FOR THE FINAL UPDATE TO THIS GUIDEBOOK on December 5, 2008, please click please click here.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html [Today in History]

http://www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html [Anthropology In The News} From Texas A&M University]

http://news.google.com/ [GOOGLE} News Information from all over!]

http://www.earthweek.com/ [Earthweek} A Diary of the Planet]

http://www.worldometers.info/ [Worldometers} Real time world statistics]

http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/uncgi/Earth/action?opt=-p [Earth View!]

ANTHROPOLOGY 113-1 & ANTH 113-40 FALL 2008

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor Emeritus of Anthropology

Guidebook for Human Cultural Diversity [Course Number 2601; also, this class is part of Course Link groups A1 and A2.]

California State University, Chico / Office: Butte 202

ANTH 113-01 & 113-40} MWF} Ayres Hall 106} 9 -> 9:50am

Office Hours} Mon + Wed} 8 -> 8:30 + 2 -> 4pm and by appointment; Office Phone: (530) 898-6220 / Dept: (530) 898-6192

e-mail: curbanowicz@csuchico.edu

http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/

© [Copyright: All Rights Reserved] Charles F. Urbanowicz/August 25, 2008} This copyrighted Web Guidebook, printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_113-FA2008.html is intended for use by students enrolled at California State University, Chico, in the Fall Semester of 2008 and unauthorized use / reproduction in any manner is definitely prohibited.

DESCRIPTION: The course explores culture as the basis for understanding the human experience, including an examination of cross-cultural diversity. This is an approved General Education course. This is an approved Non-Western course. Formerly ANTH 013. CAN ANTH 4 (The 2007-2009 University Catalog, page 186).

THREE REQUIRED TEXTS:
Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict: Readings in Cultural Anthropology (12th Edition)
George R. Stewart, 1949, Earth Abides.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, Fall 2008 edition, Anthropology 113 Guidebook [also available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_113-FA2008.html.

FOUR RECOMMENDED ITEMS:
Three Cups of Tea:  One Man's Mission to Promote Peace…One School At A Time (2006) by Greg Mortenson and David Oliver Relin [Note} Book-in-Common]
Any English Language Dictionary.
William A. Strunk, Jr., 2000, The Elements of Style (4th edition).
The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2008. 

ASSESSMENT: Make-up exams only allowed IF there has been a documented emergency: likewise, your Writing Assignment is DUE on October 17, 2008 and will ONLY be accepted late IF there has been a documented and extreme emergency: NOTE} failure of your computer to print out the Writing Assignment that morning is not, REPEAT, is not an emergency! In an emergency, please contact Urbanowicz as soon as possible b.e.f.o.r.e. or after the emergency! Please note the following important dates (and look at dates & requirements for your other courses):

EXAM I (20%) [Friday} 9/26/2008
ON September 26, 2008 (20%) at the end of Week 5; based on readings and lectures to September 24, 2008
WRITING ASSIGNMENT (10%) [Friday} 10/17/2008
DUE October 17, 2008 (10%) at the end of Week 8 (Please see Guidebook for information )
EXAM II (30%) [Friday} 11/7/2008
ON November 7, 2008 (30%) at the end of Week 11; based on readings and lectures from September 29, 2008 to November 5, 2008
THANKSGIVING BREAK!
November 24 [Monday] -> November 28 [Friday], 2008
EXAM III} 113-01} (35%) [Mon} 10 ->11:50am} 12/15/2008
ON MONDAY December 15, 2008 (35%); based on readings & lectures from November 10, 2008 to December 12, 2008 (includingEarth Abides).
CLASS PARTICIPATION (5%)
25 August 2008 ->12 December 2008 (5%).

THE COURSE is heavily mediated with videos and PowerPoint slides and you are responsible for information presented in this manner. Individuals are expected to locate major land masses discussed in lectures and readings. Every examination will have a map based on the maps in the Anthropology 113 Guidebook. Your Writing Assignment should be approximately 1,500 words. The single Writing Assignment must be double-spaced. PLEASE NOTE: Various WWW addresses are provided and will be expanded throughout the semester but at this time no examination questions are based on these WWW locations: they are shared with you for exploration on your own. ALSO NOTE: At times throughout the semester, this web Guidebook will be updated and you may be responsible for some of the information provided in these updates. [The above paragraph contains ~127 words.]

NOTE: If you have a documented disability that may require reasonable accommodations, please contact Disability Support Services (DSS) for coordination of your academic accommodations. DSS is located in the University Center (behind Kendall Hall). The DSS phone number is 898-5959 V/TTY or FAX 898-4411. Visit the DSS website at http://www.csuchico.edu/dss/.

PLEASE REMEMBER: Free public lectures, ANTHROPOLOGY FORUM (ANTH 497-01, #2622) for One Unit every Thursday from 4 -> 4:50pm in Ayres Hall 120. One unit of credit is available through Dr.Stacy B. Schaefer, Chair, Department of Anthropology.

The Functions of Grading: Underlying the rationale for grades is the theme of communication. Grades communicate one or more of the following functions:

1. To recognize that classroom instructors have the right and responsibility to provide careful evaluation of student performance and the responsibility for timely assignment of appropriate grades;
2. To recognize performance in a particular course;
3. To act as a basis of screening for other courses or programs (including graduate school);
4. To inform you of your level of achievement in a specific course; To stimulate you to learn;
5. To inform prospective employers and others of your achievement.

DEFINITION OF LETTER GRADING SYMBOLS:

A -- Superior Work: A level of achievement so outstanding that it is normally attained by relatively few students.
B -- Very Good Work: A high level of achievement clearly better than adequate competence in the subject matter/skill, but not as good as the unusual, superior achievement of students earning an A.
C -- Adequate Work: A level of achievement indicating adequate competence in the subject matter/skill. This level will usually be met by a majority of students in the class.
D -- Minimally Acceptable Work: A level of achievement which meets the minimum requirements of the course.
F -- Unacceptable Work: A level of achievement that fails to meet the minimum requirements of the course. Not passing.

ON PLAGIARISM / MISREPRESENTATION:
Plagiarism,
in the 2007-2009 University Catalogue is defined as follows: "Copying homework answers from your text to hand in for a grade; failing to give credit for ideas, statement of facts, or conclusions derived from another source; submitting a paper downloaded from the Internet or submitting a friend's paper as your own; claiming credit for artistic work (such as a music composition, photo, painting, drawing, sculpture, or design) done by someone else." AND SEE: http://www.csuchico.edu/art/contrapposto/contrapposto00/pages/appendix8.html please note the following: "B. Plagiarism will lead to grade reduction [for] the course and could lead to suspension from the University. (You are responsible to the standards appearing in the University's catalogue and the student handbook. Please read the University's pamphlet, Academic Honesty, an Ounce of Prevention.) Copies of this handbook are available at the Student Judicial Affairs Office in Kendall Hall [stress added]." (And see here below.)

ALSO, please note the following from the 2007-2009 University Catalogue on Misrepresentation: "Having another student take your exam, or do your computer program or lab experiment; lying to an instructor to increase your grade; submitting a paper that is substantially the same for credit in two different courses without prior approval of both instructors involved; altering a graded work after it has been returned and then submitting the work for regrading [stress added]."

A NOT SO BIG SECRET: #1} The information (or "meaning") that you will get out of this course will be in direct proportion to the energy you expend on assignments and requirements: readings, writing assignment, examinations, and thinking assignments. #2} I will try to provide you with new information and ideas every class period! PS: "He'd tell us to learn from what happened to him." [The character Ron Weasley to Hermione Granger in] J.K. Rowling, 2007, Harry Potter And The Deadly Hallows (Arthur A. Levine Books/Scholastic Inc.), page 95.


Please Click To Get To The Exact Week In This Web GUIDEBOOK:

SPECIAL: Fall 2008 Certain Statements

1. WEEK 1: Beginning Monday August 25, 2008: INTRODUCTION & OVERVIEW TO THE COURSE.

2. WEEK 2: [Campus Closed Monday September 1] So on Wednesday September 3, 2008 and Friday September 5, 2008: WHAT DOES AN ANTHROPOLOGIST DO FOR A LIVING? 

3. WEEK 3: Beginning September 8, 2008: CULTURE & ETHNOGRAPHY (CONTINUED)

SPECIAL: Notes on California / Chico

SPECIAL: Notes on Charles Darwin (February 12, 1809 - April 19, 1882)

4. WEEK 4: Beginning Monday September 15, 2008: RESEARCH, ECOLOGY, & INTO LANGUAGE

SPECIAL: Anthropology & Cyberspace

5. WEEK 5: Beginning Monday September 22, 2008: LANGUAGE, COMMUNICATION, & REVIEW, and EXAM I (20%) on Friday, September 26, 2008.

6. WEEK 6: Beginning Monday September 29, 2008: ECOLOGY & SUBSISTENCE (CONTINUED).

SPECIAL: Fall 2008 "Current Information"

SPECIAL: The Nacirema.

SPECIAL: Writing Assignment Instructions For Writing Assignment (10%) DUE Friday October 17, 2008.

SPECIAL: SOME Anthropology Information Sources in The Meriam Library at California State University, Chico.

7. WEEK 7: Beginning Monday October 6, 2008: ECONOMICS & KINSHIP & FAMILY & MAGIC & RELIGION & ....

8. WEEK 8: Beginning Monday October 13, 2008: ROLES & INEQUALITY & ECONOMICS & CHANGE & YOUR WRITING ASSIGNMENT (10%) DUE Friday October 17, 2008.

9. WEEK 9: Beginning Monday October 20, 2008: CULTURE CHANGE CONTINUED.

10. WEEK 10: Beginning Monday October 27, 2008: CULTURE CHANGE, APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY, AND TECHNOLOGY.

11. WEEK 11: Beginning Monday November 3, 2008: CULTURE CHANGE AND REVIEW AND EXAM II (30%) on Friday November 7, 2008.

12. WEEK 12: Beginning Monday November 10, 2008: LAW & POLITICS & RELIGION, MAGIC, WORLD VIEW, AND BACK TO THE PACIFIC: TASMANIA.

SPECIAL: Previous Student Comments About Earth Abides.

13. WEEK 13: Beginning Monday November 17, 2008: TAMANIA CONTINUED (AND NO CLASS FRIDAY NOVEMBER 21, 2008!)

14. WEEK 14: THANKSGIVING BREAK: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 2008 - > FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 2008!

15. WEEK 15: Beginning Monday December 1, 2008: ALMOST OVER & WINDING DOWN.

SPECIAL: Notes on Native Americans

16. WEEK 16: Beginning Monday December 8, 2008: CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND REVIEW.

17. WEEK 17: EXAM III (35%): ANTH 113-01} AYRES 106} On MONDAY December 17, 2008 from 10 -> 11:50am.

A Short Course In Human Relations
TABLE OF EXCUSES: Please Give Excuse By Number In Order To Save Time:

SPECIAL: Selected University Resources For Students

SPECIAL: Brief Disclaimer Essay On This Web-Based Syllabus

FOUR ESSAYS BY URBANOWICZ FOR FALL 2008


SIX GOALS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AT CSU, CHICO

1.  Understand from an anthropological perspective the phenomenon of culture as it differentiates human life from other life forms. Understand the roles of human biology and cultural processes in human behavior and evolution.

2.  Develop an ability to critically address ethical and moral issues of diversity, power, equality, and survival from an anthropological perspective.

3.  Know substantive data and theoretical perspectives in the subdisciplines of anthropology. Know the history of anthropological theory and be conversant in major issues in each area. 

4.  Be familiar with the forms of anthropological literature and basic data sources.  Know how to access, interpret, evaluate, and apply such information, using a range of sources and information technologies.

5.  Grasp the methodologies of the subdisciplines of anthropology.  Be able to apply appropriate methods when conducting anthropological research.

6.  Be able to present and communicate the results of anthropological research.


CERTAIN STATEMENTS COLLECTED by Charles F. Urbanowicz for FALL 2008

"We can chart our future clearly and wisely only when we know the path which has led to the present." Adlai E. Stevenson (1900-1965)

"I say my philosophy, not as claiming authorship of ideas which are widely diffused in modern thought, but because the ultimate selection and synthesis must be a personal responsibility." Sir Arthur Eddington [1882-1944], The Philosophy of Physical Science, 1949: page viii.

"Anything we haven't experienced for ourselves sounds like a story. All we can do is sift the evidence."Mary Norton, 1953, The Borrowers Afield."
They judge me before they even know me." Shrek.
Ellen Weiss, 2001, Shrek: The Novel (NY: Puffin Books), page 86.
"Any teacher who can be replaced by a computer deserves to be!" David Smith; as cited by Mike Cooley, 1999, Human-Centered Design. In Information Design (1999), edited by Robert Jacobson (MIT Press), pages 59-81, page 73.

"...I do believe something very magical can happen when you read a good book" [stress added]." Joanne K. Rowling, 1999, Harry Potter Author Reveals The Secret.... In USA Weekend, November 12-14, 1999, page 4.

"How you think about who you are right now has everything to do with what will happen to you in the future." (C.C. Carter, Chico Enterprise-Record, May 6, 1997, page 12A).

"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself." Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 1972: 483.

"Interest is a sense of being involved in some process, actual or potential. ...Interest is not the same as attention. Attention is a simple response to a stimulus--either to a loud bang or (much more powerful) to a feeling of interest. Interest is selective, an expenditure of energy by the interested party. ... Memory is an internally edited record of interests (not of attention, much less of 'events') [stress added]." Henry Hay, 1972, The Amateur Magician's Handbook, pp. 2-3.

"The cutting edge of knowledge is not in the known but in the unknown, not in knowing but in questioning. Facts, concepts, generalizations, and theories are dull instruments unless they are honed to a sharp edge by persistent inquiry about the unknown." Ralph H. Thompson [1911-1987] American Educator.

"It is our choices that show what we truly are, far more than our abilities." The character Albus Dumbledore to Harry Potter in Harry Potter And the Chamber of Secrets, 1998, by Joanne K. Rowling, page 333.

"Destination, Determination, Deliberation." The character Wilkie Twycross in J. K. Rowling, 2005, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (NY: Scholastic Books), page 384.

"The university is not engaged in making ideas safe for students. It is engaged in making students safe for ideas [stress added]." Clark Kerr, in Vance Packard, 1964, The Naked Society [1965 Cardinal paperback edition], page 99.

"Our lives begin to end the day we become silent about things that matter." Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968); awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.

"Cultural diversity is a reservoir of creativity.... This creativity is not confined to the arts; it is also a source of potential solutions to social and environmental problems, solutions that would otherwise be ignored by politically dominant cultures precisely because dominance breeds complacency and stunts the capacity of self-criticism. In this sense, cultural diversity is an indispensable corrective or counter-balance [stress added]." David Harmon, 2002, In Light of Our Differences: How Diversity In Nature And Culture Makes Us Human (Smithsonian Institution Press), page 45.

"Amaze me with your stories. Thrill me with your experiences. Astound me with your brilliance. Convince me with your passion. Show excitement. Intrigue. Anything--just don't bore me with another computer graphics presentation [stress added]." Clifford Stoll, 1999, High-Tech Heretic: Why Computers Don't Belong in the Classroom and Other Reflections by a Computer Contrarian (NY: Doubleday), page 183.

"An education isn't how much you have committed to memory, or even how much you know.
It's being able to differentiate between what you do know and what you don't.
" Anatole France (1844-1924)

"Habits of thinking need not be forever. One of the most significant findings in psychology in the last twenty years is that individuals can choose they way they think." Martin E. P. Seligman, 2006, Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life (NY: Vantage Books), page 8.

"Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list.... [stress added]." Benedict Carey, This Is your life (and How You Tell It). The New York Times, May 22, 2007, Science Times Section, pages D1+D6, page D1.
"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)
FINALLY, Urbanowicz quotes Montaigne (1533-1592): "I quote others only the better to express myself."


WEEK 1: BEGINNING Monday August 25, 2008.

I. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW TO THE COURSE: COURSE ORGANIZATION & PLANNING.

A. PLEASE familiarize yourself with the format of this Guidebook. Various newspaper (and "Current Events") will be mentioned throughout this Fall 2008 semester.

B. PLEASE look at the Department Goals, Reading Assignments, Outline for each Day, Web Sites/Words/Terms, and Video Notes: There really are NO surprises in this course!

"Be yourself, be organized, be prepared, and be honest! Know your strengths and weaknesses and plan your semester. Create a calendar (examinations, field trips and days when you will have to miss class): Everyone is on the same schedule [or calendar!], and when Professor X has an exam in week five, chances are Professors Y and Z will have one! Prepare to work: The university is not high school but a job! Be honest with yourself: A famous statement from ancience Greece was Gnothi se auton ("Know thyself"). True thousands of years ago, true today, and true for the rest of your lives!" Charlie Urbanowicz, Chico State anthropology professor, Chico News & Review, Goin' Chico 2004, page 50.

C. PLEASE READ THE VIDEO NOTES in this Guidebook before the videos are shown in class.

D. YOU WILL BE using this Guidebook throughout the Semester; you will be reading Spradley & McCurdy (S&M) throughout the Semester; you will be reading Earth Abides beginning in Week 12 of the Semester. (For previous student comments about Earth Abides, please click here.) PLEASE TAKE NOTES IN THIS Guidebook: IT WILL NOT BE RE-PURCHASED BY THE BOOKSTORE.

E. ALSO, please think about the following for this class (and ALL of your classes):

"Your instructor, however knowledgeable and good at communicating, cannot talk about everything at once. He or she cannot tell you at the same time about specific ethnographic cases and different kinds of societies, or about epistemological assumptions about how we learn things at the same time as about ethnographic field work methods, or about heuristic theories at the same time as about specific understandings of particular cultural patterns. He or she cannot tell you about Darwin [1809-1882] and Mendel's [1822-1884] contribution to evolution at the same time he or she is discussing the details of Australopithecus robustus, much less the ecological context and why we think the population that this fossil represents adapted to life on the savanna. You eventually need to know all of these things and how they influence one another, but you cannot learn all of it at once. Be patient; you will catch on [stress added]." Philip Carl Salzman and Patricia C. Rice, 2004, Thinking Anthropologically: A Practical Guide For Students (NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall), page 2.

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Culture and Ethnography" by S&M [Overview], pages 1-5.
"Ethnography and Culture" by James P. Spradley, pages 7-14.
"Kinship and Family" [Overview], pages 178-181.
"Law and Politics" [Overview] by S&M, pages 260-263.

III. WHAT DOES AN ANTHROPOLOGIST DO?

"Where have you been all my life, anthropology?" Mary H. Manhein, 1999, The Bone Lady: Life As A Forensic Anthropologist (NY: Penguin Books), page 7.

For the 2006-2007 Academic Year, a total of 699 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 409 females [58.5%] and 290 males [41.5%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (22), Canada (96),Finland (5), Mexico (3), and the United Kingdom (49). Source: The 2007-2008 American Anthropological Association Guide, pages 654-656.

"Open your discourse with a jest, and let your hearers laugh a little; then become serious." (Talmud: Shabbath. 30b)

A. For a MASSIVE Anthropology site [my term for it], please see: http://www.unipv.it/webbio/dfantrop.htm as well as Anthropology Resources on the Internet and the local: http://www.csuchico.edu/lbib/anthropology/anthropology.html; and http://www.csuchico.edu/lref/guides/rbs/anthro.htm [Anthropology "jumping off" point at CSU, Chico].

"A picture shows me at a glance what it takes dozens of pages of a book to expound." (Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev [1818-1838], Fathers and Sons (1862), Chapter 16.

"Anthropology--From Greek anthropos (man) and logia (study)--is the systematic wonder about and the scientific study of humans. Wonder about humans is probably as old as man [and woman!], Homo sapiens." Morris Freilich, 1983, The Pleasure of Anthropology, page x.

"The English word 'ethnography' derives from Greek and literally means the description of a people and its way of life. In contempoary social science, ethnography refers both to a process of research and to the account (usually in writing, but also possibly on film) that results from that research. The tradition of producing descriptive accounts of the customs and practices of different people goes back to classical antiquity--the histories of the greek Herodotus and the Roman Tacitus are enlivened by such details [stress added]." Michael V. Angrosino, 2002, Doing Cultural Anthropology: Projects for Ethnographic Data Collection (Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland press0, page 1.

"The word "anthropology" first appeared in the English language in 1593 (the first of the "ologies," incidentally, to do so). The word "ethnology" made its first appearance in an 1830...." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1992, Four-Field Commentary. Newsletter of the American Anthropological Association, 1992, Volume 33, Number 9, page 3. [And see: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/4field.html]

"Lisa, get away from that jazzman! Nothing personal. I just fear the unfamiliar [stress added]." Marge Simpson, February 11, 1990, Moaning Lisa. Matt Groening et al., 1997, The Simpsons: A Complete Guide To Our Favorite Family (NY: HarperCollins), page 22.

