %

If one is reluctant to read ALL of Darwin's Origin as indicated, there is a delightful book by Maurice Sagoff (1970) which is called to your attention: Shrinklits: Seventy of the World's Towering Classics Cut Down To Size (New York: Workman Publishing) wherein the following appears on page 99:

"All creatures strive;
The fit survive.

Out of this surge
Species emerge.

'Throw the bum out!'
Is Nature's shout.

And 'Class will tell'
Sex-wise as well.

The age-old race
To win or place

(At least to show)
Persists, although

The way things look
None Dares make book."
 

Charles R. Darwin took great care not to write about Homo sapiens in Origin in 1859 and all he had to say about "man" was the following:

"In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history. [Chapter XV: "Recapitulation And Conclusion"]

In the 5th edition of 1869, Darwin used (for the first time) the famous phrase (borrowed from Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]): "Survival of the Fittest." In the 2nd edition of 1860 Darwin wrote the following:

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator [stress added] into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."

INCIDENTALLY, in his 1839 publication The Voyage Of The Beagle, Darwin wrote the following:

"Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in subliminity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man; whether those of Brazil, where the powers of Life are predominant, or those of Tierra del Fuego, where Death and Decay prevail. Both are temples filled with the varied productions of the God of Nature:--no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body [STRESS added]" 1839, page 436.

AND PLEASE CONSIDER the words of the Pulitzer Prize Winner (1940) and Nobel Prize Winner (1962) John Steinbeck (1902-1968) on Charles R. Darwin:

"In a way, ours is the older method, somewhat like that of Darwin on the Beagle. He was called a 'naturalist'. He wanted to see everything, rocks and flora and fauna; marine and terrestrial. We came to envy this Darwin on his sailing ship. He had so much room and so much time. ... This is the proper pace for a naturalist. Faced with all things he [or she] cannot hurry. We must have time to think and to look and to consider [stress added]." John Steinbeck, 1951, The Log From The Sea of Cortez [1967 printing: Pan Books: London], page 123.

 

V. CONCLUSIONS

Darwin began a Notebook in July of 1837 and started gathering all of the facts that he could on variations in plants and animals, both under domestication and existing in the wilds of nature. By 1844 Darwin had enlarged his notes into a sketch of the conclusions he thought probable and those notes and research resulted in the celebrated joint Darwin-Wallace paper to the Linnean Society in 1858 and the Origin in 1859.

"On 1 July 1858 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace [1823-1913] made the first public statement of their theory of evolution by natural selection before the Linnaean Society of London, and their papers were published on 20 August of the same year. The eighteen pages which they covered were among the most pregnant ever printed, and deserve to rank with those of Isaac Newton, since they provide for the realm of living beings the first general principle capable of universal application [stress added]." Sir Gavin De Beer, 1958, Charles Darwin And Alfred Russel Wallace: Evolution By Natural Selection, page 1.

Darwin has had an impact and his impact continues to this day:

"Darwin's work, in particular, radically unnerved thousands who held a biblical view of humankind's historical story; and to this day the implications of his thinking for biology (and even psychology and sociology) have been profound. He himself became an agnostic and saw no great overall moral or philosophical meaning in the long chronology of our being, which he regarded, rather, as a story of accidents and incidents, of chance and circumstance as they all came to bear on 'natural selection.' Although Copernicus [1473-1543] and Galileo [1564-1642] and Newton [1642-1727] have been absorbed, so to speak, by traditional Christianity, by no means has Darwin's view of our origin and destiny been universally integrated into the teachings, the theology, of many religions that rely upon the Bible for their inspiration, their sense of who we are, where we came from, how our purpose here ought to be described. It was one thing for scientists to probe the planets, declare that this place we inhabit is only one spot in a seemingly endless number of places in an ever expanding universe, or to examine closely our body's cells, or othse of other creatures; it was quite another matter to suggest that we ourselves are merely an aspect of an ever changing nature, that our 'origin' was not 'divine' but a consequence of a biological saga of sorts [stress added]." Robert Coles, 1999, The Secular Mind (Princeton University Press), pages 50-51.

Today there is something known as the "Darwin Industry" which has resulted in such publications as Edna Healy's outstanding Emma Darwin: The Inspirational Wife of a Genius (2001), Merryl Davies's Darwin And Fundamentalism (2000), Gabriel Dover's Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (2000), Phillip E. Johnson's Defeating Darwinism By Opening Minds (1997), Randal Keynes's Darwin, His Daughter, and Human Evolution (2002), Janet Browne's outstanding 2002 publication entitled Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (Volume II of a Biography, which is an excellent companion volume to her earlier 1995 volume entitled Charles Darwin: Voyaging (Volume I of a Biography), S. Alter's Darwin and The Linguistic Image (1999), Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search For Common Ground Between God And Evolution (1999 by Kenneth R. Miller), Gerald Weissmann's 1998 Darwin's Audubon: Science and The Liberal Imagination, Matthew Chapman's 2000/2001 Trials Of The Monkey, as well as Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (a 2002 publication edited by John Hart and John Terrell). Indeed, it is in this last item that the editors have an excellent statement, well-summarazing "why" interest in Darwin took off so rapidly after 1859 (and why it continues to this day):