"The barbarous heathen are nothing more strange to us than we are to them.... Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592], Essays, page 53 [1959 paperback publication of a translation from 1603].

B. Text(s), Assignments, Examinations (Three), and Grading
C. How to "use" this Guidebook, Video Notes, and various WWW "addresses" shared with you. NOTE THE FOLLOWING taken from Rick Steves' Europe Through the Back Door 1999 (1998, pages 8-9):

"Guidebooks are $15 tools for $3,000 experiences. Many otherwise smart people base the trip of a lifetime on a borrowed copy of a three-year-old guidebook. The money they saved in the bookstore was wasted the first day of their trip, searching for hotels and restaurants long since closed. When I visit someplace as a rank beginner--a place like Belize or Sri Lanka--I equip myself with a good guidebook and expect myself to travel smart. I travel like an old pro, not because I'm a super traveler, but because I have good information and use it. I'm a connoisseur of guidebooks. My trip is my child. I love her. And I give her the best tutors money can buy. Too many people are penny-wise and pound-foolish when it comes to information. ... All you need is a good guidebook covering your destination. Before buying a book, study it. How old is the information? The cheapest books are often the oldest--no bragain. Who wrote it? What's the author's experience? Does the book work for you--or the tourist industry? Does it specialize in hard opinions--or superlatives? For whom is it written? Is it readable? It should have personality without chattiness and information without fluff. Don't believe everything you read. The power of the printed word is scary. Most books are peppered with information that is flat-out wrong. Incredibly enough, even this book may have an error" [stress added]." Rick Steves' Europe Through the Back Door 1999 (Santa Fe, NM: John Muir Publications), 1998, pages 8-9.

D. Desired Outcomes of the Course: for you and for me!

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING from the "Editorial" in The Chico Enterprise-Record of February 3, 2002: "Here are some of the unsettling results of recent polls and studies taken in the United States on geograpy awareness: One in seven U.S. adults could not locate the United States on a world map. Three out of 10 Americans cannot distinguish north from south on a map. Nearly half of the college students in California could not identify Japan on a map. ... Twenty-five percent of high school seniors in Dallas [Texas] couldn't name the country on our southern border. In Baltimore [Maryland], 45 percent of high school seniors couldn't shade in the United States on the world map. ... In Miami [Florida], 30 percent couldn't locate the Pacific Ocean [stress added]."

IV. CULTURE AND THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD & CYBERSPACE!

"Anthropology provides a scientific basis for dealing with the crucial dilemma of the world today: how can peoples of different appearance, mutually unintelligble languages, and dissimilar ways of life get along peaceably together? Of course, no branch of knowledge constitutes a cure-all for all the ills of mankind. ... Students who had not gone beyond the horizon of their own society could not be expected to perceive custom which was the stuff of their own thinking. The scientist of human affairs needs to know as much about the eye that sees as the object seen. Anthropology holds up a great mirror to man[kind] and lets him [and her!] look at himself in his infinite variety. This, and not the satisfaction of idle curiosity nor romantic quest, is the meaning of the anthropologist's work.... [stress in original]." Clyde Kluckhohn, 1949, Mirror For Man: The Relation of Anthropology To Modern Life, page 1 and page 10)

A. The Concept of Culture & Basic Cultural Diversity: ABCs.
B. The Sub-disciplines of Anthropology
C. The World Wide Web and the changing aspects of....everything!
D. Comments on "Cyberspace! [below in the electronic Guidebook].

http://www.123cam.com/ [Web Cameras Around The World!]
http://www.ilovelanguages.com/ [I Love languages} Your Guide to Languages on the Web]
http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html [Test Your Geography Knowledge]
http://www.earthchangestv.com/index.htm [Earth Change News]
http://www.californiacoastline.org/ [California Coastal Records Project]

"There's a fair amount of decelptive and misleading information on the Internet that is posing as truth.... Factors to consider: 1. Who wrote it? 2. Who published it? 3. is the information current, accurate, and complete? 4. Is the information presented in an objective manner? 5. How often is the site updated? 6. Is the document well written? [stress added]." LaJean Humphries, 2002, How to Evaluate a Web Site. In Web of Deception: Misinformation on the Internet (Anne P. Mintz, Editor) ( Medford NJ: Information Today, Inc.), pages 165-173, page 165.

V. THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY / FIELD METHODS: WHAT WE DO
A.
Fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and....
B. THE YANOMAMO: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY: Comments on the Yanomamo of South America.

"In 1589 the Jesuit scholar José de Acosta, who lived and traveled widely in South America, proposed that native Americans were descended from people who had migrated from Siberia. More than four hundred years later, Acosta's idea has held up pretty well [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering The Past Through Our Genes (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page 195.

JULY 3, 2008: "On a recent afternoon deep in the Amazon's rain forest, members of the Surui tribe, which made contact with the outside world less than 40 years ago, could not resist the urge known to modern man - they googled themselves. Then they looked up football. Computers with an Internet connection, video cameras, Global Positioning System devices and other high-tech gadgets are replacing bows and arrows in the small indigenous village about 1,600 miles northwest of Rio de Janeiro, which has teamed up with Google Earth to help protect its 600,000-acre reserve from illegal miners and loggers." The San Francisco Chronicle.

VI. WHAT IS SCIENCE? / PERSPECTIVE(S)

"Science is much more than a body of knowledge. It is a way of thinking." Carl Sagan [1934-1996].
"How sad that so many people seem to think that science and religion are mutually exclusive [stress added]." Jane Goodall [with Phillip Berman], 1999, Reason For Hope: A Spiritual Journey (NY: Warner Books), page 174.

"Science is a public undertaking with many filters that a claim must pass through before it's accepted as part of the current conventional wisdom. Two of the most important of those filters are the refereeing process for scientific articles and the repeatability test for experimental results [stress added]." John L. Castin, 2000, Paradigms Regained: A Further Exploration of the Mysteries of Modern Science (Harper Collins/William Morrow), page 11.

VII. INDIVIDUALS WHO MIGHT BE CONSIDERING A MAJOR in Anthropology should make an appointment with the Anthropology Department Chairman (Dr. Stacy B. Schaefer, Butte Hall 311; phone 530-898-6192). Dr. Georgia Fox is the Advisor for the Minor in Anthropology.

"Youth cannot know how age thinks and feels. But old men are guilty if they forget what it was to be young." (Albus Dumbledore, in} J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 826.

"[Old] Age is foolish and forgetful when it underestimates youth." The character Albus Dumbledore in J. K. Rowling, 2005, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (NY: Scholastic Books), page 564.

"Old age has a way of forcing a person back upon themselves. The pace of life slows an brings with it a natural inclination to reflect upon the past." Linda Lear, 2007, Beatrix Potter: A Life In Nature (NY: St. Martin's Press), page 427.

IX. UNFORTUNATELY, FINALLY FOR THE END OF WEEK I:

"A USA TODAY analysis of 620 deaths of four-year college and university students since Jan. 1, 2000, finds that freshmen are uniquely vulnerable. They account for more than one-third of undergraduate deaths in the study, although they are only 24% of the undergraduates at those institutions.....College administrators [and teaching faculty!], public health officials, and parents increasingly have become concerned about the safety of college students after highly publicized deaths on campus from alcohol abuse and other causes [stress added]." Robert Davis and Anthony DeBarros, 2006, First year in college is the riskiest. USA Today, January 25, 2006, pages 1-2.

"The news that 1,400 college students across the country die every year from alcohol-related accidents [~3.8 every day!] comes as no surprise to Edith Heideman, a Palo Alto mother who lost her son to alcohol poisoning while he was rushing a fraternity at California State University at Chico. ... A study released yesterday by the federally supported Task Force on College Drinking ... [stated that] Alcohol abuse also played a role in more than 500,000 injuries and 70,000 cases of sexual assault or date rape [~1,944 every day]." Ray Delgado, 2002, Campus Boozing Toll. The San Francisco Chronicle, April 10, 2002, Page 1.

http://www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov [Task Force on College Drinking]


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

AFFINITY: A fundamental principle of relationship linking kin through marriage.

AGRICULTURE: A subsistence strategy involving intensive farming of permanent fields through the use of such means as the plow, irrigation, and fertilizer.

APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: Any use of anthropological knowledge to influence social interaction, to maintain or change social institutions, or to direct the course of cultural change.

CLAN: A kinship group normally comprising several lineages; its members are related by a unilineal descent rule, but it is too large to enable members to trace actual biological links to all other members.

CONSANGUINITY: The principle of relationship linking individuals by shared ancestry (blood).

CULTURE: The knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior.

ECOLOGY: The study of the way organisms interact with each other within an environment.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

HORTICULTURE: A kind of subsistence strategy involving semi-intensive, usually shifting, agricultural practices. Slash-and-burn farming is a common example of horticulture.

HUNTING AND GATHERING: A subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occuring foods.

KINSHIP: The complex system of social relations based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity).

POLITICAL SYSTEM: The organization and process of making and carrying out public policy according to cultural categories and rules.

SHAMAN: A part-time religious specialist who controls supernatural power, often to cure people or affect the course of life's events.

SLASH AND BURN: A form of horticulture in which wild land is cleared and burned over, farmed, then permitted to lie fallow and revert to its wild state.


YANOMAMO: A MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY = "A [1972] film study showing a multi-disciplinary research team doing field work in human population genetics among the Yanomamo Indians in Southern Venezuela. One half of the film is purely ethnographic; the other half records the scientific research undertaking." FOR some information about Napoleon Chagnon and "concerns" about his interpretation of the Yanomamo Indians please see "Yanomami: What Have We Done To Them? A new book charges scientists with abusing the famous tribe, stirring fierce debate in academia." Margot Roosevelt, Time, October 2, 2000, pages 77 & 78, page 77; and "Atrocities in the Amazon?" Geri Smith, Business Week, December 18, 2000, pages 21-24.

FROM THE VIDEO: Alliances, feasts, trading: "Alliances between villages are the product of a developmental sequence that involves casual trading, mutual feasting, and finally the exchange of women. ... The feast and the alliance can and often do fail to establish stable, amicable relationships between sovereign villages. ... Yanomamo warfare proper is the raid."

Napoleon Chagnon points out that the Yanomamo population is probably around 10,000. These were distributed in approximately 125 widely scattered villages, with the population in each village ranging from 40 to 250 individuals. ..."Yanomamo culture, in its major focus, reverses the meaning of 'good' and 'desirable' as phrased in the ideal postulates of the Judaic-Christian tradition. A high capacity for rage, a quick flash point, and a willingness to use violence to obtain one's ends are considered desirable traits. Much of the behavior of the Yanomamo can be described as brutal, cruel, treacherous, in the value-laden terms of our own vocabulary. The Yanomamo themselves...do not at all appear to be mean and treacherous. As individuals they seem to be people playing their own cultural game....this is a study of a fierce people who engage in chronic warfare. It is also a study of a system of controls that usually hold in check the drive towards annihilation." (Napoleon Chagnon, Yanomamo: The Fierce People, 1968) ... "The most distinctive feature of Yanomamo technology is that it is very direct. No tool or technique is complicated enough to require specialized labor or raw materials. Each village, therefore, can produce every item of material culture it requires from the jungle resources around it. ... The jungle provides numerous varieties of food, both animal and vegetable. ... Although the Yanomamo spend almost as much time hunting as they do gardening, the bulk of their diet comes from foods that are cultivated. Perhaps 85 percent or more of their diet consists of domesticated rather than wild foods.... [stress added]." (Napoleon Chagnon, The Fierce People, 1968: 21-33)

WHY STUDY PEOPLE?: "...the Yanomamo, who dwell in the forests of southern Venezuela and consist of an estimated 20,000 people who live by subsistence farming in small villages. They are one of the few remaining tribes unaffected [!] by Western culture. ... The Yanomamo eat virtually no salt at all. Researchers observed 46 members of this tribe who were in their 40s, and found they had an average blood pressure of only 103/65. Another Amazonian tribe, the Carajas, take in little salt, calculated to be half a gram a day, and the average blood pressure of ten of their middle-aged people was slightly lower at 101/69. (The longevity of these people is not recorded, but if there is a link between salt, blood pressure and lifespand then we can assume they will probably all live to be a hundred.) John Emsley, 1998, Molecules At An Exhibition: Portraits Of Intriguiging Materials in Everyday Life, page 38).

"A nation's diet can be more revealing than its art or literature. On any given day in the United States about one-quarter of the adult population vists a fast food restaurant. During a relatively brief period of time, the fast food industry has helped to transform not only the American diet, but also our landscape, economy, workforce, and popular culture [stress added]." Eric Schlosser, 2001, Fast Food Nation (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page 3.

NOTE: "An overwhelming amount of preventable disease in modern societies results from the devastating effects of a high-fat diet. Strokes and heart attacks, the greatest causes of early death in some social groups, result from arteries clogged with atherosclerotic lesions. ... The single thing most people can do to improve their health is to cut the fat content of their diets [stress added]." Randolph M. Nesse & George C. Williams, 1994, Why We Get Sick: The New Science of Darwinian Medicine, pages 148-149)

ELSEWHERE} "China and many other developing nations are rushing with equal speed into an emerging pandemic of heart disease.... Heart disease is poised to pitch China, with its 1.2 billion people, into a costly public health crisis. Already 40% of the deaths in China result from heart disease or strokes. ... By the end of last year [2001], the Chinese could eat locally at more than 400 McDonald's restaurants and about 600 KFC restaurants [stress added]." Steve Sternberg, 2002, World prospers, hearts suffer. USAToday, November 18, 2002, pages D1 + D2.


WEEK 2: Wednesday [September 3] & Friday [September 5], 2008

I. WHAT DOES AN ANTHROPOLOGIST DO FOR A LIVING? (CONTINUED)

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Economy and Globalization" [Overview], pages 142-145.
"Reciprocity and the Power of Giving" by Lee Cronk, pages 147-153.
"Forest Development the Indian Way" by Richard K. Reed, pages 132-141.
"The Kayapo Resistance" by Terrence Turner, pages 391-409.
"Using Anthropology" by David W. McCurdy, pages 422-435.

III. "Harry sorted through his presents and found one with Hermione's handwriting on it. She had given him too a book that resembled a diary, except that it said things like 'Do it today or later you'll pay!' every time he opened a page." J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 501.

IV. ON TRAVEL AND THE GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGY

"Travel teaches seven important lessons [according to Arthur Frommer, age 76, author of travel books].... 1. Travelers learn that all people in the world are basically alike. ... 2. Travelers discover that everyone regards himself or herself as wiser and better than other people in the world. ... 3. Travel makes us care about strangers. ... 4. Travel teaches that not everyone shares your beliefs. ... 5. Travelers learn that there is more than one solution to a problem. ... 6. Travel teaches you to be a minority. ... 7. Travel teaches humility." Larry Bleiberg, 2003, Among Travel's Seven Important Lessons is Humility. The Sacramento Bee, February 2, 2003, page M3.

V. PLEASE THINK ABOUT finding "meaningful patterns in the data" such as:
A. Contemporary American Culture
B.
"100 percent American" (please see below for this week in this Guidebook).
C. What Is Culture?
D. ANY Significance to: Victoria, Mel B, Geri, Mel C?
E. ANY Significance to: Emily Robinson, Natalie Maines, Margie Maguire?
F. ANY Significance to:B, C, N, O, F?
G.
ANY Significance to: O, T, T, F, F, S, S, E, N, ?

"The whole of science is nothing more than a refinement of everyday thinking." (Albert Einstein [1879-1955], 1921 Nobel Laureate in Physics, Ideas and Opinions, 1954: page 65)

"In addition to solving puzzles, science also builds understanding by revealing the properties of the world and the relationships between them. Here again, the methods that scientists employ find widespread use in everyday life. From infancy onward, each person measures and classifies the properties of unfamiliar objects in order to integrate them into a larger worldview--from a ten-month-old learning to stack blocks, to Charles Darwin cataloging specimens aboard the Beagle [stress added]." Arno Penzias [1978 Nobel Laureate in Physics], 1989, Ideas And Information: Managing In A High-Tech World (NY: Simon & Schuster), page 177.

"Literacy can imply more than the ability to read. It can mean having a knowledge of one's history, of one's origins; having a world view that is indigenous to one's people and not imposed by others [stress added]." Josephine Donovan, 2001, Feminist Theory: The Intellectual Traditions, 3rd edition (New York/London: Continuum). From the preface to the first edition of 1985, page 15.

PALEOANTHROPOLOGY = the science of placing the "chain" or "tree" of the pieces together. It "has been one of the most argumentative of sciences since its beginning. ... It is a heart-quickening thought that we share the same genetic heritage with the hands that shaped the tool that we can now hold in our own hands, and with the mind that decided to make the tool that our minds can now contemplate [stress added]." (Richard Leakey and Roger Lewin, Origins, 1977: 8.

"I suppose the real reason for taking an interest in history [or paleoanthropology!], as some ship's navigator must have once said, you can only predict where you're going if you know where you've been. ... [The] journey from past to present, full of unexpected encounters and events along the way, has brought you to where you are and who you are at this moment, reading these words. This is why the past is no foreign, unknown land. The people in the past were trapped in their context, just as we are in ours. ... You may not agree with the way these essays [or course!] present events. That's fine. There is no single correct way to track from the past to the present. And if your disagrrement goes so far as to drive you to find alternate routes for what I write about that are even better, write your own history. The more of us doing so, the better [stress added]." James Burke, 2000, Circles: 50 Round Trips through history, Technology, Science, Culture (NY: SImon & Schuster), pages 13 -16.

V. TOPICS THIS WEEK

A. VIDEO: THE MAN HUNTERS (Please see Video Notes Below):

"Human being are the result of the same evolutionary process that produced the entire vast diversity of living things. Yet we cannot help but think of ourselves as somehow significantly 'different' from the rest of nature." Ian Tattersall, 1998, Becoming Human: Evolution And Human Uniqueness, page 78.

B. Brief Introduction to Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

"He was an Englishman who went on a five-year voyage when he was young and then retired to a house in the country, not far from London. He wrote an account of his voyage, and then he wrote a book setting down his theory of evolution, based on a process he called natural selection, a theory that provided the foundation for modern biology. He was often ill and never left England again [stress added]." John P. Wiley, Jr., 1998, Expressions: The Visible Link. Smithsonian, June, pages 22-24, page 22.

"The great value of Darwinism, it seems to me, was that it jolted modern men into questioning various sentimental beliefs about nature and man's place in it. In this, Darwin's influence closely parallels that of Galileo [1564-1642]. Just as the first modern astronomers and physicists destroyed a naive geocentrism, so Darwin and his successors overwhelmingly displaced what may be called homocentrism, the belief that nature exists for the sake of man [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 72.

SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT: The categories and rules people use to classify and explain their physical environment.

DESCENT: A Rule of relationship that ties people together on the basis of reputed common ancestry.

DIVISION OF LABOR: The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.

DIFFUSION: The passage of a cultural category, culturally defined behavior, or culturally produced artifact from one society to another through borrowing.

ECOLOGY: The study of the way organisms interact with each other within an environment.

ENDOGAMY: Marriage within a designated social unit.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

EXOGAMY: Marriage outside any designated group.

HUNTING AND GATHERING: A subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occurring foods.

INCEST TABOO: The cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse and marriage between specified classes of relatives.

INNOVATION: A recombination of concepts from two or more mental configurations into a new pattern that is qualitatively different from existing forms.

NUCLEAR FAMILY: A family composed of a married couple and their children.

PRODUCTION: The process of making something.


THE MAN HUNTERS = "Imagine a line three miles long representing the 4 million years of man's time on earth. Walking back only 40 feet would cover all of recorded history. All the rest of the 4 million years, the three miles, is prehistory. About 100 years ago scientists began to probe this great void in search of the earliest evidence of man's existence. From France [Les Eyzies de Tayac], to China [Choukoutien or Zhoukoudian], from Israel [Mt. Carmel], to South Africa, scientists have discovered remains of man-like creatures, some dating back 3.5 [million] years. As each piece of the puzzle is assembled we are now one step closer to understanding not only our own past but [hopefully] our future." In 1924 Raymond Dart (1893-1989) discovered a fossil skull at Taung, South Africa and named it Australopithecus Africanus; Dart called it a human ancestor and eventually he advocated a "killer-ape" theory of development. Phillip Tobias is another South African researcher and is definitely not a "killer-ape" theorist. Video also deals with the work of Henry de Lumley (Scientific American, 1969, Vol. 220, pages 42-50).

"Les Eyzies is the normal point of first entry for visitors to the land of prehistory. It has a national museum, the cave where Cro-Magnon man was discovered, and much else--all in the midst of spectacular scenery. ... The National Museum of Prehistory lies within Les Eyzies, in a structure built into the side of a cliff, with overhanging rock above, which was originally a thirteenth-century fortress. It houses a rich collection of prehistoric items, not only from the Dordogne but also from other French archaeological sites...." Charles Tanford & Jacqueline Reynolds, 1992, The Scientific Traveller: A Guide to the People, Places, and Institutions of Europe, page 205.

Les Eyzies-De-Tayax-Sireuil = "The science of prehistory originated in this village....The first drawing of a mammoth was discovered here along with the first skeleton of Cro-Magnon Man, 30,000 years ago." Anon., 1988, The Hachette Guide To France (NY: Pantheon Books), page 111.

"The Dordogne River twisted in loops like a brown snake in the valley it had cut hundreds of thousands of years before." Michael Crichton, 1999, Timeline (Ballantine Books November 2000 Paperback), page 43.

"In 1856, at the very time Charles Darwin was writing The Origin of Species [published in 1859!],which would popularize the revolutionary concept of evolution worldwide, the fossilized remains of a stocky, powerful, human-like creature were discovered in a German valley called Neander Tal." Erik Trinkaus and Pat Shipman, 1993, The Neanderthals: Changing The Image of Mankind

"Fighting in China following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941 resulted in a paleoanthropological disaster. The largest and most complete collection of human fossil remains--unearthed at Zhoukoudian, near Beijing--vanished after being entrusted to a platoon of U.S. Marines on its way to the harbor of Tianjin." Jean-Jacques Hublin, 1999, The Quest For Adam. Archaeology, July/August, pages 26-35, page 26.

Charles F. Hockett, 1973, Man's Place in Nature, page 387 [CSUChico GN/31/H6] ="range" of cranial capacity: Modern Man [Homo sapiens] 850 to 1700+ cubic centimeters; Neanderthal 1200 to 1640 cc.; Homo erectus 775 to 1225 cc.; Australopithecus 435 to 700 cc.; Gorillas 340 to 752 cc.; and Chimpanzees 320 to 420 cc.

PLEASE NOTE:

"Evolution does not make predictions....We do have the capacity to make the future a long and fruitful one, if only we will take the time to learn who we are and how we fit into the natural world [stress added]. (Donald C. Johanson, 1993, from the "Forward" to Ian Tattersall's 1993, The Human Odyssey: Four Million Years of Human Evolution (Prentice Hall), page xiii.


FROM: "100 percent American" by Ralph Linton in his 1936 publication entitled The Study Of Man, pp. 326-327).

"Our solid American citizen awakens in a bed built on a pattern which originated in the Near East but which was modified in Northern Europe before it was transmitted to America. He [or she] throws back covers made from cotton, domesticated in India, or linen, domesticated in the Near East, or wool from sheep, also domesticated in the Near East, or silk, the use of which was discovered in China. All of these materials have been spun and woven by processes invented in the Near East. He slips into his moccasins, invented by the Indians of the eastern woodlands, and goes to the bathroom, whose fixtures are a mixture of European and American inventions, both of recent date. He takes off his pajamas, a garment invented in India, and washes with soap invented by the ancient Gauls. He then shaves, a masochistic rite which seems to have been derived from either Sumer or ancient Egypt.

Returning to the bedroom, he removes his clothes from a chair of southern European type and proceeds to dress. He puts on garments whose form originally derived from the skin clothing of the nomads of the Asiatic steppes, puts on shoes made from skins tanned by a process invented in ancient Egypt and cut to a pattern derived from the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean, and ties around his neck a strip of bright-colored cloth which is a vestigial survival of the shoulder shawls worn by the seventeenth-century Croatians. Before going out for breakfast he glances through the windows, made of glass invented in Egypt, and if it is raining puts on overshoes made of rubber discovered by the Central American Indians and takes an umbrella, invented in southeastern Asia. Upon his head he puts a hat made of felt, a material invented in the Asiatic steppes.

On his way to breakfast he stops to buy a paper, paying for it with coins, an ancient Lydian invention. At the restaurant a whole new series of borrowed elements confronts him. His plate is made of a form of pottery invented in China. His knife is of steel, an alloy first made in southern India, his fork a medieval Italian invention, and his spoon a derivative of a Roman original. He begins breakfast with an orange, from the eastern Mediterranean, a cantaloupe from Persia, or perhaps a piece of African watermelon. With this he has coffee, an Abyssinian plant, with cream and sugar. Both the domestication of cows and the idea of milking them originated in the Near East, while sugar was first made in India. After his fruit and first coffee he goes on to waffles, cakes made by a Scandinavian technique from wheat domesticated in Asia Minor. Over these he pours maple syrup, invented by the Indians of the eastern Woodlands. As a side dish he may have the eggs of a species of bird domesticated in Indo-China, or thin strips of the flesh of an animal domesticated in Eastern Asia which have been salted and smoked by a process developed in northern Europe.

When our friend has finished eating he settles back to smoke, an American Indian habit, consuming a plant domesticated in Brazil in either a pipe, derived from the Indians of Virginia, or a cigarette, derived from Mexico. If he is hardy enough he may even attempt a cigar, transmitted to us from the Antilles by way of Spain. While smoking, he reads the news of the day, imprinted in characters invented by the ancient Semites upon a material invented in China by a process invented in Germany. As he absorbs the accounts of foreign troubles, if he is a good conservative citizen, thank a Hebrew deity in an Indo-European language that he is 100 percent American." [This selection is ~625 words.]


WEEK 3: BEGINNING Monday September 8, 2008

I. CULTURE & ETHNOGRAPHY (CONTINUED) & Monkeys, Apes, and Man Video (see the Wisconsin Primate research site at http://www.primate.wisc.edu/pin/) or the University of California, Davis at http://www.crprc.ucdavis.edu/crprc/homepage.html, and http://www.gorilla.org/index.html [The Gorilla Foundation], or http://www.selu.com/~bio/PrimateGallery/main.html [The Primate Gallery], and http://www.janegoodall.org/ [Jane Goodall]; and have a look at Professor Turhon Murad, CSU, Chico, and his "Skull Module" located at http://www.csuchico.edu/anth/Module/skull.html).

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Culture Change and Applied Anthropology" [Overview], pages 386-390
"Lessons from the Field" by George Gmelch, pages 46-57.
"Baseball Magic" by George Gmelch, pages 306-315.

III. PRIMATES
A. MODERN HUMANS and Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
.

"Often Gary's [Larson] cartoons help us to see things with a new perspective, above all to realize that we humans, after all, are just one species among many, just one small part of the wondrous animal kingdom. ... Crazy. Absurd. Yet it all helps to put us humans in our place. And we desperately need putting in our place [stress added]." Jane Goodall. 1995, Foreward. The Far Side Gallery 5 (Kansas City: Andrews and McMeel), no page number [pages 5-8, pages 6-7].

B. NATURAL SELECTION: "The process of differential survival and reproduction that results in changes in gene frequencies and in the characteristics that the genes encode." Paul W. Ewald, 1994, Evolution of Infectious Disease, page 220.

From The San Francisco Chronicle of February 21, 2003: "The serious outbreak of staphylococcus infections resistant to antibiotic treatment.... The more an antibiotic is used, the more quickly bacteria mutate and develop resistance to the antibiotic [EVOLUTION!]. This resistance crisis is growing because of the overuse of antibiotics both in human medicine (the largest single cause of antibiotic resisance) and in animal agriculture (a lesser known but significant cause as well) [stress added]. Stephan E. Follansbee, 2003, Weak Links in the Food Chain: Antibiotic alert. The San Francisco Chronicle, February 21, 2003, page A25.

"About 70% of the antibiotics produced in the USA each year - nearly 25 million pounds in all - are fed to healthy pigs, chickens and cattle to prevent disease or speed growth, says a report released Monday [January 8, 2001]. Such 'excessive' use of antibiotics in livestock is contributing ...[to] many of the microbes that plague humans....[stress added]." Anita Manning, 2001, Healthy Livestock Given More Antibiotics Than Ever. USA Today, January 9, 2001, page 8D

"Roughly 20 million pounds of antibiotics are given each year to U.S. cattle, pigs, and chickens [stress added]." Sirley Leung, 2003, McDonald's Wants Suppliers Of Meat to limit Antibiotic Use. The Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2003, page B2. 

C. CONTROVERSY: The "Scopes Trial" of July 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee:

From: The World's Most Famous Court Trial: Tennessee Evolution Case (1925) (1990 Reprint Edition published by Bryan College, Dayton, Tennessee), page 87; the court transcript points out that Clarence Darrow said: "If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers. Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men. If you can do one you can do the other. Ignorance and fanaticism is ever busy and needs feeding. Always it is feeding and gloating for more. Today it is the public school teachers, tomorrow the preachers and the lecturers, the magazines, the books, the newspapers. After while, your honor, it is the setting of man against man and creed against creed until with flying banners and beating drums we are marching backward to the glorious ages of the sixteenth century when bigots lighted fagots to burn the men who dared to bring any intelligence and enlightenment and culture to the human mind [stress added]."

"An agnostic is a doubter. The word is generally applied to those who doubt the verity of accepted religious creeds or faiths. Everyone is an agnostic as to the beliefs or creeds they do not accept. Catholics are agnostic to the Protestant creeds, and the Protestants are agnostic to the Catholic creed. Anyne who thinks is an agnostic about something, otherwise he [or she!] must believe that he is possessed of all knowledge. And the proper place for such a person is in the madhouse or the home for the feeble-minded. In a popular way, in the Western world, an agnostic is one who doubts or disbelieves the main tenets of the Christian faith [stress added]." Clarence Darrow [1857-1938], 1994, Why I Am an Agnostic and Other Essays (NY: Prometheus Books), page 11.

IV. ON TRAVEL AND THE GROWTH OF ANTHROPOLOGY and Darwin Cont. (1809-1882).

V. REMINDER:
A.
EXAM I (20%) IS ON FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008.
B. A web-based Self-Test will be available by September 19, 2008.


MONKEYS, APES, AND MAN = "For as long as man has observed the behavior of monkeys and apes he has been fascinated, horrified, amused and perhaps most often felt uneasy or even self-conscious. For inevitably he has sensed a similarity--in appearance and behavior--[are reflections of himself, his children and those around him. Man is a primate--a member of the order that includes monkeys, apes and man, bound by evolution they have much in common--more than most people ever dreamed even a century ago."... "The earliest known primates appeared in the Paleocene period about 69 million years ago."[Guiness Book of World Records, 1989: 14]

"The scene is rugged. ... Jogokudani [Yamanouchi, Japan] is as far north as it gets for monkeys. No primate, with the exception of humans, is known to live in a colder climate." Eric Talmadge, 2002, World's northernmost wild monkeys enjoy hot springs heaven. The Chico Enterprise-Record, June 23, 2002, page E1 + E2, page E1. (AND SEE: http://www.outdoorjapan.com/features/ojfeature-jigokudani.html [The Monkeys of Jigokudani])

WHY STUDY PRIMATES? = PRIMATES = taxonomic term which is always capitalized and is a fixed plural. "A decade-long baboon study indicates that lecithin, a soybean extract used in many processed foods, can delay and perhaps even prevent alcohol cirrhosis of the liver." R. Cowen, Science News, December 1, 1990: 340.

"Harry Harlow [1905-1981] is probably the most famous psychologist you've never heard of. Back in the 1960s, his work was widely covered in the press--and with good reason. Through a series of briliiant experiments, Harlow proved that love, despite what most of his colleagues believed, plays a crucial role in mental well-being. The idea that such a thing needed proving in the fcirst place seems bizarre today ... Harlow's descent into obscurity had a lot to do with the man himself. ... But it was the way he treated [rhesus] monkeys that hurt his reputation. Harlow went on to study what happened when monkeys were deprived of love, kept in solitary confinement and emotioally tormented [stress added]." Michael Lemonick, Book Review of Deborah Blum's 2002 Love at Goon Park. Time, November 18, 2002. And if interested, please see: http://pubpages.unh.edu/~jel/Harlow.html

"An experimental vaccine against the monkey form of AIDS sharply reduced but did not eliminate the amount of virus in the animals' blood. ... In the experiment, 10 macaques that had been infected.... [stress added]." Robert Cooke, 1999, Better to Hug Than Sulk, Apes Find. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 23, 2002, page A5.

WHAT DO YOU THINK OF THE FOLLOWING?: "The kind of man's face a woman finds attractive varies with her menstrual cycle, according to a study that underscores the hold biology still has on us, no matter how highly evolved we like to think we are. When a woman is ovulating, or ready to conceive, she is likely to prefer men with more masculine features. When she is menstruating, or least likely to get pregnant, she is apt to prefer softer, more feminine looks. That's according to a study conducted by Scottish and Japanese researchers and published in today's issue of the journal Nature. The researchers beleive this is not a matter of fashion or a 20th-century standard of beauty, but something that is inborn, or instilled by evolution for sound biological reasons: In the animal kingdom, masculine looks denote virility, and thus the ability to produce healthy offspring." Alex Dominguez, 1999, Biology Is Destiny, At Least In Sex Appeal. The Sacramento Bee, June 24, 1999, page B8.


CALIFORNIA / CHICO WORDS: A "Story" about Chico in the year 2027 may be viewed by clicking here: ESSAY #1 at the end of this printed Guidebook; you may also wish to read ESSAY #2 concerning "Cancer" in the State of California.] To place the information on California (and Chico) in context, please consider the following:

The approximate January 2008 population of California was 38,049,462 [see http://www.dpf.ca.gov/HTML/DEMOGRAP/SFC/-products.php} California Department of Finance.]

"The United Nations' latest forecast of the world's population in 2050 [42 years from fall 2008!]....are down from 9.4 billion to 8.9 billion [stress added]." Elizabeth Weise, World population to level off. USA Today, December 9, 2003.

NOTE: There are more than 6 billion people on the planet and population is increasing by approximately 78,000,000 people per year; given that 1 year = 365.25 days = 8,766 hours = 525,960 minutes, therefore 78,000,000/525,960 = means that the population of the planet is increasing by approximately 148 people a minute. For this 50 minute class, please note that this means that the world will have had a NET INCREASE (births-minus-deaths) of ~7,400 individuals (roughly speaking).

PLEASE NOTE: According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the resident population of the United States (as this Guidebook was being prepared), projected to July 18, 2008 at 10:17am [Pacific Standard Time] was 304,632,720 [http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/popclock]. This means there is one birth every 7 seconds, one death every 13 seconds, one international migrant (net) every 30 seconds, for a net gain of one person every 10 seconds. WHAT IS THE NUMBER WHEN YOU ARE READING THIS PAGE: What has been the net increase since that date?

CHICO: "The city's general plan targets an urban-area population of approximately 134,000 by the year 2012 [stress added]." Dan Nguyen-Tan, 2002, Growth: Land is our most valuable and limited resource. The Chico Enterprise-Record, February 26, 2002, Section AA, page 3AA. [NOTE: Urbanowicz would also add that time can also be considered to be the most valuable and limited resource.]"

Alvin D. Sokolow, How Much State Farmland Is Disappearing? Alvin D. Sokolow, The Sacramento Been, June 24, 2001, pages L1 and L6: Some 49,700 acres of California farmland is disappearing each year! Incidentally, the CSU, Chico campus (excluding the University farm, is approximately 119 acres (so approximately 417 Chico State campuses disappear every year in California!).

QUESTIONS TO CONSIDER: What will the population of the USA or California or Chico be by 2058? Or 2033? or next year?! What is the "carrying capacity" of any given environment? What changes have to be made in any given environment? What will be the impact of an increasingly older American population on this country? On you?
INCIDENTALLY, a fascinating (and useful site) is http://www.xist.org/index.php [GeoHive: Global Statistics]. Have a look!

"You're telling some not only inconvenient truths but hard truths, and it can be scary as hell. You're not going to get people to go with you if you paralyze them with fear [stress added]." Al Gore, Time. May 28, 2007, page 37.

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834): "English economist [and cleric!]. His Essay on the Principle of Population 1798 (revised 1803) argued for population control, since populations increase in geometric ratio and food supply only in arithmetic ratio, and influenced Charles Darwin's thinking on natural selection as the driving force of evolution. Malthus saw war, famine, and disease as necessary checks on population growth" [stress added]." Sarah Jenkins Jones (Editor), 1996, Random House Webster's Dictionary of Scientists, page 317. 


NOTES ON Charles Darwin, born 12 February 1809 and died on 18 April 1882. Buried in Westminster Abbey, London, England. (You may also wish to read a "Dossier" on Darwin, which may be viewed by clicking here: ESSAY #3 at the end of this printed Guidebook.)

"In the complex history of modern biology, only Darwin's theory of evolution has so shocked the mind as to raise serious questions about man's place in the universe. Darwin forced men to consider that they are animals, and that the designs of creation are played out on a much wider stage than was imagined. From the point of view of the theory of evolution, mankind is only one species among thousands which have their place within the field of organic life on earth. The fact that people took the theory of evolution as an enemy of religion only shows how rigidly they understood the idea of God [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 64.

"The [1937] Hungarian Nobel Prize winner [in Physiology/Medicine], Szent-Györgyi [von Nagyrapolt], once said that a scientist should see what everybody else has seen and then think what nobody has thought. Nobody did this better than Charles Darwin, who first realized that the evolution of life took place by Natural Selection. Darwin taught us all to see more clearly what everyone had seen, and Darwin also taught us to think, along with him, what no one else had thought. No branch of science is more dominated by a single theory, by a single great idea, than is the whole of biology by the idea of evolution by Natural Selection [stress added]." J. Livingston and L. Sinclair, 1967, Darwin and the Galapagos.

FROM: USA Today, January 4, 1999: "The idea was simple. Sit around and pick the 1,000 most important people of the millenium. ... [#1] Johannes Gutenberg (1394?-1468) Inventor of printing.... [#5] William Shakespeare (1564-1616) 'Mirror of the millennium's soul'.... [#6] Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Laws of motion helped propel the Age of Reason.... [#7] Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Theory of Evolution [stress added]." From the book by Barbara and Brent Bowers & Agnes Hooper Gottlieb and Henry Gottlieb, 1998, 1,000 People: Ranking The Men And Women Who Shaped The Millennium.

The concept of CHANGE is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself, reading about him, or discussing him. In 1859 Darwin published On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Please note the changes Darwin made in the SIX editions of the same volume during his lifetime (as calculated by Morse Peckham [Editor], 1959, The Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text):
THE VARIOUS EDITIONS FROM 1859-1872:

YEAR/Ed.
COPIES
Sentences
Sentences
Sentences
TOTAL
% CHANGE
1859/1st
1,250

3,878

1860/2nd
3,000
9 eliminated
483 rewritten
30 added
3,899
7 %
1861/3rd
2,000
33 eliminated
617 rewritten
266 added
4,132
14 %
1866/4th
1,500
36 eliminated
1073 rewritten
435 added
4,531
21 %
1869/5th
2,000
178 eliminated
1770 rewritten
227 added
4,580
29 %
1872/6th
3,000
63 eliminated
1699 rewritten
571 added
5,088
21-29 %

In the 5th edition of 1869, Darwin used (for the first time) the famous phrase (borrowed from Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]): "Survival of the Fittest." In the 6th edition of 1872, "On" was dropped from the title. In the 1st edition of 1859, Darwin only had the following phrase about human beings: "In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history." In the 2nd edition of 1860 Darwin wrote the following:

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator [stress added] into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."

INCIDENTALLY, in his 1839 publication The Voyage Of The Beagle, Darwin wrote the following:

"Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in subliminity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man; whether those of Brazil, where the powers of Life are predominant, or those of Tierra del Fuego, where Death and Decay prevail. Both are temples filled with the varied productions of the God of Nature:--no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body [STRESS added]" 1839, page 436.

"The great value of Darwinism, it seems to me, was that it jolted modern men into questioning various sentimental beliefs about nature and man's place in it. In this, Darwin's influence closely parallels that of Galileo [1564-1642]. Just as the first modern astronomers and physicists destroyed a naive geocentrism, so Darwin and his successors overwhelmingly displaced what may be called homocentrism, the belief that nature exists for the sake of man [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 72.

AND PLEASE CONSIDER the words of the Pulitzer Prize Winner (1940) and Nobel Prize Winner (1962) John Steinbeck (1902-1968) on Charles R. Darwin: "In a way, ours is the older method, somewhat like that of Darwin on the Beagle. He was called a 'naturalist'. He wanted to see everything, rocks and flora and fauna; marine and terrestrial. We came to envy this Darwin on his sailing ship. He had so much room and so much time. ... This is the proper pace for a naturalist. Faced with all things he [or she] cannot hurry. We must have time to think and to look and to consider [stress added]." John Steinbeck, 1951, The Log From The Sea of Cortez [1967 printing: Pan Books: London], page 123.