"But what then is evolution? Although it may sound unconventional to say so, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution is above all else a theory of history. While initially offered as an encompassing theory about the origin of new species by means of NATURAL SELECTION, Darwin's insights into the causes of biological evolution and persistence soon proved to be so powerful that many have sought to apply Darwinian theory to human affairs--to use Darwin's ways of thinking about history and evolution to explain not only our own oigins as a remarkably clever kind of animal (see BIOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS), but also our human ways and the history of human institutions and social practices (major elements of what many anthropologists and others call CULTURE) [stress added]." John Terrell and John Hart, 2002, Darwin and Archaeology: A Handbook of Key Concepts (Westport, Connecticut: Bergin & Garvey), page 2.
 # # #


VI. SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ DARWIN ITEMS (in reverse chronological order):

The Four Darwin Videos (all available at http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/darwinvideo.htm or):

2003 Charles Darwin: - Part Three: A Man of Science. [ ~Twenty-four Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/Darwin/RV/darwin4.ram] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

Within a few years of his return to England, Charles Darwin happily settled into marriage, moved to a quiet house in the country, and begun a routine of research and writing which would occupy the rest of his life. In this episode discover why Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) waited over 20 years to publish his groundbreaking work Origin of Species, and learn how ill health, family tragedies, friends, respected colleagues and ardent supporters shaped his life and career.

2001 Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-seven Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwin3.ram] Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

The second half of the historic journey of the HMS Beagle finds Charles Darwin exploring more of South America and several islands in the Pacific. In this episode, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) views several active volcanoes, experiences an earthquake, treks to the Andes, explores the Galapagos Islands, and then heads for home.

1999 Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwinvoyage.ram] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

Sail along with Charley Darwin on the first half of his historic journey around the world aboard the HMS Beagle. In this second video in the series, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz ) travels from England to unexplored reaches of South America and along the way he confronts slavery, rides with gauchos, experiences gunboat diplomacy, encounters a future dictator of Argentina, explores uncharted rivers, and discovers dinosaur bones.

1997 Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: The Beginning. [ ~Seventeen Minutes Video. Darwin in England]. [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwinreflections.ram]. Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

Imagine that you could visit with Charles Darwin as he remembers his youth. Perhaps you could learn what early experiences sharpened his power of observation and contributed to his unique perspective of the world. Join Dr. Charles Urbanowicz as he portrays the fascinating and very human Charley Darwin in the first program of the series Charles Darwin: Reflections: The Beginning.

Urbanowicz-Generated Darwin Self-Tests:

2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestFour.htm (Darwin Self-Test Four} September 2004).

2003 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestThree.htm (Darwin Self-Test Three} October 2003).

2001 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestTwo.htm (Darwin Self-Test Two} November 2001].

2000 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestOne.htm (Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One} January 2000).

 

Others Urbanowicz Darwin-Related Sites:

2004a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTOctober2004Darwin.html] (The Darwin Project: 1996 to 2004! Presented October 21, 2004, at the Tenth Annual Conference on Learning and Teaching sponsored by CELT (Center for Excellence in Learning and Teaching), October 21-22, 2004, at CSU, Chico.

2004b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinSP2004PHIL108.html (Charles R. Darwin and Moral Evolution. For PHIL 108 (Ethics and Human Happiness) at CSU, Chico, on May 5, 2004.

2004c http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FourDarwinVideosFeb2004.html] (Four Darwin Videos from CSU, Chico. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forums, February 12 and 19, 2004).

2004d http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TeachingAboutDarwinJan2004.html [For a workshop on January 10, 2004, sponsored by the Outreach Programs of the California Academy of Sciences (San Francisco) and held at the Museum of Anthropology at California State University, Chico].

2003 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Jan2003Hawai'iDarwin.html [Teaching As Theatre Once Again: Darwin in the Classroom (And Beyond). (For the Hawai'i International Conference on Arts and Humanities, Honolulu, Hawai'i, January 12-15, 2003.) [Also published in The Conference Proceedings, CD-ROM: ISSN#1541-5899.]

2002a, http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinDayCollectionOneChapter.html [There Is A Grandeur in This View Of Life. Darwin Day Collection One: The Single Best Idea Ever (2002) Edited by Amanda Chesworth et al. (Albuquerque, New Mexico: Tangled Bank Press), pages 67-70. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of 2002b below.]

2002b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DarwinSacFeb2002.html [On Darwin: Countdown to 2008/2009]. For "Darwin Day" activities, sponsored by HAGSA [The Humanist Association of the Greater Sacramento Area], Sacramento, California, February 10, 2002].

2002c Teaching As Theatre. Strategies in Teaching Anthropology, Second Edition (2002), edited by Patricia Rice & David W. McCurdy, Editors (NJ: Prentice Hall), pages 147-149. [NOTE: This is a shortened version of 2000a below.]

2001a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CorningSp2001.html (For a presentation to the 7th grade "Life Science" classroom of Ms. Tiana Scott, Maywood Middle School, Corning, CA, February 28).