"Biologists do not accept the truth of evolution on the basis of Darwin's authority but on the basis of the evidence. Evolutionary theory has been out of Darwin's hands from the moment The Origin of Species appeared in 1859. Once Darwin published his evolutionary hypotheses and the evidence upon which they were based, these entered the public domain of knowledge, and others took the ball and ran with it. Scientific knowledge is not 'owned' by any individual so no individual, even the discoverer, can 'take back' a theory [stress added]. Robert T. Pennock, 1999, Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism (MIT Press), page 71.

"Biology also became historical after the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's [1809-1882] theory of evolution by natural selection. He argued that all species were descended from earlier ones, and that all creatures were locked in a struggle for existence which selected for the traits most advantageous for surival at a given time and place. Darwin's ideas were the most revolutionary and powerful scientific propositions of modern times, and posed a direct challenge to religious accounts of the origins of life and humankind. For this reason his views attracted vigorous opposition, especially from those who took the Bible as the literal word of God. ... gradually Darwin's views became--with modifications--universally accepted among the world's scientifically educated [stress added]." J.R. McNeill & William H. McNeill, 2003, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 176.

http://darwin.ws/day/ [Darwin Day Home Page]
http://www.galapagos.org/cdf.htm [Charles Darwin Foundation, Inc.]
http://www.aboutdarwin.com/ [About Darwin.com]
http://www.gruts.demon.co.uk/darwin/index.htm [The Friends of Charles Darwin Home Page]
wysiwyg://5/http://www.iexplore.com/multimedia/galapagos.jhtml [The Galápagos Islands!]
http://www.natcenscied.org [The National Center for Science Education]
http://www.darwinawards.com/ [Official Darwin Awards} "...showing us just how uncommon common sense can be." Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolution in Action (Dutton).


WEEK 4: BEGINNING Monday September 15, 2008

I. RESEARCH & ECOLOGY & INTO LANGUAGE

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Ecology and Subsistence" [Overview], pages 102-106.
"Language and Communication" [Overview], pages 58-62.
"How to Ask for a Drink" by Spradley & Mann, pages 76-84.
"Conversation Style: Talking on the Job" by Debra Tannen, pages 93-101.
"Life Without Chiefs" by Marvin Harris, pages 284-293.

III. APPROPRIATE VISUALS:
A.
VIDEO: MYSTERIES OF MANKIND

"My intention is not, however, to [simply] impart information, but to throw the burden of study upon you. If I succeed in teaching you to observe, my aim will be attained." Louis Aggasiz [1807-1873], Swiss-American Scientist.

B.VIDEO: NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION [and see http://www.careersonline.com.au/easyway/int/nvcomm.html].

"Communication begins with self and with others. The way we have learned about ourselves as women or as men affects how we communicate with others. This, in turn, affects others' perceptions of us and communication with us. How others see and communicate with us spirals back and influences our self-concept." Judy Cornelia Pearson et. al, 1991, Gender & Communication [2nd edition]), page 74.

"'You should write a book,' Ron told Hermione as he cut up his potatoes, 'translating mad things girls do so boys can understand them.'" J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 573

"Body language is innate. Worldwide, all people who pout adopt the same expression. None other than Charles Darwin [1809-1882] recorded that observation." The San Francisco Chronicle, March 1, 1998, page 8.

"Scientists have for the first time identified a gene that plays a critical role in human language and speech. The finding sheds slight on what scientists suspect in one of several inherited elements of language ability, which in combination with key social and environmental cues have allowed the human species to talk, gab, gossip and schmooze its way to global dominance [stress added]." Rick Weiss, Gense says much about language. The Sacramento Bee, October 4, 2001, page A8.

IV. EVER SEE, OR REMEMBER?:

Yvan eht nioj.
(Party Posse/N*SYNC Lyrics)
New Kids on the Bleccch (February 25, 2001)

V. A STRATEGY OF ADAPTATION: CULTURAL EVOLUTION
A
. Importance of Terminology
B. Strategies On Foraging, Gathering, Hunting, Pastoralism, and....
C. Cyberspace below (and all around us!).

VI. REMINDERS:
A.
EXAM I (20%) on FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008 (Map, Multiple Choice, & True/False)
B. Potential EXAM I Questions below in this Guidebook
C. Map for Exam 1 (below)
D. See: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/samericaquiz.html
http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/afrquiz.html as well as http://www.ilike2learn.com/ilike2learn/geography.asp

VII: AND ON FRIDAY OCTOBER 3, 2008, RICHARD LEAKEY WILL BE SPEAKING ON CAMPUS:

"A global thinker, influential environmentalist, and the world's best-known paleoanthropologist, Richard Leakey has been making international headlines for more than 30 years. As former director of the National Museum of Kenya and the Kenya Wildlife Service, Leakey has used his leadership skills and influence to raise money for wildlife preservation. Now a visiting professor of anthropology at Stony Brook University, Leakey, one of the foremost authorities on wildlife and nature conservation, continues to educate others about the dangers of environmental degradation. Dr. Leakey will be speaking as part of the annual President's Lecture Series, and is also a part of the On the Creek Lecture Series at Chico State. His visit is co-sponsored by the Museum of Anthropology and the Department of Anthropology at Chico State."

SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

DIVISION OF LABOR: The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.

ECOLOGY: The study of the way organisms interact with each other within an environment.

ECONOMIC SYSTEM: The provision of goods and services to meet biological and social needs.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

HUNTING & GATHERING: A subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occurring foods.

INDUSTRIALISM: A subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks.

LANGUAGE: The system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.

PASTORALISM: a subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals.

SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES: Strategies used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities. Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, and industrialism are subsistence strategies.


MYSTERIES OF MANKIND = 1988 = "The earth does not yield its secrets, yet around the world scientists are unraveling the story of human evolution. It is a saga that blends the rigors of science with the romance of a detective story. We have only traces that hint at who our ancestors were and how they may have lived. It is like a gigantic puzzle with most of the pieces forever missing. Today, biological scientists may quibble over the details of evolution but they all agree though, evolution is a fact." Brief review of work of Raymond Dart (1893-1989), Louis Leakey (1903-1972), Mary Leakey (1913-1996), and Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

FROM THE VIDEO = "Lucy" discovered = "...a small female australopithecine who lived three million years ago, beside a lake in what is now Ethiopia. With forty percent of her skeleton recovered, she is the most complete specimen of an early hominid ever found. The shape of the pelvic bone shows that she was female, while the leg bones indicate that she walked upright. Her teeth suggest that she was about twenty years old when she died." Richard E. Leakey, 1981, The Making of Mankind, page 67.

FROM THE VIDEO = Richard Leakey, son of the Drs. Louis and Mary Leakey, as the "organizing genius of modern paleontology. ... Homo erectus - the first human species to leave Africa. ... Tools as a reflection of the user." Pat Schifman = "The problem for us today is to tease out of the past - to coax out of the evidence - ... And once we know when we started and how we started and what was important, then we may have a very different idea of what it means to be human; videos also deals with DNA research and the hypothesis of a single woman in Africa approximately 200,000 years ago = "the more closely alike the DNA, the more closely related the individuals are." "New technologies will add other new pieces to the expanding puzzle, but that is all we can expect--random puzzle pieces--never can the entire picture be known. For scientists, the excitement of the quest never diminishes [stress added]." For More, see Scientific American of April 1992 for article by Wilson & Cann entitled "The Recent African Genesis of Humans" and an opposing article by Thorne & Wolpoff entitled "The Multiregional Evolution of Humans" where they state that "The reasoning behind a molecular clock is flawed" and see Discovery September 1995 (pages 70-81) for some of the latest work by Ofer Bar-Yosef at Kebara.

"One of the greatest lessons that can be learned from the history of science is one of humility. Science may indeed be steadily learning more about the structure of the world, but surely what is known is exceedingly small in relation to what is unknown. There is no scientific theory today, not even a law, that may not be modified or discarded tomorrow [stress added]." Martin Gardner, 1990, The New Ambidextrous Universe: Symmetry and Asymmetry From Mirror Reflections to Superstrings, 3rd edition, page 335.

"The first treatment to show any promise against the deadly Ebola virus has cured one-third of the monkeys on which it was tested - raising hoped that a lifesaving therapy for people may be on the horizon. ... In this study, researchers injected 12 monkeys with a high dose of the Zaire strain of the Ebola virus, which is 100 percent fatal in monkeys. Then, starting either 10 minutes after the lethal injection or 24 hours later, the scientists gave nine of the monkeys daily shots of the anticoagulation protein for 14 days. The other three monkeys got fake injections. ... Three of the nine monkeys treated, or 33 percent, lived. All the monkeys who received the fake treatment died [stress added]." Anon., 2003, Protein shows promise against Ebola in monkeys. The Sacramento Bee, December 12, 2003, page A21.

"In his perceptive little book Technopoly, Neil Postman argues that all disciplines ought to be taught as if they were history. That way, students 'can begin to understand, as they now do not, that knowledge is not a fixed thing but a stage in human development, with a past and a future.' I wish I'd said that first. If all knowledge has a past--and computer technology is surely a special kind of knowledge--then all knowledge is contingent [stress added]." Paul de Palma, 1999, http://www.when_is_enough_enough?.com. The American Scholar, Winter, reprinted in David Quammen [Editor], 2000, The Best American Science And Nature Writing 2000, pages 34-47 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page 36.

"The transition from hunting to agriculture had profound consequences. Nomadic groups had relatively little capacity to alter the environment. Sedentary populations, on the other hand, transformed the location in many ways. As archaeological excavations demonstrate, humans cleared the land, built drainage and water systems, and kept domesticated animals. As the food supply became more dependable, populations began to grow in both size and density. Humans increasingly lived in villages, towns, and subsequently cities, where more crowded conditions prevailed. Additional contatcs between groups followed the inevitable rise of trade and commerce [stress added]." Gerald N. Grob, 2002, The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America (Harvard university Press), page 10.

SOME QUESTIONS asked of Richard Leakey: "What do you think is the biggest problem facing the world today? Global warming. ... Which historical figure would you most like to invite to a dinner party? Charles Darwin, so that I could tell him of what we now know and re-assure him that he has made some of the most significant contributions ever in terms of placing us within context on this planet [stress added]." Discover, May 1999, pages 18-19.

"Long after I became involved in fossil hunting, but while my father and I were still cleaning antlers, I came across a manuscript of a lecture he had given, in California, I think. One sentence arrested my attention: 'The past is the key to our future.' I felt as if I were reading something I had written; it expressed my own conviction completely [stress added]." Richard Leakey & Roger Lewin, 1992, Origins Reconsidered: In Search Of What Makes Us Human, page xv.

"A growing understanding of human genetics is prompting fresh consideration of how much control people have over who they are and how they act. The recent discoveries include genes that seem to influence whether an individual is fat, has a gift for dance or will be addicted to cigarettes. Pronouncements about the power of genes seem to be in the news almost daily, and are changing the way some Americans feel about themselves, their flaws and their talents, as well as the decisions they make [stress added]." Amy Harmon, 2006, That Wild Streak? Maybe It Runs in the Family. The New York Times, June 15, 2006, pages A1 + A19, page A1.

"Scientists said evidence is mounting that climate change has led to genetic modifications in a range of creatures, including birds, squirrels and mosquitoes. Writing in the journal Science, Professor William Bradshaw and researcher Christine Holzapfel of the University of Oregon attribute the evolution to global warming, producing longer growing seasons while simultaneously alleviating winter cold stress without imposing summer heat stress. Animal species have responded with heritable, genetic changes as they have extended their range toward the poles while developing or reproducing earlier, according to the report [stress added]." Steve Newman, 2006, Warmng Evolution. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 17, 2006, page C8.

"Three scientists, two of them Roman Catholic biologists, have asked Pope Benedict XVI to clarify the church's position on evolution in light of recent statements by Cardinal Christoph Schönborn, an influential theologian, that the modern theory of evolution may be incompatible with Catholic faith [stress added]." Cornelia Dean, 2005, Scientists Ask pope For Clarification On Evolution Stance. The New York Times, July 13, 2005, page A18. 


NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION = by Stanley Milgram

NOTE: "Nonverbal communication functions in several important ways in regulating human interactions. It is an effective way of (1) sending messages about our attitudes and feelings, (2) elaborating on our verbal messages, and (3) governing the timing and turn taking between communicators [stress added]." Gary P. Ferraro, 1990, The Cultural Dimensions Of International Business, page 69.

FROM THE VIDEO: "The world of people is a world of words....[but]." "Just as a bird watcher watches birds, so a man-watcher [or a people watcher] watches people. But he [or she] is a student of human behavior, not a voyeur. To him [or her], the way an elderly gentleman waves to a friend is quite as exciting as the way a young girl crosses her legs. He [or she] is a field-observer of human actions, and his [or her] field is everywhere--at the bus-stop, the supermarket, the airport, the street corner, the dinner party and the football match. Wherever people behave, there the man-watcher [or people watcher] has something to learn--about his [or her] fellow-men and ultimately about himself." [Desmond Morris, 1977, Manwatching: A Field Guide to Human Behavior, page 8]

FROM THE VIDEO: The human face, one of the most expressive "tools." ... How do "we" know that it is the face and not the knowledge about the feeling behind the face? ... "Proxemics" or the study of interpersonal space in human beings. Females are more sensitive to non-verbal cues than men. Important for survival in the environment. ... Deliberate ambiguity of non-verbal communication [NVC]. ... NVC as an instrument of self-presentation; used to qualify remarks; synchronize communications; and express a thought or feeling we may wish to take back. If some NVC are learned, some are also traced to our biological heritage.

NOTE: Zones: Intimate, Personal, Social, and Public. (See Peter Marsh, 1988, Eye To Eye: How People Interact, page 42); "Culture is communication and communication is culture....Culture is not one thing, but many....Culture is concerned more with messages...." (E. T. Hall, The Silent Language, 1959: 169).

NOTE: "According to anthropologist Ray Birdwhistell, in any human conversation, no more than thirty-five percent of the social meaning is communicated in words. All the rest is nonverbal [stress added]." (Flora Davis, Eloquent Animals: A Study in Animal Communication, 1978: 183)

NOTE: "Why do men and women communicate so differently? It may be something in our genes. A new study has found evidence of a gene that may explain why women tend to be more adept in social situations than men - contradicting the popular notion that cultural differences cause the male-female social gap. 'This suggests that there is a genetic basis for female intuition ... the ability to read social situations that are not obvious,' says David Skuse, lead author of the report in this week's issue of Nature. 'Women are born with that facility and men have to learn it.' ... No word yet on finding a gene for people who are just plain boring [stress added]." Robert Langreth, The Wall Street Journal, June 12, 1997, page B1.

PLEASE NOTE: "Contrary to established theory, men and women use radically different methods for coping with stress, a new study has concluded. ... Recent observations, the researchers say, indicate that women, and females of numerous other species, typically employ a different response, which the psychologists term 'tend and befriend.' When stress mounts, women are more prone to protect and nurture their children ('tend') and turn to social networks of supportive females ('befriend'). That behavior became prevalent over millenia of human evolution, the researchers speculate, because succesful tenders and befrienders would be more likely to have their offspring survive and pass on their mothers' traits [stress added]." Stress Management A Gender Issue? Curt Suplee, The San Francisco Chronicle, May 19, 2000, page A3.


ANTHROPOLOGY & CYBERSPACE (FALL 2008 )

"In the summer of 1994 [and how old were you then?] the Internet was still mainly an academic plaything. The company that became Netscape Communications had not yet released its web browser. Many computers still ran MS-DOS. Intel's new Pentium chip was a luxury, and a 1-gigabyte hard drive was considered huge." Stephen H. Wildstrom, Lessons from a Dizzying Decade in Tech. Business Week, June 14, 2004, page 25.

Go to: http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ [Hobbes' Internet Timeline v6.0] where you will see that:

In June 1993 there were a total of 130 World Wide Web Sites
In June 1994 there were a total of 2,738 World Wide Web Sites
In January 1996 there were a total of 100,000 World Wide Web Sites
In April 1997 there were a total of 1,002,612 World Wide Web Sites
In February 2000 there were a total of 11,161,811 World Wide Web Sites
In December 2002, there were a total of 35,543,105 World Wide Web Sites.
In July 2003, there were a total of 42,298,371 World Wide Web Sites.
In January 2004, there were a total of 46,067,743 World Wide Web Sites.
/In December 2004, there were a total of 56,923,737 World Wide Web Sites
In August 2005, there were a total of 70,392,567 World Wide Web Sites.
In November 2006, there were a total of 101,435,253 World Wide Web Sites.

NOTE: According to Netcraft [http://www.news.netcraft.com], as of June 2008, there are 172,338,726 sites!

CYBERSPACE: A term used William Gibson in Neuromancer (1984) to describe interactions in a world of computers and human beings. Cyberspace can be viewed as another location to be explored and interpreted by anthropologists. Urbanowicz believes that the "World Wide Web" is very similar to the period known as "The Enlightenment" in France (which, combined with the industrial revolution that began in approximately the 1760's, created the world that we know today). For some of the reasons that Urbanowicz does what he does, see: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/K12Visuals98.htm. If you "surf" the web (and I do), please surf carefully and evaluate wisely.

How does one "evaluate" and "use" the wide range of information on the Web? One does it just as Darwin did, carefully, patiently, and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex[1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.

"Though Darwin died more than a century before the advent of the World Wide Web, his unforgiving survival theory applied as much to outdoors-oriented sites as to the species. The fittest are still with us...." Michael Shapiro, 2002, Returning to nature easier after trekking through Net. San Francisco Chronicle, June 2, 2002,Section C8, page 8.

"The driving force in the semiconductor industry has been the theorem known as Moore's Law. First posited by Intel Corp. co-founder Gordin Moore in the 1960s, Moore's Law states that the number of transistors that fit on a chip will double every 18 months. ... Moore's Law has held true so far, with Intel's latest Pentium cramming 8 million transistors on a tiny sliver of silicon. The industry is confident that it can achieve even more astounding figures, such as 100 million transistors on a chip [stress added]." San Francisco Chronicle, August 10, 1998, page E1.

"The great thing about crummy software is the amount of employment it generates. If Moore's law is upheld for another 20 or 30 years, there will not only be a vast amount of computation going on planet Earth, but the maintenance of that computation will consume the efforts of almost every living person. We're talking about a planet of help desks [stress added]." Jaron Lanier, 2000, One-Half of a Manifesto: Why stupid software will save the future from neo-Darwinian machines. Wired, December 2000, 8.12, pages 158-179, page 174.

"'It's the information age, and librarians are the information specialists,' said Kevin Starr, state librarian for California. ... I think information service is the profession for the millennium [said Cora Iezza]." Beyond the Dewey Decimal. Julie N. Lynem, July 14, 2002, The San Francisco Chronicle, page B1.

"When this circuit learns your job, what are you going to do?" In Marshall McLuhan & Quentin Fiore (1967), The Medium Is The Massage, page 20.

"Clyde Presowitz says he had a revelation in 2003 when his oldest son, a software developer living on Lake Tahoe in California, asked him to co-invest in a snow-removal company. Why, wondered Prestowitz, would his high-tech offspring go into a business 'as mundane as snow removal?' Explained the son: "Dad, they can't move the snow to India [stress added].'" Paul Magnusson, 2005, Why Asia Will Eat Our Lunch [book review of]: Three Billion New Capitalists: The Great Shift of Wealth and Power to the East (2005) by Clyde Prestowitz, Business Week, June 20, 2005, page 22. 

"Career advice for the 21st century: Stay away from any job that can be done online.... profiting from the Darwinian labor economics of the Internet [stress added]." Mani and Me: Hearing 'Mister,' I work Cheap' From Across The Globe. Lee Gomes, June 3, 2002, The Wall Street Journal, page B.

"'We used to educate farmers to be farmers, factory workers to be factory workers, teachers to be teachers, men to be men, women to be women.' The future demands 'renaissance people. You can't be productive in the information age if you don't know how to talk to a diverse population, use a computer, understand a world view instead of a parochial view, write, speak [stress added].'" In Byrd L. Jones and Robert W. Maloy, 1996, Schools For An Information Age: Reconstructing Foundations For learning And Teaching, page 15.
"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic."
Clarke's Third Law, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible by Arthur C. Clarke, 1984, page 26.

"Google--or any search engine--isn't just another website; it's the lens through which we see that information, and it affects what we see and don't see. At the risk of waxing Orwellian, how we search affects what we find and by extension, how we learn what we know [stress added]. Lev Grossman, 2003, Search And Destroy. Time, December 22, 2003, pages 46-50, page 50.