2001b The Galápagos Islands: Every Little Bit Helps. The Chico Enterprise-Record, Sunday, February 25 (page E1 and E2) and see: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/GalapagosIslandsoilspill.htm.

2000a Teaching As Theatre: Some Classroom Ideas, Specifically Those Concerning Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) for the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Francisco, CA (November 15-19).

2000b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/darwinvisualsonly.htm [Darwin Visuals} November 10, 2000].

1998 Folklore Concerning Charles R. Darwin. Presented at the 1998 Meetings of the Southwestern Anthropological Society and The California Folklore Society, Sacramento, CA, April 16-18.

1990 A Letter To The Editor [Concerning Charles R. Darwin]. [Chico Enterprise-Record], September 26, page B4.] 


VII. EPILOGUE: NOVEMBER 2004 POSTSCRIPT: SEARCH ENGINE REFERENCES

In 2000 there was a delightful book entitled Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior, wherein the author has Darwin saying:

"I am so glad you have taken the time and trouble to write to me. It is one of the saddest aspects of human existence that, as soon as one passes away, it is generally assumed that the deceased has no further interest in what he or she spent a great part of life investigating. From what you tell me of the Darwin industry of scholars in your day, busy seeking out every nuance of my life and thoughts, I have to conclude that there is indeed life after death [stress added]." Gabriel Dover, 2000, Dear Mr. Darwin: Letters On The Evolution of Life And Human Behavior (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson), page 3. 

For-virtually-every web page I do dealing with Charles Darwin, I "update" the following information concerning "Darwin" and "Search Engines" on the World Wide Web. Before examing the "Search Engine References" below, please consider the following:

"Google--or any search engine--isn't just another website; it's the lens through which we see that information, and it affects what we see and don't see. At the risk of waxing Orwellian, how we search affects what we find and by extension, how we learn what we know [stress added]. Lev Grossman, 2003, Search And Destroy. Time, December 22, 2003, pages 46-50, page 50.

And, for any readers of this page, please consider the following from March 31, 2004:

"Ten years from now--maybe five or even less--we will recall Google circa 2004 and wonder how we could have tolerated it. ... A search engine of 2010 will know who you are, where you are and what you're doing, and look across every form of information to automatically find what will help you. That's when today's Google will seem as quaint as the special effects in an old Godzilla movie [stress added]." Kevin Maney, 2004, Future search efforts wil make Google look like 8-tracks. USA Today, March 31, 2004, page 4B.  

On November 2, 2004, "search engine hits" for "Charles R. Darwin" resulted in the following information: Google had 306,000 items; Alta Vista Search had 597,000; WiseNut had 5,186; and AllTheWeb had 506,000 web pages. Please consider previous search engine results..

DATE
GOOGLE
ALTA VISTA
WISENUT
ALLTHEWEB
October 20, 2004
296,000
596,000
5,186
496,000
October 12, 2004
292,000
601,000
5,186
497,000
May 4, 2004
264,000
108,303
18,247
91,931
April 14, 2004
268,000
106,585
18.247
90,571
March 22, 2004
279,000
90,610
18,247
556,125
February 10, 2004
260,000
90,749
26,209
582,798
January 4, 2004
251,000
89,979
26,209
568,418
September 27, 2003
278,000
81,607
39,116
463,572
November 27, 2002*
143,000
84,274
76,294
516,281
May 2, 2002
130,000
36,608
64,940
N/A
February 6, 2002
118,000
40,131
N/A
N/A
October 17, 2001
120,000
65,975,088
N/A
N/A

* Additional search engine sites were consulted on various dates on and before November 27, 2002: MonkeySweat had numerous items and Northern Light had 2,720 items.

On May 2, 2002, MonkeySweat had numerous items and Northern Light had 2,623 items.

On February 6, 2002, MonkeySweat had numerous items and Northern Light had 2,587 items.

On October 17, 2001, MonkeySweat had numerous items and Northern Light had 51,939 items.

Incidentally, on January 28, 1999 (pre-Google days!), Northern Light had 40,025 "hits" and Alta Vista had 29,330.

Two things should be obvious: (#1) interest in Darwin continues and (#2), obviously, just as with people, all "search engines" are not created equal and there is "cultural selection" involved in everything we do! How does one "evaluate" and "use" this wide range of information? One does it just as Darwin did, carefully, patiently, and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex[1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.
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VIII. SELECTED VISUALS

Martha Acuña, Charlie Urbanowicz, Karen Adelman, Clark Brandstatt, and Donna Crowe.

Photo by Sadie Urbanowicz, Down House, England (1999).
Photo by Sadie Urbanowicz, The Galápagos Islands (2000).

Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, Natural History Museum, London (1999).
2001


(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on November 5, 2004, for a presentation on November 7, 2004, at the monthly lecture series entitled "World Explorations" sponsored by The Museum of Anthropology, California State University, Chico. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

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 [~5,796 words] } 7 November 2004


To go to the home page of Urbanowicz, please click here;

to the Museum of Anthropology;

Department of Anthropology;

to California State University, Chico.

 [This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldExplorationFall2004Darwin.htm]


Copyright © 2004; all rights reserved by Charles F. Urbanowicz

5 November 2004 by cfu

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