POSSIBLE QUESTIONS FOR EXAM I (20%) ON FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008

1. Anthropology provides ______ basis for dealing with the crucial dilemmas of today's world. (a) an historical; (b) a scientific; (c) a computerized; (d) a romantic

2. Among the Yanomamo, the following took place: (a) alliances; (b) trading; (c) feasts; (d) all-of-the-above.

3. Someone has written that "You may not believe in evolution, and that is all right. How we humans came to be the way we are is far less important than...": (a) how we should act now to get out of the mess we have made for ourselves; (b) how will we create rules of descent; (c) where the next fossil finds will be found; (d) all-of-the-above.

4. Recent scientific studies continue to warn that humanity's demands on natural resources: (a) have yet to be reached; (b) are in balance with nature; (c) are reaching, or have already hit, unsustainable levels; (d) sorry: never mentioned!

5. TRUE FALSE The "Abstract" for Harris (in S&M) pointed out that there were no societies in the world that lacked formal political structure.

6. TRUE FALSE For various anthropologists, "evidence" can be tools, bones, or genes.

7. TRUE FALSE Bohannan (in S&M) discussed translation problems of Hamlet for the Tiv of Mexico.

8. TRUE FALSE The 'Toumaï' skull is the earliest known record of the human family, between 6 and 7 million years old.

9. TRUE FALSE The concept of "silent language" consists of speaking distances, gestures, as well as smiles (and a "host of other tacit signs").

10. TRUE FALSE According to this Guidebook and lectures, there have been studies which state that "prayer" can heal.

ALSO PLEASE REMEMBER: "Examinations are formidable even to the best prepared; for the greatest fool may ask more than the wisest man [or individual!] can answer." (Charles Colton, 1780-1832).

A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTOne.htm by FRIDAY September 19, 2008, to assist you in the examination. (Incidentally, I am well aware that "older" versions of my ANTH 113 Exams exist "out there" - I return them to you so you can learn from any mistakes; by all means, if you have access to "old" exams, do look at them; but r.e.m.e.m.b.e.r to read and study for EXAM I (and eventually EXAM II and EXAM III) as if you might be faced with BRAND NEW EXAMINATION QUESTIONS - which could well be the case!)!

and

"Getting a good night's sleep before a big exam might be better than pulling an all-nighter. A study found that sleep apparently restores memories that were lost during a hectic day. It's not just a matter of sleep recharging the body physically. Research say sleep can rescue memories in a biological process of storing and consolidating them deep in the brain's complex circuitry. The finding is one of several conclusions made in a pair of studies in today's issue of the journal Nature that look at how sleep affects memory [stress added]." Rick Callahan,2003, Sleep helps people learn, study finds. The San Francisco Chronicle, October 8, 2003, page A8.


MAP TO BE USED FOR EXAM I FOR FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008

 

AND CHECK OUT: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/samericaquiz.html and

http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/afrquiz.html


WEEK 5: BEGINNING Monday September 22, 2008

I. LANGUAGE, COMMUNICATION & REVIEW AND EXAM I (20%) on FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Eating Christmas in the Kalahari" by Richard Borshay Lee, pages 15-22.
"Shakespeare in the Bush" by Laura Bohannan, pages 23-32.

III. LANGUAGE, THOUGHT, AND CULTURE
A.
Sapir-Whorf [Who were they? who cares?!]: Please read page 63 in S&M.
B. Culture is Communication is Culture!

"Culture is communication. In physics, so far as we know, the galaxies that one studies are all controlled by the same laws. This is not entirely true of the worlds created by humans. Each cultural world operates according to its own principles, and its own laws--written and unwritten. Even time and space are unique to each culture. There are, however, some common threads that run through all cultures. It is possible to say that the world of communication can be divided into three parts: words, material things, and behavior." Edward & Mildred Hall, 1990, Understanding Cultural Differences, page 3.

"People and their languages are always on the move. Even before the colonization of the past few centuries, many languages were spoken far from their homelands, whether because of trade, war, or migration [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), page 143.

"Encouraging students to trust themselves is one of the most important things a teacher can do. ... You can help the student know herself [or himself] by inspiring participation and promoting self-confidence. [stress added]." Judith Kahn, 1975, The Guide To Conscious Communication, page 4.

V. COMMENTS AND REVIEW
A.
VIDEO: LANGUAGE
B. EXAM I (20%) ON FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008.
C. Review all Spradley & McCurdy pages & Guidebook pages to date.
D. Map} Central and South America and Africa.
E. Map, Multiple Choice, and True/False.

V. REMINDER: READINGS, TERMS, AND VIDEO FOR THIS WEEK ARE INCLUDED ON THE EXAM THIS FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 26, 2008.

VI. INCIDENTALLY, PLEASE CONSIDER THE HISTORICALSIGNIFICANCE OF AN EVENT WHICH OCCURED FIFTY-ONE YEARS AGO THIS WEEK ON SEPTEMBER 25, 1957:

Little Rock Central High School wasdesegragated. [See: http://www.centralhigh57.org/ as well as: http://www.nps.gov/chsc/ = Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site.


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

GRAMMAR: The categories and rules for combining vocal symbols.

LANGUAGE: The system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.

MORPHEME: The smallest meaningful category in any language.

NONLINGUISTIC SYMBOLS: Any symbol that exists outside the system of language and speech; for example, visual symbols.

PHONEME: The minimal category of speech sounds that signals a difference in meaning.

PHONOLOGY: The categories and rules for forming vocal symbols.

SEMANTICS: The categories and rules for relating vocal symbols to their referents.

SOCIOLINGUISTIC RULES: Rules specifying the nature of the speech community, the particular speech situations within a community, and the speech acts that members use to convey their messages.

SPEECH: The behavior that produces meaningful vocal sounds.

SYMBOL: Anything that humans can sense that is given an arbitrary relationship to its referent.

TACIT CULTURE: The shared knowledge of which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally.


LANGUAGE (1988 Video) "It can be dazzling, intricate, it can be simple, subtle; it can define beliefs, opinions, ideas; it can spread news, transmit information; it can stiffen resolve, betray emotions, and move nations. It can cement the bonds between mother and child. It is language--at the heart [and], core, of what makes us human. ... Language is the clearest evidence we have of the mind that exists within us. ... Language: the press agent of the mind? ... How much learned? How much built in at birth? ... At what point does animal communication leave off and human language begin?" VIDEO: Looks at the work of Jane Goodall, David Premack, Philip Lieberman, Ursala Bellugi (expert in sign languages of the deaf), Helen J. Neville, Patricia Kuhl, and others.

"Humanity? Maybe It's in the Wiring: Neuroscientists have given up looking for the seat of the soul, but they are still seeking what may be special about human brains, what it is that provides the basis for a level of self-awareness and complex emotions unlike those of other animals. Most recently they have been investigsating circuitry rather than specific locations, looking at the pathways and connections.... There are specailized neurons at work.... The only other animals to have such cells are the great apes. ... The body, it turns out, is as important as the brain. Dr. Antonio Damasio, a neurologist at the University of Iowa Medical Center and author of the book Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain.... [stress added]." Sandra Blakesleee, The New York Times, December 9, 2003, page D1 + D4, page D1.

"Dr. Paul Bloom, a professor of psychology at Yale.... suggested that 'humans have a dedicated language ability from the start.' Language capacity may be built into the human brain.... This view accords with the theory proposed by the linguist Noam Chomsky [1928->] that humans are born with the ability to use language [stress added]." Mary Duenwald, 2002, Babbies' babbling speaks volumes. The San Francisco Chronicle, November 10, 2002, page E11.

"Babies babble, starting at about seven months, not only with their mouths but also with their hands in a natural form of sign language, researchers have found. A study published in the journal Nature suggests that babies are born with sensitivity to highly specific rhythmic patterns naturally found in languages. The findings idicate that a baby's perception of such patterns is a key mechanism that launches the process of acquiring human language." Lee Bowman, 2001, C'mon, talk to me, baby. The San Francisco Chronicle, September 16, 2001, page C7.

"Human language: All in the genes? A comparison of the genetic maps of people and chimpanzees supports the idea that language is a key factor that makes us human, according to a team of researchers at Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., and Celera Genomics. In Friday's issue of the journal Science, the researchers noted differences in genes believed to be involved in the development of speech and hearing. 'We speculate that understanding spoken language may have required tuning of hearing acuity,' they wrote. The team also found differences in genes involved in the sense of human smell. Scientists think chimps and humans diverged from a common ancestor 5 million years ago. Humans and chimps share more than 99% of their genes, and scientists are eager to find out how tiny diferences can be som important [stress added]." Anon., 2003, USA Today, November 15, 2003, page 6D.

FROM THE VIDEO: "If language is built into us as a species, where in the evolutionary record did this miracle first occur? Why did language evolve in man alone of all living creatures? Clues to the origin of language come to us from fossil records. Dr. Philip Lieberman, of the Department of Linguistics at Brown University, has examined Neanderthal and hominoid skulls in his laboratory. ... [You] observe how the muscles attach to the bones of the living animal, then put together the fossil. Now once you have that, you can also tell a fair amount about the brain and how the brain could control anatomy. ... Modern speech is very efficient. We don't think about it because we do it all the time. So it's perfectly natural. But it turns out that it's almost ten times faster than any other sound, such as sound that chimpanzees make. ... It's really impossible to conceive of human culture without language. Language enters into everything. You can't have human culture without human language. Further, language facilitates thought. I think it's impossible to conceive of human thought without human language. ... "In fact, language is so central to the human mind that it emerges in everyone with normal human abilities, even when hearing is absent at birth." ... Pidgin language develops into Creole as a result of the children. "So it may be the very structure of language is programmed into the brain [stress added]."

NOTE: "Derek Bickerton...believes that creoles provide evidence for an innate language program. Creoles--more than a hundred are known--generally appeared when the slave trade and European colonialism forced great numbers of people who spoke different languages to work together." (Ann Finkbeiner, 1988, in The Day That Lightning Chased The Housewife ...And Other Mysteries of Sciences, edited by Julia Leigh and David Savold, page 12).

"Part of our moral behavior is grounded...in a specific part of our brains." Dr. Antonio Damasio, Denise Gellene, 2007, Study suggests moral behavior is hard-wired. The Sacramento Bee, March 22, 2007, page A9..

"Going the polygraph one better, scientists say they have spotted a telltale pattern of brain activity that can reveal when someone is lying. ... Using a type of brain scan called functional magnetic resonance imaging, scientists found certain brain regions...were more active in test subjects when they were not being truthful [stress added]." Carl T. Hall, 2001, Fib Detector. The San Francisco Chronicle, November 26, 2001, page A10.


WEEK 6: BEGINNING Monday September 29, 2008.

I. ECOLOGY & SUBSISTENCE (CONTINUED) AND REMEMBER ON FRIDAY OCTOBER 3, 2008 RICHARD LEAKEY IS SPEAKING ON CAMPUS:

"A global thinker, influential environmentalist, and the world's best-known paleoanthropologist, Richard Leakey has been making international headlines for more than 30 years. As former director of the National Museum of Kenya and the Kenya Wildlife Service, Leakey has used his leadership skills and influence to raise money for wildlife preservation. Now a visiting professor of anthropology at Stony Brook University, Leakey, one of the foremost authorities on wildlife and nature conservation, continues to educate others about the dangers of environmental degradation. Dr. Leakey will be speaking as part of the annual President's Lecture Series, and is also a part of the On the Creek Lecture Series at Chico State. His visit is co-sponsored by the Museum of Anthropology and the Department of Anthropology at Chico State."

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Ecology and Subsistence" [Overview] [repeat], pages 102-106.
"Kinship and Family" [Overview], pages 178-181.
"The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari" by Richard Borshay Lee, pages 107-121.
"Adaptive Failure: Easter's End" by Jared Diamond, pages 122-131.
"A Woman's Curse?" by Meredith F. Small, pages 240-248.

III. A STRATEGY OF ADAPTATION: CULTURAL EVOLUTION
A.
Importance of Terminology
B. Strategies on Gathering, Hunting, Pastoralism, and....

And remember from Week I: "The palest ink is better than the best memory." (Chinese proverb) and "The ear is a less trustworthy witness than the eye." (Herodotus [c.485-426 B.C.], The Histories of Herodotus, Book 1, Chapter 8) and it was said of Leonardo Da Vinci (1352-1519): "...he also learned to carry a notebook with him at all times and to use it, so that whatever went in through the eye came out through his hand [stress added]." Holland Cotter, 2002,Leonardo: The Eye, The Hand, The Mind." The New York Times, January 24, 2003, pages B35 + B37, page B37.

"Don't spend a lot of time worrying about your failures. I've learned a whole lot more from my mistakes than from all of my successes [stress added]. Statement by Ann Richards. In Alan Ross [Editor], 2001, Speaking of Graduating: Excerpts From Timeless Graduation Speeches (Nashville, TN: Walnut Grove Press), page 79.

C. VIDEO: PRIMITIVE PEOPLE [CFU: Horrible title but semi-reasonable video!]
D. BUSHMEN OF THE KALAHARI = [the !Kung]

"The barbarous heathen are nothing more strange to us than we are to them.... Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity." (Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592], Essays, page 53 [1959 paperback publication of a translation from 1603].

"Lord Voldemort's gift for spreading discord and enmity is very great. We can fight it only by showing an equally strong bond of fiendship and trust. Differences of habit and language are nothing at all if our aims are identical and our hearts open" [stress added]." Albus Dumbledore, In Harry Potter And The Goblet of Fire, 2000, by Joanne K. Rowling, page 723.

G. ESSAY: Body Ritual Among the Nacirema [please see below in this Guidebook].

"When one comes to think of it, it is pretty obvious that Woman, not Man was the innovator who laid the foundations of our civilization. While the men went hunting, the Woman was the guardian of the fire and, pretty certainly, the first maker of pottery. It was she who went picking the wild berries and nuts and seeds and who went poking with sticks to unearth the edible roots. In the mother-to-daughter tradition, the knowledge of plants born of long observation led women to experiment in cultivation. Biologically Woman was more observant than Man, because the recurring phases of the moon coincided with the rhythm of her fertile life and she could observe the period of gestation not only in herself but in the animals and in the seasonal reappearance of the plants. So she had a sense of Time, and the measurement of Time was one of the earliest manifestations of constructive and systematic thinking [stress added]." Sir Ritchie Calder, 1961, After The Seventh Day: The World Man Created, page 69.

IV. REMEMBER, WRITING ASSIGNMENT (10%) DUE FRIDAY October 17, 2008.

Isaac Asimov (1920-1992)} "What one needs is thinking time, and that can't be rushed. You have to think up your plots and your complications and your resolutions, so that most of your time is going to be spent thinking and not typing." Janet Jeppson Asimov, 2002, Isaac Asimov: It's Been a Good Life (NY: Prometheus Books), page 108.

V. INCIDENTALLY, PLEASE CONSIDER THE HISTORICALSIGNIFICANCE OF AN EVENT WHICH OCCURED FIFTY-ONE YEARS AGO THIS SATURDAY ON OCTOBER 4, 1957:

"History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race." [From: http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/]

SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

CULTURAL ECOLOGY: The study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments, the effects they have on their natural surrounding, and the impact of the environment on the shape of culture, including its long-term evolution.

CULTURE: The knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior.

DIVISION OF LABOR: The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.

ECONOMIC SYSTEM: The provision of goods and services to meet biological and social wants.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

FAMILY: A residential group composed of at least one married couple and their children.

HUNTING AND GATHERING: A subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occuring foods.

HORTICULTURE: A kind of subsistence strategy involving semi-intensive, usually shifting, agricultural practices. Slash-and-burn farming is a common example of horticulture.

MAGIC: Strategies people use to control supernatural power to achieve particular results.

RITE OF PASSAGE: A series of rituals that move individuals from one social state or status to another.

SUPERNATURAL: Things that are beyond the natural. Anthropologists usually recognize a belief in such things as goddesses, gods, spirits, ghosts, and mana to be signs of supernatural belief.

WORLDVIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


PRIMITIVE PEOPLE = "...the Mewites, a small scattered tribe living mainly on the sea-coast and littoral of Arnhem Land in Northern Australia. Like most Aboriginal tribes these people were continually on the move searching for the meagre food supplies available. [George] Heath and his assistant, Australian actor Peter Finch who compiled the material from which the script was constructed and also spoke the commentary, attached themselves to a group of about fifty people and followed them for four weeks. The film is divided into three sections. The first section shows normal community life, the construction of bark shelters, various food-gathering methods and makes reference to social structure; the second section shows scenes of burial rituals; the third describes a wallaby hunt [stress added]."

"Since the late 1960s, use of the term 'Koori' (or Koorie) to refer to [Australian] Aborigines has become widespread. The word means 'people' in a number of languages from southeastern Australia and is one of a number of such terms used to distinguish the indigenous people of specific regions. A Koori is an indigeneous person from NSW or Victoria, just as a Murri is from Queensland, a Nunga is from South Australia and a Nyungar from Western Australia [stress added]." Paul Smitz [Coordinating Author] et al., 2004, Australia 12th Edition (Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd) , page 35.

The Commonwealth of Australia [2,967,909 square miles] has an estimated population of 20,434,176. The World Almanac And Book of Facts 2008, page 748.]

Captain James Cook [1728-1779] on Australian Aborigines: "They may appear to some to be the most wretched people upon Earth, but in reality they are far more happier than we Europeans: being wholy unacquainted not only with the superfluous but the necessary Conveniences so much sought after in Europe, they are happy in not knowing the use of them. They live in a tranquility which is not disturb'd by the Inequality of Condition: The Earth and the sea of their own accord furnishes them with all things necessary for life.... They seem'd to set no Value upon anything we gave them, nor would they ever part with any thing of their own for any one article we could offer the; this is my opinion argues that they think themselves provided with all the necessarys of Life [stress added]." Tony Horwitz, 2002, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before (NY: Henry Holt and Company), pages 177-178.

"Aboriginal Australia was divided into some three hundred tribes, each associated with a separate area. Tribal unity was based on common language and common mythology, but not usually upon group action. For the individual native, membership in a local group or horde was much more important than tribal membership. Each horde was identified with a subdivision of the tribal area and consisted of a number of families related to one another through various kinship ties. Males usually dwelt throughout their lives in the territory where they were born; wives were selected from other parts of the tribe and moved to their husbands' place at marriage. But although residence was more commonly based upon father relationships, ties with the mother were also emphasized through important totemic means. Yet more important than either of these social groupings was the biological family unit. ... The family unit has been aptly called the group of orientation. For, in Australia as in most other primitive [sic.] cultures, an individual's family relationships determined the kinship terms and behavior he used toward every other person in his social universe [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, The Pacific Islands, 1961, pp. 31-32.

See San Francisco Chronicle of 29 May 1997: "Australia ruled out any compensation yesterday for 100,000 Aboriginal children forcibly taken from their families by the government for more than a half a century until the early 1970s. ... Under state laws starting in 1910, the government removed Aboriginal children from their families because the white majority considered it as in their best interest. ... Australia's 303,000 Aborigines make up 1 percent of its population. They have long complained of discrimination, and they lag behind other Australians in access to jobs, education and health services [stress added]." (page A10).

"It spotlights a shameful recent chapter of Australian history, when racist kidnappings were part of that country's official policy, yet 'Rabbit-Proof Fence' turns this dubious past into a breathtaking story of defiance and triumph that has to be considered one of the year's most sublime films. Direcotr Phillip Noyce based his movie on the lives of three Aboriginal girls who, in 1931, escaped from their captors into a shaky freedom that required them to traverse more than 1,000 miles.... Between 1910 and 1970, the Australian government targeted mixed-race Aboriginal children in the outback and took themn to reorientation centers. There they were forced to speak English, attend Church and learn 'skills' they would use as servants and laborers for white people. One hundred thousand Aboriginal children were taken this way from their parents, according to an Australian government report released in 1997 [stress added]." Jonathan Curiel, 2002, Following the fence to freedom: Aboriginal girls' escape makes for gripping drama. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 25, 2002, pages D1 + D9.


BUSHMEN OF THE KALAHARI = "The National Geographic Society sent John Marshall [1932-2005] to Botswana (he was not allowed to return to Namibia until 1978) in 1972-74 to update the film story of the Ju/'hoansi." in The Cinema of John Marshall, 1993 (Edited by Jay Ruby), p. 265.

FROM THE VIDEO: John Marshall & Kerewele Ledimo seek the village of !Kadi and ask the question "Do the people still pursue their ancient way of life and freedom of the Kalahari? ... The people I lived with in the Western Kalahari called themselves zhu twa si [the harmless people; they also call all strangers zhu dole or dangerous people]." ... "Beyond satisfying hunger, hunting confirmed kinship ties ... drawing them together. ... Kinship has always been the key to Bushmen survival."

"The Kalahari is never well watered, so the !Kung are used to long dry spells, during which they fall back on the most reliable water holes and eat a far wider range of plant foods. ... Each family creates ties with others in a system of mutual reciprocity called hxaro. Hxaro involves a balanced, continual exchange of gifts between individuals that gives both parties access to each other's resources in times of need. Hxaro relationships create strong ties of friendship and commitment. Hxaro distributes risk by giving each party an alternative residence, sometimes up to fifty to two hundred kilometers away. Each family has options when famine threatens." Brian Fagan, 1999, Floods, Famines, and Emperors: El Niño and the Fate of Civilizations, page 78.

FROM THE VIDEO: Mentions John Marshall's sister Elizabeth Marshall (who wrote a 1958 book entitled The Harmless People. "Most respected for scientific work would be Lorna Marshall, John's mother.

NOTE: John Marshall wrote that "from ÇToma (1911-1988), I learned as much about observing as I did about hunting and gathering. ÇToma taught me how to watch, listen and suspend judgement. ... ÇToma stressed the importance of telling the truth and being specific. For obvious reasons, Ju/'hoansi could not rely on magic and belief to survive in the Kalahari where rain is local and erratic, bushfoods are hard to find and the game is hard to track; arriving where water had been mistakenly reported could be fatal. Knowledge had to be extensive, objective and accurate [STRESS added]." The Cinema of John Marshall, 1993 (Edited by Jay Ruby) pp. 34-35.

From: The Harmless People: the Bushmen knows "every bush and stone, every convolution of the ground, and have usually named every place in it where a certain kind of valid food may be. ... If all their knowledge about their land and its resources were recorded and published, it would make up a library of thousands of volumes. Such knowledge was as essential to early man as it is to these people. ... They have no chiefs or kings, only headmen who in function are virtually indistinguishable from the people they lead, and sometimes a band will not even have a headman. A leader is not really necessary, however, because the Bushmen roam about together in small family bands rarely numbering more than twenty people. ... Their culture insists that they share with each other, and it has never happened that a Bushmen failed to share objects, food, or water with the other members of his band, for without very rigid co-operation Bushmen could not survive the famines and droughts that the Kalahari offers them. ... Trust, peace, and cooperation form the spine of Bushmen life. ... By maintaining these three virtues, Bushmen live where otherwise people might not [stress added]."

"Peaceful cooperation, that's the key." (Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington - also known as Nearly Headless Nick} J. K. Rowling, 2003, Harry Potter And the Order of The Phoenix (NY: Scholastic Press), page 209.

NOTE: John Marshall wrote that "In order to understand the problems Ju'hoansi have faced in the last thirty years, and the changes in their economy and society they have endured, it is important to know where they started from. But people do not start from scratch; the invisible reality of history shapes their present and future [STRESS added]." The Cinema of John Marshall, 1993 (Edited by Jay Ruby), p. 64.

FROM THE VIDEO: "We discussed not the past but the new problems of life on the reservations. ... Their concern was with the future: I wondered how long their past would remain in living history."

FROM THE VIDEO: On Bushmen rock paintings} points out that "theory says such handprints are signatures or magical signs." ... "They had so little except a great knowledge of their environment. ... culture was intangible knowledge, tradition, values: his [musical] compositions were its living record--easily swept away." ... A Bushman states that "I left the desert long ago because of thirst. My father is dead, my people scattered. I am here because there was nowhere else to go. I don't remember my father's music: why should I?"

"With one of the highest concentrations of rock art in the world, Tsodilo has been called the "Louvre of the Desert". Over 4,500 paintings are preserved in an area of only 10 sq. km of the Kalahari Desert. The archaeological record of the area gives a chronological account of human activities and environmental changes over at least 100,000 years. Local communities in this hostile environment respect Tsodilo as a place of worship frequented by ancestral spirits [stress added]."http://whc.unesco.org/sites/1021.htm [Tsodilo} Botswana, 2001]

FROM THE VIDEO: "Their lives depended as they always had, on what women could gather." ... "..killing so efficiently [now] instead of an act of kinship...." "...the people were dependent on their future on an ancient engine and a four-inch pipe."

"The list of female inventors includes dancers, farmers, nuns, secretaries, actresses, shopkeepers, housewives, military officers, corporate executives, schoolteachers, writers, seamstresses, refugees, royalty, and little kids. All kinds of people can and do invent. The idea that one's gender somehow precludes the possibility of pursuing any technological endeavor is not only outdated but also dangerous. In the words of 1977 Nobel Prize winner [in Physiology/Medicine] Rosalyn Yallow: 'The world cannot afford the loss of the talents of half of its people if we are to solve the many problems which beset us [stress added].'" Ethlie Ann Vare and Greg Ptacek, 1987, Mothers of Invention: From the Bra to the Bomb, Forgotten Women and Their Unforgettable Ideas, page 17.

"Until about 10,000 years ago, everyone in the world survived by hunting and gethering wild foods. They lived in intimate association with their natural environments and employed a complex variety of strategies to forage for food and other necessities of life [stress added]." [The Hunters: Scarce Resources in the Kalahari. Richard B. Lee, 1968, in Man The Hunter)

"...an unwitting or a deliberate bias in time perspective. The evaluations about which we hear most have been made by Western Europeans and their colonial descendants. The date is the present, when the star of the Occident is in its ascendancy and its followers have made themselves the masters and arbiters of the lifeways of the people with whom they compare themselves. It might, of course, be argued on the Darwinian principle of the survival of the fittest that this ascendancy is proof of racial superiority, except that it is a relatively recent phenomenon that is not correlated with any demonstrable change in the biological composition of Europeans a generation prior to A.D. 1492. The truth is that a European mastery of large parts of the globe has been due more to the possession of gunpowder and iron--both non-European inventions--than to racial superiority. Comparisons dating from the period just before the destructive effects of Western civilization made themselves felt would be more justifiable. Our historical records contain many illustrations of the fact that Europe then was not much in advance of many other parts of the world that were conquered by its representatives. When Cortez reached the Aztec city of Tenochtitlàn in 1519, he and his men were understandably astonished by the artistic, industrial, and governmental achievements of its builders [stress added]." H.G. Barnett, 1953, Innovation: The Basis of Cultural Change, page 30.

"Bushmen Squeeze Money From a Humble Cactus.... From a desert weed known as hoodia, one of the world's oldest and least developed peoples hopes to enjoy its first taste of prosperity. The San have suched on hoodia for generations, principally to raise their energy and fight hunger during long hunting trips. Now, Pfizer, the international pharmaceutical giant, has begun work on an appetite suppresant from the plant, and agreed to share the profits. The deal, which includes the government, is considered a landmark in the field of inernational property rights [stress added]." Ginger Thompson, 2003, The New York Times, April 1, 2003, page A4.


"Body Ritual Among the Nacirema" by Horace Miner in The American Anthropologist, Vol. 58 (1956), pp. 503-507.

"The anthropologist has become so familiar with the diversity of ways in which different peoples behave in similar situations that he [or she!] is not apt to be surprised by even the most exotic customs. In fact, if all of the logically possible combinations of behavior have not been found somewhere in the world, he is apt to suspect that they must be present in some yet undescribed tribe. This point, has, in fact been expressed with respect to clan organization by Murdock [of HRAF interests]. In this light, the magical beliefs and practices of the Nacirema present such unusual aspects that it seems desirable to describe them as an example of the extremes to which human behavior can go.

Professor Linton first brought the ritual of the Nacirema to the attention of anthropologists twenty years ago, but the culture of this people is still very poorly understood. They are a North American group living in the territory between the Canadian Cree, the Yaqui and Tarahumare of Mexico, and the Carib and Arawak of the Antilles. Little is known of their origin, although tradition states that they came from the east....

Nacirema culture is characterized by a highly developed market economy which has evolved in a rich natural habitat. While much of the people's time is devoted to economic pursuits, a large part of the fruits of these labors and a considerable portion of the day are spent in ritual activity. The focus of this activity is the human body, the appearance and health of which loom as a dominant concern in the ethos of the people. While such a concern is certainly not unusual, its ceremonial aspects and associated philosophy are unique.

The fundamental belief underlying the whole system appears to be that the human body is ugly and that its natural tendency is to debility and disease. Incarcerated in such a body, man's only hope is to avert these characteristics through the use of the powerful influences of ritual and ceremony. Every household has one or more shrines devoted to this purpose. The more powerful individuals in the society have several shrines in their houses and, in fact, the opulence of a house is often referred to in terms of the number of such ritual centers it possesses. Most houses are of the wattle and daub construction, but the shrine rooms of the more wealthy are walled with stone. Poorer families imitate the rich by applying pottery plaques to their shrine walls.

While each family has at least one such shrine, the rituals associated with it are not family ceremonies but are private and secret. The rites are normally only discussed with children, and then only during the period when they are being initiated into these mysteries. I was able, however, to establish sufficient rapport with the natives to examine these shrines and to have the rituals described to me.

The focal point of the shrine is a box or chest which is built into the wall. In this chest are kept the many charms and magical potions without which no native believes he could live. These preparations are secured from a variety of specialized practitioners. The most powerful of these are the medicine men, whose assistance must be rewarded with substantial gifts. However, the medicine men do not provide the curative potions for their clients, but decide what the ingredients should be and then write them down in an ancient and secret language. This writing is understood only by the medicine men and by the herbalists who, for another gift, provide the required charm.

The charm is not disposed of after it has served its purpose, but is placed in the charmbox of the household shrine. As these magical materials are specific for certain ills, and the real or imagined maladies of the people are many, the charm-box is usually full to overflowing. The magical packets are so numerous that people forget what their purposes were and get to use them again. While the natives are very vague on this point, we can only assume that the idea in retaining all the old magical materials is their presence in the charmbox, before which the body rituals are conducted, will in some way protect the worshipper.

Beneath the charmbox is a small font. Each day every member of the family, in succession, enters the shrine room, bows his head before the charm-box, mingles different sorts of holy water in the font, and proceeds with a brief rite of ablution. The holy waters are secured from the Water Temple of the community, where the priests conduct elaborate ceremonies to make the liquid ritually pure.

In the hierarchy of magical practitioners, and below the medicine men in prestige, are specialists whose designations is best translated 'holy-mouth-men.' The Nacirema have an almost pathological horror of and fascination with the mouth, the condition of which is believed to have a supernatural influence on all social relationships. Were it not for the rituals of the mouth, they believe that their teeth would fall out, their gums bleed, their jaws shrink, their friends desert them, and their lovers reject them. They also believe that a strong relationship exists between oral and moral characteristics. For example, there is a ritual ablution of the mouth for children which is supposed to improve their moral fiber.

The daily body ritual performed by everyone includes a mouth-rite. Despite the fact that these people are so punctilious about care of the mouth, this rite involves a practice which strikes the uninitiated stranger as revolting. It was reported to me that the ritual consists of inserting a small bundle of hog hairs into the mouth, along with certain magical powders, and then moving the bundle in a highly formalized series of gestures.

In addition to the private mouth-rite, the people seek out a holy-mouth-man once or twice a year. These practitioners have an impressive set of paraphernalia, consisting of a variety of augers, awls, probes, and prods. The use of these objects in the exorcism of the evils of the mouth involves almost unbelievable ritual torture of the client. The holy-mouth-man opens the clients mouths and, using the above mentioned tools, enlarges any holes which decay may have created in the teeth. Magical materials are put into these holes. If there are no naturally occurring holes in the teeth, large sections of one or more teeth are gouged out so that the supernatural substance can be applied. In the client's view, the purpose of these ministrations is to arrest decay and to draw friends. The extremely sacred and traditional character of the rite is evident in the fact that the natives return to the holy-mouth-men year after year, despite the fact that their teeth continue to decay.

It is to be hoped that, when a thorough study of the Nacirema is made, there will be careful inquiry into the personality structure of these people. One has but to watch the gleam in the eye of a holy-mouth-man, as he jabs an awl into an exposed nerve, to suspect that a certain amount of sadism is involved. If this can be established, a very interesting pattern emerges, for most of the population shows definite masochistic tendencies. It was to these that Professor Linton referred in discussing a distinctive part of the daily body ritual which is performed only by men. This part of the rite involves scraping and lacerating the surface of the face with a sharp instrument. Special women's rites are performed only four times during each lunar month, but what they lack in frequency is made up in barbarity. As part of this ceremony, women bake their heads in small ovens for about an hour. The theoretically interesting point is that what seems to be a preponderantly masochistic people have developed sadistic specialists.

The medicine men have an imposing temple, or latipso, in every community of any size. The more elaborate ceremonies required to treat very sick patients can only be performed at this temple. These ceremonies involve not only the thaumaturge but a permanent group of vestal maidens who move sedately about the temple chambers in distinctive costume and headdress.

The latipso ceremonies are so harsh that it is phenomenal that a fair proportion of the really sick natives who enter the temple ever recover. Small children whose indoctrination is still incomplete have been known to resist attempts to take them to the temple because 'that is where you go to die.' Despite this fact, sick adults are not only willing but eager to undergo the protracted ritual purification, if they can afford to do so. No matter how ill the supplicant or how grave the emergency, the guardians of many temples will not admit a client if he cannot give a rich gift to the custodian. Even after one has gained admission and survived the ceremonies, the guardians will not permit the neophyte to leave until he makes still another gift.

The supplicant entering the temple is first stripped of all his or her clothes. In everyday life the Nacirema avoids exposure of his body and its natural functions. Bathing and excretory acts are performed only in the secrecy of the household shrine, where they are ritualized as part of the body-rites. Psychological shock results from the fact that body secrecy is suddenly lost upon entry into the latipso. A man, whose own wife has never seen him in an excretory act, suddenly finds himself naked and assisted by a vestal maiden while he performs his natural functions into a sacred vessel. This sort of ceremonial treatment is necessitated by the fact that the excreta are used by a diviner to ascertain the course and nature of the client's sickness. Female clients, on the other hand, find their naked bodies are subjected to the scrutiny, manipulation and prodding of the medicine men.

Few supplicants in the temple are well enough to do anything but lie on their hard beds. The daily ceremonies, like the rites of the holy-mouth-men, involve discomfort and torture. With ritual precision, the vestals awaken their miserable charges each dawn and roll them about on their beds of pain while performing ablutions, in the formal movements of which the maidens are highly trained. At other times, they insert magic wand's in the supplicant's mouth or force him to eat substances which are supposed to be healing. From time to time the medicine men come to their clients and jab magically treated needles into their flesh. The fact that these temple ceremonies may not cure, and may even kill the neophyte, in no way decreases the people's faith in the medicine men.

There remains one other kind of practitioner, known as a 'listener.' This witchdoctor has the power to exorcise the devils that lodge in the heads of people who have been bewitched. The Nacirema believe that parents bewitch their own children. Mothers are particularly suspected of putting a curse on children while teaching them the secret body rituals. The counter-magic of the witchdoctor is unusual in its lack of ritual. The patient simply tells the 'listener' all his troubles and fears, beginning with the earliest difficulties he can remember. The memory displayed by the Nacirema in these exorcism sessions is truly remarkable. It is not uncommon for the patient to bemoan the rejection he felt upon being weaned as a babe, and a few individuals even see their troubles going back to the traumatic effects of their own birth.

In conclusion, mention must be made certain practices which have their base in native esthetics but which depend upon the pervasive aversion to the natural body and its functions. There are ritual fasts to make fat people thin and ceremonial feasts to make thin people fat. Still other rites are used to make women's breast's larger if they are small, and smaller if they are large. General dissatisfaction with breast shape is symbolized in the fact that the ideal form is virtually outside the range of human variation. A few women afflicted with almost inhuman hyper-mammary development are so idolized that they make a handsome living by simply going from village to village and permitting the natives to stare at them for a fee.

Reference has already been made to the fact that excretory functions are ritualized, routinized, and relegated to secrecy. Natural reproductive functions are similarly distorted. Intercourse is taboo as a topic and scheduled as an act. Efforts are made to avoid pregnancy by the use of magical materials or by limiting intercourse to certain phases of the moon. Conception is actually very infrequent. When pregnant, women dress so as to hide their condition. Parturition takes place in secret without friends or relatives to assist, and the majority of women do not nurse their infants.

Our review of the ritual life of the Nacirema has certainly shown them to be a magic-ridden people. It is hard to understand how they have managed to exist so long under the burdens which they have imposed upon themselves. But even such exotic customs as these take on real meaning when they are viewed with the insight provided by Malinowski when he wrote:

'Looking from far and above, from our high places of safety in the developed civilization, it is easy to see all the crudity and irrelevance of magic. But without its power and guidance early man could not have mastered his practical difficulties as he has done, nor could man have advanced to the higher stages of civilization.'" [NOTE: The article also appears in The Nacirema: Readings on American Culture, 1975, edited by J. Spradley and M. Rynkiewich, pp. 10-13]


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION (or only "some CURRENT INFORMATION" for Fall 2008):

"The difficulty is that modern human beings no longer directly perceive the world they live in and whose conditions affect them." James Burke and Robert Ornstein, 1995, The Axemaker's Gift: A Double-Edged History of Human Culture, page 280.

"You're telling some not only inconvenient truths but hard truths, and it can be scary as hell. You're not going to get people to go with you if you paralyze them with fear [stress added]." Al Gore, Time. May 28, 2007, page 37.

"Deaths from sooty smog in California may be more than twice as high as previously estimated....Currently, state officials estimaye 9,000 Californians die annually [~24/day] from diseases caused or aggravated by air pollution, more than half of them in Southern California [stress added]." Janet Wilson, Smog Toll May Soar: L.A. area's sooty-air deaths underestimated, study indicates. The Sacramento Bee, March 26, 2006, pages A3 + A4, page A3.

"Dozens of factories in Contra Costa County's industrial belt contain dangerous amounts of hazardous materials, but county officials said Wednesday that they have not determined how many have backup generators to avoid potential disaster when blackouts hit this summer. It is a major concern in the county with the highest amount of hazardous materials per capita in California...[stress added]." Joe Garofoli and Pia Sarkar, 2001, Chemical Leak Waves Red Flag in Contra Costa. The San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, 2001, page A19 and A21, page A19.

"...increased water consumption is healthy, doctors say. But the bottles aren't. Last year, more than 93 billion plastic water containers wound up in U.S. landfills. Laid end-to-end, that's enough bottles to: Reach the moon and back 38 times; Circle the equator 371 times; Stretch the lkength of the world's longest river, the Nile, 2,222 times; Line Interstate 80 from New York to San Francisco 3,196 times; Span the length of California 11,566 times [stress added]." Anon., 2003, Water bottles bloat landfills. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 15, 2003, page A21 + A25, page A21.

"The average person now changes jobs 8.6 times between the ages of 18 and 32, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Such upheavals in the labor market have forced colleges to adapt....[stress added]." Emily Bazar, 1999, Number of Students Over 40 Soaring At College Campuses. The Sacramento Bee, August 24, 1999, pages 1 and page A10, page 1.

"Infections caused by germs that resist treatment with antibiotics kill more than 14,000 Americans each year [Urbanowicz Adds} approximately 38 people a day!], says a coalition of federal and private groups that met Tuesday [April 15, 2001] in Washington, D.C., to launch an education campaign called Save Antibiotic Strength. Pilot programs will begin in San Diego, Norfolk, Va., and the state of Connecticut to raise awareness of the dangers of overprescription and misuse of antibiotics, which can lead to drug resistance [Urbanowicz adds} as a result of "evolution"]. 'It is estimated that 50 million antibiotic prescriptions for illnesses such as cold or flu are given each year [or ~136,986/day!], and are of no benefit in treating such conditions,' says Richard Roberts, president of the American Academy of Family Physicians [stress added]." Michelle Healy, 2001, A Better Life. USA Today, April 18, 2001, page 6D.

"Scientific evidence is mounting that...music may be as powerful a food for the brain as for the soul. Not only does it pluck at emotional heart strings, but scientists say that it also turns on brain circuits that aid recognition of patterns and structures critical to development of mathematics skills, logic, perception and memory [stress added]." Bill Henrrick, 1996, Parents, Studies Say Music Lends An Ear To Learning. San Francisco Chronicle, July 6, 1996, page A7.

"For women diagnosed with moderately serious breast cancer, a large network of supportive friends and relatives cuts the risk of recurrence and death by 60% over seven years, a researcher reports today [stress added]." Marilyn Elias, 2001, Friends May Make Breast Cancer More Survivable. USA Today, March 8, 2001, page D1.

"'Intriguiging' Study Says Prayer Can Heal. Prayer may not only warm the heart--it may improve its health as well, according to a preliminary study by Duke University. The study found that angioplasty patients with acute heart ailments who were prayed for by seven religious groups did 50 to 100 percent better during their hospital stays than patients who received no prayers [stress added]." Scott Mooneyham [Associated Press Writer], 1998, The Chico Enterprise-Record, page 6A.

"Scientists are far from understanding everything about colds. But a growing pool of evidence suggests that personality, stress and social life all can influence healthy adults' vulnerability to cold symptoms. ... Happy, relaxed people are more resistant to illness than those who tend to be unhappy or tense [stress added]." Marilyn Elias, 2003, In the war on colds, personality counts. USA Today, December 2, 2003, page 5D.

"A virulent strain of tuberculosis resistant to most available drugs is surfacing around the globe, raising fears of a pandemic that could devastate efforts to contain TB and prove deadly to people with immune-deficiency diseases suc as HIV-AIDS." Peter Finn, 2007, Drug-resistant TB poses pandemic risk. The San Francisco Chronicle, May 4, 2007, page A12.

"There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, Than are dreamt of in your philosophy." William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Hamlet, Act I, Scene V.


WRITING ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS FOR "CREATING A CULTURE" DUE FRIDAY October 17, 2008.

For this assignment, you are to write an essay of approximately 1,500 words on a "culture" that you create! The "100% American" essay that you read in Week Two above was approximately 625 words. As you create the culture of your choice, you must include at least ten anthropological terms and use them properly in your brief essay. In addition, your essay MUST BE DIVIDED INTO THREE sections: THE INTRODUCTION (~200 words?), THE CULTURE (~1,000 words?), and CONCLUSIONS (~300 words?). In this assignment, YOU are not only the individual who is CREATING the culture but YOU are also the anthropologist who is DESCRIBING the culture. Have fun!

Your writing assignment will be evaluated (#1) for the use of the anthropological terms, (#2) whether you tell a coherent story, and (#3) grammar, spelling, punctuations, etc. A writing assignment not turned in on time will automatically lose 10 points (out of the 50 for the assignment).


WRITING SUGGESTIONS BELOW BASED ON : The Tongue and Quill: Communicating to Manage in Tomorrow's Air Force, [AF Pamphlet 13-2] (2 January 1985: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402) page 47. See Meriam Library, 4th floor, Government Documents section: doc/D/301.26/6:T 61/982.

TO CONTRAST IDEAS

according to; but; yet; nevertheless; however; still converseley; on the other hand; instead of; neither of these; (to)(on)the contrary; rather than; no matter what; in contrast; otherwise; on the other hand; in the (first)(second) place; nor.

TO COMPARE IDEAS

just as; like; similar; this.

 

TO SHOW TIME

as of today; as of now; immediately; presently; nearly a...later; meantime; meanwhile; afterward; next; this year, however; a little later; then; last year; next week; tomorrow; finally.

TO SHOW RESULTS

as a result; therefore; thus; consequently; hence.

 

TO ADD IDEAS

additionally; also; another; besides' first, second, next, last, etc., in addition, moreover, furthermore, clear, too, is; the answer does not only lie; to all that; more than anything else; here are some...facts; now, of course, there are; now, however; what's more.

TO RELATE THOUGHTS

anyway; anyhow; indeed; eslewhere; nearby; above all; even these; beyond; in other words; for instance; of course; in short; in sum; yet; in reality; that is; by consequence; notwithstanding; nonetheless; as a general rule; understandably; traditionally; the reason, of course; the lesson here is; from all information; at best; naturally; in the broader sense; to this end; in fact.

Important PS Statements: (#1} Do Not Plagiarize: please create your own culture. Remember: you are not only the individual who is CREATING the culture but YOU are also the anthropologist who is DESCRIBING the culture. Have fun! (#2} it is always an good idea to keep a copy of any work submitted for any class--accidents happen; (#3} please consider using a word-processor, with spell-check [if possible] (and double spaced); (#4} please consider some good (and relatively inexpensive) reference books (including a dictionary) such as The World Almanac and Book of Facts: 2006 and E.B. White's The Elements of Style (2000, 4th Edition).

"Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his [or her!] sentences short, or that he [or she] avoid all detail and treat his [and her] subjects only in outline, but that every word tell."

"There you have a short, valuable essay on the nature and beauty of brevity--fifty-nine words [not counting those in the brackets added by Urbanowicz] that could change the world." E.B. White, commenting on the original words of William Strunk Jr. in The Elements of Style, 4th edition, 2000, pages xv-xvi.


Some additional words on writing are as follows:

The minimal definition of "Writing Proficiency" encompasses all three of the levels described below. It is expected that anyone who receives a grade of "C-" or better in this class has achieved these levels of writing proficiency.

Level #1: Minimally, writing proficiency begins with the ability to construct meaningful sentences that follow the conventional rules of grammar, punctuation, and spelling; exhibit appropriate choice of words; and utilize sentence structures that clearly, efficiently, and precisely convey the writer's ideas and relevant information to readers who observe the same conventions of writing.

Level #2: At the next level, writing proficiency entails the constructing and arranging of sentences into paragraphs that:

a. Develop arguments logically.
b. Present a body of information systematically.
c. Express an idea effectively.
d. Provide a coherent answer to a question.
e. Describe a given phenomenon effectively.
f. Summarize a larger body of information or abstract its essence accurately.
g. And/or otherwise achieve a specific objective efficiently and effectively.

Level #3: Writing proficiency at the third level requires the construction and arrangement of paragraphs in a such a manner that the reader is led successively through the intent or the objective of the paper, the implementation of the objective, and the conclusion which summarizes and meaningfully relates the body of the paper to its objective.


Dictionaries and Encyclopedias in The Meriam Library The Meriam Library at California State University, Chico (based on information available at http://www.csuchico.edu/lbib/anthropology/anthropology.html#dictionaries)
and please see http://www.csuchico.edu/lref/guides/rbn/anthroind.html

A Dictionary of Anthropology Ref GN 11 D38 1972 (Definitions of words in anthropology arranged alphabetically. Includes some drawings and plates).

Dictionary of Anthropology Ref GN 11 D48 1986 (Definitions are arranged alphabetically with cross references and bibliographical references).

International Dictionary of Anthropologists Ref GN 20 I5 1991 (International coverage of Anthropologists born before 1920 in order to present those whose careers could be seen as whole. Last names are arranged alphabetically and includes an index).

Encyclopedia of Anthropology Ref GN 11 E52 (Arranged alphabetically and contains approximately 1,400 articles with See also references. At the end of all but the shortest articles, is a bibliography listing important books and articles on the subject).

Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory Ref GN 281 E53 1988 (Topics are alphabetically arranged with cross references).

Encyclopedia of Evolution Ref GN 281 M53 1990 (Topics are alphabetically arranged with See and See also and citations for further information).

Encyclopedia of World Cultures Ref GN 307 E53 (Comprises ten volumes, ordered by geographical regions of the world. Volumes 1 through 9 contain summaries along with maps, glossaries, and indexes of alternate names for the cultural groups. Volume 10 contains cumulative lists of the cultures of the world, their alternate names, and a bibliography of selected publications pertaining to those groups).

The Encyclopedia of the Peoples of the World Ref GN 495.4 E53 1993 (Includes only contemporary peoples and ethnic groups. Arranged alphabetically by common names. Indigenous names are used when appropriate. Also included are population figures, maps and a selected bibliography).


WEEK 7: BEGINNING Monday October 6, 2008.

I. ECONOMICS & KINSHIP & FAMILY & MAGIC & RELIGION & ...

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Kinship and Family" [Overview] [repeat], pages 178-181.
"Religion, Magic, and Worldview [Overview], pages 294-298.
"Taraka's Ghost" by Stanley & Ruth Freed, pages 299-305.

III. DESCENT & MARRIAGE & GENDER & ENDOGAMY / EXOGAMY &....

IV. SOME SPECIFIC ETHNOGRAPHIC EXAMPLES
A.
Various Research(ers)
B. VIDEO: DEAD BIRDS

V. AND PLEASE REMEMBER, YOUR WRITING ASSIGNMENT (10%) is DUE on Friday October 19, 2008


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

DIVISION OF LABOR: The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.

ECONOMIC SYSTEM: The provision of goods and services to meet biological and social wants.

ENDOGAMY: Marriage within a designated social unit.

EXOGAMY: Marriage outside any designated group.

EXTENDED FAMILY: A family that includes two or more married couples.

FAMILY: A residential group composed of at least one married couple and their children.

HORTICULTURE: A kind of subsistence strategy involving semi-intensive, usually shifting, agricultural practices. Slash-and-burn farming is a common example of horticulture.

MAGIC: Strategies people use to control supernatural power to achieve particular results.

POLYGAMY: A marriage form in which a person has two or more spouses at one time. Polygyny and polyandry are both forms of polygamy.

POLYGYNY: A form of polygamy in which a man is married to two or more wives at one time.

RELIGION: The cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate problems of human existence.

RITE OF PASSAGE: A series of rituals that move individuals from one social state or status to another.

ROLE: The culturally generated behavior associated with particular statuses.

SORCERY: The malevolent practice of magic.

SUPERNATURAL: Things that are beyond the natural. Anthropologists usually recognize a belief in such things as goddesses, gods, spirits, ghosts, and mana to be signs of supernatural belief.

WITCHCRAFT: The reputed activity of people who inherit supernatural force and use it for evil purposes.


DEAD BIRDS = "Intensive two year ethnographic study documents the way of life of the Dani, a people dwelling in the Mts. of Western New Guinea. The Dani base their values on an elaborate system of inter-tribal warfare and revenge. Clans engage in formal battles and are constantly on guard against raiding parties. When a warrior is killed, the victors celebrate and the victims plan revenge. There is no thought in the Dani world of war ever ending: without them there would be no way to satisfy the ghosts of the dead. Wars also keep a sort of terrible harmony in a life that otherwise would be hard and dull." There were approximately 350 Dani in the group at the time of the film-making; sweet potato furnished about 90% of their diet; pigs also an essential part of Dani life. In the language of the Dani, dege was a term for both "fighting spear and digging stick." According to Karl Heider, "These two objects [fighting spear and digging stick], more than anything else, set the tone for Dani culture [stress added]."

FROM THE VIDEO: "There is a fable told by the mountain people living in the ancient Highlands of New Guinea about a race between a snake and a bird. It tells of a contest which decided if men would be like birds and die, or be like snakes which shed their skins and have eternal life. The bird won and from that time, all men, like birds, must die."

FROM THE VIDEO: "The ghosts, which more than anything else, rule the lives of these people, are known to be most active in the dark. ... The enemy came this morning to kill, to avenge the ghost of their warrior slain by Wejak's group more than two weeks before. Until they do, they live in a state of spiritual decline. Both sides believe that each man has a soul, to which they attribute the shape of seeds. These seeds at birth are planted in the solar plexus. They call them edai-egen, or seeds of singing. Until a child is able to walk and talk, his edai-egen are only rudimentary. As he or she grows older, the edai-egen also grow. One's soul, or seeds, are especially sensitive to the death of a friend or a member of the family. By contrast, causing the death of an enemy is tonic for the soul and lifts the spirit."

"Sociopolitical Organization. [of the Dani. It is] Kinship based. patrilineal sibs and moieties are cross-cut by territorial confederations and alliances. The alliances are the largest social groups and have up to 5,000 people [stress added]." Karl Heider, 1997, Seeing Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film (Boston: Allyn & Bacon), page 59.

FROM THE VIDEO: "A little boy is dying by the Aikhe [River]....Each life that's taken is celebrated by both sides. The ones that lose a life prepare a chair, the only furniture that they know, to lift the corpse for ghosts to see while they cry and have their funeral....The bones are all together--the end of all the work and love it took to make a boy."

FROM THE VIDEO: "Soon both men and birds will surrender to the night. They'll rest for the life and death of days to come. For each, both awaits; but with the difference that men, having foreknowledge of their doom, bring a special passion to their life. They will not simply wait for death nor will they bear it lightly when it comes--instead they'll try with measured violence to fashion fate themselves. They kill to save their souls and, perhaps to ease the burden of knowing what birds will never know and when they as men, who have forever killed each other, cannot forget...."


WEEK 8: BEGINNING Monday October 13, 2008.

I. ROLES & INEQUALITY & ECONOMICS & CHANGE

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Identity, Roles, and Groups" [Overview], pages 218-222.
Society and Sex Roles" by Ernestine Friedl, pages 231-239.
"Mother's Love: Death Without Weeping" by Nancy Scheper-Hughes, pages 183-192.
"Cargo Beliefs and Religious Experience" by Stephen C. Leavitt, pages 330-339.

III. REMEMBER
A. EXAM II (30%) on Friday November 7, 2008.
B. WORDS / THOUGHTS ON "TRADITION ("CULTURE")

"A fiddler on the roof. Sounds crazy, no? But in our little village of Anatevka, you might say that every one of us is a fiddler on the roof, trying to scratch out a pleasant, simple tune without breaking his neck. It isn't easy. You may ask, why do we stay up here if it's so dangerous. We stay because Anatevka is our home. And how do we keep our balance? That I can tell you in a word--tradition!" Hoseph p. Swain, 2002, The Broadway Musical: A Critical and Musical Survey (Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.), page 281 (citing Joseph Stein, 1964, Fiddler on the Roof (NY: Crown), page 1.

IV.THE EMERGENCE OF THE GLOBAL CULTURE: WORLD WAR II AS CULTURAL PHENOMENA! (and see http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/ww2time.htm as well as http://www.msstate.edu/Archives/History/USA/WWII/ww2.html and http://quaboag.k12.ma.us/worwar.html and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/amex/) and http://www.yadvashem.org.il and http://www.vwc.edu/WWWpages/dgraf/holocaus.htm and finally: http://www.ushmm.org.

"To anyone born after 1980, World War Two must seem as distant as the Civil War was to our parents." The character "Dirk Pitt" in Atlantis Found, 1999, by Clive Cussler [2001 Berkley paperback], page 503.

"To mark the arrival of the year 2000, a panel of Chronicle editors and reporters gathered recently for a series of discussions about the top news events of the past 100 years." The "Top World Event" was World War II. "In short, this war changed everything--the way the world looked, and the way people looked at the world." The San Francisco Chronicle, December 27, 1999, page 1.

"Put the world in perspective. After Sept. 11 [2001], we're far less worried by little annoyances. ... So many things seem less significant now than before Sept. 11. ... Many of us have had a change of perspective...." Karen S. Peterson, USA Today, November 13, 2001, page 1.

DEAR PEOPLE: AND PLEASE THINK ABOUT THE FOLLOWING WORDS:

"Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry and narrow-mindness." (Samuel Langhorn Clemens, also known as Mark Twain [1835-1910], The Innocents Abroad, 1869) and "In the field of observation, chance only favors those who are prepared." (Louis Pasteur [1822-1895])

"If I am not for myself, who will be for me? If I am not for others, what am I? And if not now, when?" (Rabbi Hillel, 12th Century)

TO REPEAT: "Lisa, get away from that jazzman! Nothing personal. I just fear the unfamiliar [stress added]." Marge Simpson, February 11, 1990, Moaning Lisa. Matt Groening et al., 1997, The Simpsons: A Complete Guide To Our Favorite Family (NY: HarperCollins), page 22.

V. REVOLUTIONS
A.
Industrial (Continued)
B. Information/Knowledge
C. Cyberspace Again!
D. SeeThe United States Holocaust Museum: http://www.ushmm.org/

VI. EXAMPLES and various Pacific Islands: MARAGRET MEAD'S NEW GUINEA JOURNAL

VII. REMEMBER, YOUR WRITING ASSIGNMENT (10%) is DUE on Friday October 17, 2008.


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

ACCULTURATION: The process that takes place when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, which results in change to the individual cultural patterns of both grou

CASTE: A form of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, which is acquired at birth and does not permit individuals to alter their ranks.

CULTURE CONTACT: The situation that occurs when two societies with different cultures somehow come into contact with each other.

CULTURE SHOCK: A form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

DIVISION OF LABOR: The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.

INDUSTRIALISM: A subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks.

MANA: An impersonal supernatural force inherent in nature and in people. Mana is somewhat like the concept of 'luck' in American culture.

MARRIAGE: The socially recognized union between a man and a woman that accords legitimate birth status rights to their children.

RAMAGE: A cognatic (bilateral) descent group that is localized and holds corporate responsibility.

RANK SOCIETIES: Societies stratified on the basis of prestige only.

REDISTRIBUTION: The transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation. The U.S. income tax is a good example.

RELIGI0N: The cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate problems of human existence.

REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT: A deliberate, conscious effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture.

ROLE: The culturally generated behavior associated with particular statuses.

STATUS: A culturally defined position associated with a particular social structure.

SUBSTANTIVE LAW: The legal statutes that define right and wrong for members of a society.

SUPERNATURAL: Things that are beyond the natural. Anthropologists usually recognize a belief in such things as goddesses, gods, spirits, ghosts, and mana to be signs of supernatural belief.

TACIT CULTURE: The shared knowledge of which people are usually unaware and do not communicate verbally.

WITCHCRAFT: The reputed activity of people who inherit supernatural force and use it for evil purposes.

WORLD VIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


MARGARET MEAD'S NEW GUINEA JOURNAL = Margaret Mead [1901-1978] discusses the cultural transformation of the people of Manus Island (largest of the Admiralty Islands in Melanesia) based on her visits to the village of Peri in 1928, 1953, and 1967.

HISTORICAL NOTE: "America's foremost woman anthropologist, Margaret Mead authored scientific studies...that made anthropology meaningful to an unprecedented number of American readers. Coming of Age in Samoa [1928] and Growing Up In New Guinea [1930] both ranked as national best sellers; these and other studies introduced Americans to cultures where male and female roles differed markedly from those in Western society.... Over the years Margaret Mead became a national institution; she wrote over thirty books and lectured widely. Of her profession she concluded (in her autobiography): 'There is hope, I believe, in seeing the human adventure as a whole and in the shared trust that knowledge about mankind, sought in reverence for life, can bring life [1972, Blackberry Winter]." Vincent Wilson, Jr., 1992, The Book of Distinguished American Women, page 68.

"Margaret Mead arrived at the American Museum of Natural History in 1926. Having just completed her first significant ethnographic research in Samoa, she was wappointed assistant curator in the Department of Anthropology. ... Over the course of her fifty-two year association with the Museum, Margaret Mead was a scientist, curator, teacher, author, social activist, and media celebrity. The success of her first book, Coming of Age in Samoa, published in 1928, had thrust her into the mdia spotlight" [stress added]." Nancy C. Lutkehaus, 2001-2002, American Icon. Natural History, 12/01 - 1/02, pages 14 & 15, page 14.

"Although the earliest recorded European contact with the main part of Manus [Island] was probably by Menezes in 1517....substantial impact did not take place until the 1870s, when the area became a commercial source of pearlshell, tortoise shell, and beche-de-mer. By the time of German annexation in 1884, most of the Manus were familiar with European goods, if not with Europeans themselves. ... By the early 1920s almost the entire region had come under full Australian control. ... The fundamental change was in the Manus economy. As a result of colonization, Manus ceased to be an independent system of interdependent villages tied by a complex arrangement of production and circulation. Instead it became a dependent outlier of the main Papua New Guinean economy.... [stress added]." James G. Carrier and Achsah H. Carrier, 1985, A Manus Centenary: Production, Kinship, and Exchange in the Admiralty Islands. American Ethnologist, Vol, 12, No. 3, pages 505-522, pages 510-511.

FROM THE VIDEO: In 1928, there was an endless effort to repay debts to one another in the islands; marriage was purely a financial arrangement. Copra was the main export of the territory and Manus Islanders "were in the European world but not of it." In traditional times, as hard as life was for men it was harder for women: surrounded by various taboos.

FROM THE VIDEO: In 1944, on the 2nd of March, American armed forces attacked the Japanese bases in the Admiralty Islands and eventually the islands were secured for the Allies and a huge American base was established for the continuation of the war in the Pacific against the Japanese.

CARGO CULTS [http://www.altnews.com.au/cargocult/jonfrum/] = "These revitalization movements (also designated as revivalist, nativistic, or millenarian) received their name from movements in Melanesia early in this century that were and are characterized by the belief that the millennium will be ushered in by the arrival of great ships loaded with European trade goods (cargo). The goods will be brought by the ancestral spirits and will be distributed to the natives who have acted in accordance to the dictates of the cults. Sometimes the cult leaders call for the expulsion of all alien elements, the renunciation of all things European on the part of the cult followers, and a return to the traditional way of life. In contrast, other cult leaders promise a future ideal life if followers abandon their traditional ceremonies and way of life in favor of copying European customs. Cargo cults, like other revitalization movements, develop in situations where there is extreme material and other inequality between societies in contact. Cargo cults attempt to explain and erase the differences in material wealth between natives and Europeans." D.E. Hunter & P. Whitten, Encyclopedia of Anthropology, 1976: 67.

"MARGARET MEAD. The century's foremost woman anthropologist, Margaret Mead [1901-1978] was an American icon. On dozens of field trips to study the ways of primitive [sic] societies, she found evidence to support her strong belief that cultural conditioning, not genetics, molded human behavior. That theme was struck most forcefully in Mead's 1928 classic, Coming of Age in Samoa. It described an idyllic pre-industrial society, free of sexual restraint and devoid of violence, guilt and anger. Her portrait of free-loving primitives [sic!] shocked contemporaries and inspired generations of college students--especially during the 1960s sexual revolution. But it may have been too good to be true. While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other. It seems Mead accepted as fact tribal gossip embellished by adolescent Samoan girls happy to tell the visiting scientist what she wanted to hear [stress added]." Leon Jaroff, Time, March 29, 1999, page 183.

"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all of her work?] must consider the controversy surrounding its accuracy. In 1983, several years after her death, Derek Freeman published his detailed refutation of her work. More recently, Freeman has continued his attack with attempts to prove that Mead built her description of adolescent sexuality on scanty information gleaned from a hoax perpetrated by her informants. He has also argued that she was young and credulous, that she had a poor grasp of the language, that she did not carry out her investigations properly, that Coming of Age in Samoa [1928] is littered with errors, that she twisted the facts to suit her (and Boas's and Benedict's) preconceptions, and that she was entirely wrong in her portrayal of Samoa [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.

For the 2006-2007 Academic Year, a total of 699 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 409 females [58.5%] and 290 males [41.5%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (22), Canada (96),Finland (5), Mexico (3), and the United Kingdom (49). Source: The 2007-2008 American Anthropological Association Guide, pages 654-656.

"The single most important discovery for women explorers may be the freedom that lies at the heart of the very act of exploration." Reeve Lindberg, 2000, Introduction. Living With Cannibals And Other Women's Adventures, by Michele Slung (Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society), pages 1-7, page 2.


WEEK 9: BEGINNING MONDAY October 20, 2008
 

I. WEEK #8 TOPICS CONTINUED & CULTURE CHANGE

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Family and Kinship in Village India" by David W. McCurdy, pages 193-200.
"Uterine Families and the Women's Community" by Margery Wolf, pages 210-217.

III. APPROPRIATE VISUALS:
A.
VIDEO: CULTURE AND PERSONALITY
B. VIDEO: HUNTERS OF THE SEAL
C. Technology:

"In 1978, after three years of lobbying, a political organization called the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada won access to a government communications satellite and was given money to establish an experimental Inuit network." Igloos and Boob Tubes" by Mary Williams Walsh, 1992, The San Francscio Chronicle & Examiner, This World, December 27, 1992, page 3.

"The names Americans use for many American Indian tribes are derogatory. European Americans often learned what to call one tribe from a neighboring rival tribe. Throughout the world, naming has been a prerogative of power. With colonialism on the wane, calling natives by the name they use for themselves is gradually becoming accepted practice [stress added]." James W. Loewen, 1999, Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (NY: The New Press), pages 99-102.


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

AFFINITY: A fundamental principle of relationship linking kin through marriage.

COSMOLOGY: A set of beliefs that defines the nature of the universe or cosmos.

CULTURAL CONTACT: The situation that occurs when two societies with different cultures somehow come into contact with each other.

CULTURAL ECOLOGY: The study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments, the effects they have on their natural surroundings, and the impact of the environment on the shape of culture, including its long-term evolution.

CULTURE SHOCK: A form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

INCEST TABOO: The cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse and marriage between specified classes of relatives.

MYTHOLOGY: Stories that reveal the religious knowledge of how things have come into being.

PASTORALISM: A subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals.

PRIEST: A full-time religious specialist who intervenes between people and the supernatural, and who often leads a congregation at regular cyclical rites.

RELIGION: The cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate problems of human existence.

WORLD VIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


CULTURE AND PERSONALITY = "Anthropologists have used the notion of personality to refer to characteristic behaviors and ways of thinking and feeling; they have used the notion of culture to indicate life-styles, ideas, and values which influence the behavior and mental life of people. ... Ruth Benedict [1887-1948] pioneered culture and personality studies with the book Patterns of Culture (1934). She believed that each culture is organized around a central ethos and is consequently an integrated configuration or totality. Through the internalization of the same cultural ethos people will come to share basic psychological structures....Margaret Mead [1901-1978], who was Benedict's first graduate student, followed a similar trend of thought. In Coming of Age in Samoa (1928) she showed that certain childrearing practises produce typical character structures among adults [stress added]." David E. Hunter & Phillip Whitten, 1976, Encyclopedia of Anthropology, pp. 103-104.

PLEASE NOTE the words of Derek Freeman: "In my book of 1983 evidence was amassed to demonstrate that Margaret Mead's conclusion of Coming of Age in Samoa, because it is at odds with the relevant facts, cannot possibly have been correct. It had become apparent that the young Margaret Mead had, somehow or other, made an egregious mistake. ... The making of mistakes by humans, in science as in all other forms of human activity, is altogether commonplace." Derek Freeman, 1996, Margaret Mead And The Heretic: The Making And Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth, pages vi and xii-xiii.

"Indeed, Margaret Mead has been criticized, most notably by the Australian anthropologist Derek Freeman [1916-2001], for minimizing the biological aspects of childrearing. According to Freeman, Mead was so eager to demonstrate the definitive role of culture in human society that she was insensitive to fundamental human drives and motives, while overly accepting accounts that suggested the singularity of a culture. From today's vantage point, we might conclude that Mead was attempting to demonstrate the importance of cultural factors to a biologically oriented social science community, while Freeman was reacting to a cultural concensis that Mead and her colleagues had succeeded in establishing at mid-century [stress added]." Howard Gardner, 2001, Introduction to the Perrenial Classics Edition. Growing Up in New Guinea, 1930 (by Margaret Mead), page xxi.

FROM THE VIDEO: Impact of World War II on National Character research. ... "We can only learn to respect how precious and unique our separate cultures and personalities are to cherish that being we call a person."

FROM} The San Francisco Chronicle, March 30, 2001} "He climbed into his Mitsubishi Zero airplane, flew away east towards the rising sun, south towards Okinawa and the American enemy. He was a kamikaze pilot, it was May 11, 1945, and it was suicide. He dived straight down on the carrier Bunker Hill, dropped a single bomb, never pulled out of the dive, crashed into the ship. He died instantly, every bone in his body was broken. The attack set off huge fires and explosions. Four hundred and ninety-six Americans died with him. The Bunker Hill, badly damaged, was knocked out of the war. His name was Kiyoshi Ogawa. To Americans, he was a fanatic. To his countrymen, he was a hero. He was 22 years old [stress added]." Carl Nolte, 2001, Doing His Duty. The San Francisco Chronicle, March 30, 2001, pages A1 and A23, page A23.

"Especially toward the desperate final stages of World War II, Japan used its men as if they were mere amunition, dispatching countless numbers on suicide missions. 'Duty is heavier than a mountain, while death is lighter than a feather,' went the imperial rescript to soldiers [stress added]." Norimitsu Onoshi. 2003, Japan Heads to Iraq, Haunted By Taboo Bred in Another War. The New York Times, November 19, 2003, pages A1 + A4, page A1.

"After years of controversy, Tokyo now has a national museum chronicling the events of World War II. But it is a portrait cleansed of Pearl Harbor, Hiroshima, Japanese atrocities and almost any direct reference to the front lines. The transformation of the Showa Hall Museum, which opened in March [1999], from a war memorial into a bland exhibition of wartime life shows how difficult it still is for Japan to reckon with its past. Half a century after Japan's surrender, debate still rages....[stress added]." Yuri Kageyama, 1999, Japan's War Museum Has Spotty Memory. The San Francisco Chronicle, July 1, 1999, page A14.


HUNTERS OF THE SEAL: A TIME OF CHANGE = 1976 = "In 1967, 32 pre-fabricated houses were flown to an isolated area of the Arctic by the Canadian Government. This ended a way-of-life that had existed for thousands of years--the Nomadic wanderings of the Netsilik Eskimos. [May 15, 1970 = 196 individuals in Pelly Bay, consisting of 39 families (with 42 snowmobiles)].

"We either hunt together or we die." ... In traditional times, the Netsilik had a preoccupation with "survival" in their environment. ..."The hunter must remain on good terms with the animal he hunts."
"[Today] The Netsilik are at the mercy of an outside world they cannot control."

"Northbound weather patterns carry U.S.-generated pollution to Canada's Nunavut territory, where it accumulates in the local ecosystem. ... For example, the cotton crops pesticide toxaphene, which was banned in North America in 1982, is still found in Arctic wildlife, thousands of miles from where the checmical was once widely used. Once in the Arctic, the cold, dry climate impedes the breakdown of these hitchhiking contaminants causing them to build up and magnify as they move up the food chain. Ultimately the pollution reaches Inuit people whose diet is rich in fatty meat where the chemicals tend to be most concentrated." K.L. Capozza, 2001, Spoiled Tundra. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 11, 2001, page A4.

In traditional times: "The nuclear family, consisting of the father, mother, and children, was the most important social unit among the Netsilik Eskimos. It was characterized by continuous co-residence, sexual division of labor between the spouses in various technological activities, sexual intimacy between husband and wife, and child rearing. The nuclear family [however] was not completely independent in the accomplishment of many of these important functions, but had to align itself continuously with other families, closely or distantly related, to become part of larger groupings. Sometimes such wider alignments were determined by the inexorable necessity of collaboration in hunting. ... Under no circumstance could the Netsilik nuclear family survive for prolonged periods isolated by itself among the rigors of the Arctic wilderness. ... The nuclear family was always part of a larger kinship group....called the extended family. ... In addition to kinship, the necessity to collaborate in subsistence activities and food distribution was an important binding force in Netsilik society. .. Collaboration is not only an objective necessity related to the technology and strategy of hunting or fishing but a recognized behavioral norm [stress added]." [Asen Balicki, The Netsilik Eskimo, 1970: 101-130]

"The simplcity [!] of the Netsilik material culture, and the small scale of the social system, made this case study idea for teacing young children about the nature of human society. Each adult man and woman possesses the knowledge necessary for carrying out his or her role successfully in this demanding environment. A married couple living and working together, perhaps accompanied by a few friends or relatives, constitute a self-sufficient economic unit in the summertime when stone weir fishing is the primary susbsistence activity. The fall caribou hunt requires a more extensice collaboration between hunters and beaters, and here we find larger family groups living together. But it is in winter, the harshest time of year, when we see the culture in its most elaborated form and experience its power to sustain human life. Winter presents the greatest challenge, since food is scarce, darkness prevails, and snow, wind, and bitter cold are a constant danger. Survival depends almost entirely on mutual support and the success of the seal hunt. Here kin and nonkin collaborate to pursue this highly intelligent and elusive creature upon which their lives depend, which lives in a world concealed beneath the sea ice, occasionally surfacing for aur at one of fifteen or twenty widely separated breathing holes. To locate and harpoon a seal through one of these hidden breathing places requires enormous patience and skill, and anyone who has witnessed it in Balikci's films comes away with a deeper appreciation of the enormous ingenuity that has made human life possible under these extreme conditions. The successful hunter ritually shares his catch with the rest of the camp according to patterns established by ancient custom, thus ensuring that, if one hunter triumphs, no one will starve during this brutally difficult time of year [stress added]." Peter B. Dow, 1991, Schoolhouse Politics: Lessons from the Sputnik Era (Harvard University Press), page 123.

FROM THE VIDEO: In traditional times, the Netsilik had their Holy Men = "Shamans who knew how to manipulate the spirits of their old world." ... "Until the mid-1960's Zachary Itimagnac and his family lived the nomadic life of the Eskimo hunter in the Pelly Bay region of the Arctic. Then the Canadian Government introduced measures to provide heated dwellings, a school, a hospital, medical care, a cooperative, air transportation." See CSUChico FILM #12688/89 entitled Yesterday/Today: The Netsilik Eskimos] ...

FROM THE VIDEO: "Today the kids don't get a chance to see the traditional ways of doing things. .. With the introduction of the permanent houses in Pelly Bay, the Netsilik could begin to accumulate possessions for the first time." Balicki states that "school" has the "most profound influence on these people."

FROM THE VIDEO: In The Late 1970s: "Following a multiplicity of factors, gradually the nuclear family emerges as the basic economic unit. ...The nuclear family appears increasingly today as economically autonomous." .. The income of the Eskimo is mostly derived from stone carvings, family allowances, and old age pensions. Their houses are owned by the government which also supplies heat and electricity. The tenant pays rent which is pro-rated to his income. Zachary Itimagnac, whose income is under $1200/year, pays $15 a month in rent. Most of Zachary's income goes for up-keep on his snowmobile, and for the purchase of clothing, tea, and tobacco."

"I want to try the things we used to do.
The things I have forgotten.
It's only now that I have begun to think of the old ways.
I realize I have forgotten the things we used to do.
But they have advised me to try them again.
Hunting in the Springtime.
It's a lot of fun.
But they have advised me to try hunting the way we used to.
I want to try the things I have forgotten
Because they have advised me
To do them again.
I realize I have forgotten
The things we used to do.
But they have advised me to try them again."
(source: Hunters of The Seal: A Time Of Change, 1976)


WEEK 10: BEGINNING Monday October 27, 2008. 

I. CULTURE CHANGE, APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY, AND TECHNOLOGY.

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Globalization" [Overview], pages 340-343.
"Culture Change and Applied Anthropology" [Overview], pages 386-390.
"Cocaine and the Economic Deterioration of Bolivia" by Jack Weatherford, pages 154-164.
"Using Anthropology" [Overview] by David W. McCurdy, pages 422-435.

III. VIDEOS: GOING INTERNATIONAL Series (1 - 4).

IV. VIDEOS: FIRST CONTACT and then ANTHROPOLOGY ON TRIAL

V. WORKING FOR A LIVING and HRAF: Human Relations Area Files


GOING INTERNATIONAL (#1): Bridging The Culture Gap = "...is an introduction to the challenges of traveling, living and working in a foreign culture. Colorful film from around the world powerfully illustrates fundamental concepts of culture, in theory and in practise. Interviews with experts and foreign nationals show the importance of cross-cultural awareness, giving audiences a new understanding of the impact of cultural differences on all international activities."

"If the success of the international businessperson is to be maximized, there is no substitute for an intimate acquaintance with both the language and the culture of those with whom one is conducting business. In fact, because of the close relationship between language and culture, it will be virtually impossible not to learn about one while studying the other [stress added]." Gary P. Ferraro, 1990, The Cultural Dimensions Of International Business, page 46.

"Join a Business, Travel the Globe, Eat a Sheep's Eye: I want to tell you about eating a sheep's eye in Saudi Arabia. I was the guest of honor.... Everybody was watching. I think it was an unspoken test to see if I would respect their culture. It tasted like a round, firm gooey oyster [stress added]." Nicholas Ratur & Francine Parnes, 2003, The New York Times, December 9, 2003, page C9.

"American business executives beware: One cultural blunder can cost you the foreign contract." Anthony Breznican, The Sacramento Bee, December 4, 2000, page D4.

FROM THE VIDEO: "We Americans tend to see ourselves as separate from nature. We talk about 'harnessing the forces of nature'; we talk about 'mastering our environment.' Most of the people in the world see themselves as a part of nature, very much subject to the same forces that affect, for example, a tree."

FROM THE VIDEO: "We are all creatures of culture, and culture is learned. We may have to unlearn many attitudes and behaviors to do well overseas. ... To succeed we must learn the rules, but that is not enough. We must ask questions, watch, and listen. Wherever we go we are ourselves, but we must respect the host culture. We are the guests in their country."

Stereotype: "A process of making metal printing plates by taking a mold of composed type or the like in papier-mâché or other material and then taking from this mold a cast in type metal. ... a standardized conception or image invested with special meaning and [thought to be] held in common by members of a group." (The Random House College Disctionary, 1975, page 1288.)

Culture shock: A form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

Ethnocentrism: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

NOTE: "For countries, corporations and individuals who want to get ahead, the question isn't whether to embrace diversity, but how. This is a surprising statement for those who live in monocultural nations or who work in homogeneous organizations. It may also surprise people who advocate 'multiculturalism' on the basis of fiarness or morality. The truth is that being diverse pays. ...You mix, you win. You resist diversity, you lose. ...Cultural mixing spurs creativity and innovation. Money follows the money [stress added]." The Wall Street Journal June 29, 2000, page A22.

"The Coca-Cola name in China was first read as 'Ke-kou-ke-la,' meaning 'Bite the wax tadpole' or 'female horse stuffed with wax,' depending on the dialect. Coke then researched 40,000 characters to find a phonetic equivalent, 'ko-kou-ko-le,' translating 'happiness in the mouth.'" Thomas L. Friedman, 1999, The Lexus And the Olive Tree (NY: Farrar Strauss Giroux), page 219.

"He likes multicultural candidates, and he demands multicultural savvy-people who have worked for companies based in different countrues, even if they themselves have never left Brazil. Says Puritz: 'If people don't have that intellectual dexterity of understanding how other cultures work, they won't succeed in this business.' That's a sentiment chanted over and over again by other executives at international firms: 'You need to borrow the know-how of local culture and local law,' says Cendant's Pfeiffer. 'It's important that you not project any arrogance [stress added].'" Amanda Ripley, 2001, In Control,10 Times Zones Away. Time, April 9, 2001, pages G8-G11, page G11. 

GOING INTERNATIONAL (#2): Managing The Overseas Assignment = "...portrays communication problems anyone can experience in foreign situations. ... U.S. travelers in countries as diverse as Japan, Saudi Arabia, England, India and Mexico illustrate how cultural taboos and accepted standards of behavior differ around the world. Nationals of the featured countries and cross-cultural experts explain how travelers can adapt their communication skills and personal conduct to be more effective abroad."

FROM THE VIDEO: "Working abroad usually means expanded responsibility and authority for those traveling or relocating. Being in charge can be rewarding, but it can also be stressful. Under pressure, even people with the best intentions can behave in ways which are perfectly acceptable at home, but inappropriate to a foreign culture. None of the Americans in the five scenes is an 'ugly American.' Indeed, they all behave in ways which are rewarded in the USA. They are admirably restrained in expressing the frustration they feel. But in each scene, the American is ineffectual because of a failure to understand the essentials of doing business in the host country."

FROM THE VIDEO: "...to work effectively abroad, we must recognize that the cultural values of a country determine how business is done there. One's own values, perceptions, and management methods are not necessarily valued in other cultures. ... A demonstrated awareness of and respect for the host culture will make a big difference to the success of social and business interactions."

REMEMBER: http://www.mexica-movement.org/frames.html [Mexica Movement} Arming Our People With Knowledge]} "'Do you know your true history and identity?' This is the epicenter of a little-known movement galvanizing pockets of Mexican and Central American communities in the United States: Indigenous people fighting to resurrect their Indian history and heritage amidst a society that labels them Hispanic or latino [stress added]." Pauline Arrillaga, 2000, New Mexican Movement Stresses Indian Identity. Enterprise-Record, December 31, 2000, page 3D. 

GOING INTERNATIONAL (#3): Beyond Culture Shock ... "explain[s] the psychological phases of the adjustment process. U.S. and Canadian expatriate families describe their experiences and suggest strattegies for overcoming culture shock. ... practical suggestions for making living abroad an enriching adventure." = "Familes who go abroad with unrealistic expectations will be disappointed, and may have a hard time adapting. They will face many sources of disorientation. ... We all depend on hundred of signs and cues to 'read' and function in our environment, but in a new culture, many of these signs are gone, and we are conffronted with new ways of doing things, new ways of thinking and valuing. This causes anxiety. It is the continuous, repeated occasions of disorientaition which precipitates 'culture shock.' As one expatriate expresses it, 'It's like being in an exam, twenty-four hours a day" [stress added; and Urbanowicz adds, the film can be "viewed" on several levels simultaneously.]

GOING INTERNATIONAL (#4): Welcome Home Stranger = "...focuses on the unexpected problems of returning home. Family members share how they overcame the difficulties of 'reentry' into the workplace, community and school environments. Reentry is often the hardest part of an overseas experience and should not be ignored." = "Most returning families are not prepared for 'reentry shock' or 'reverse culture shock.' Memories and myths of home--how it is cleaner, better, cheaper, or more efficient--are shattered. When people return home, they find life is complex here too. They find that they miss what they became accustomed to overseas [or, perhaps, Urbanowicz adds: In Chico, California.]."


FIRST CONTACT VIDEOTAPE = Based on a 1987 book entitled First Contact by Bob Connolly and Robin Anderson [CSUC: GN/671/N5/C66/1987]. Footage of 1930's expedition into New Guinea by the Leahy brothers: Michael, Daniel, and James Leahy.

FROM THE VIDEO: "It's no good pretending I went up there for the good of the natives, because I didn't. I went there for the good of James Leahy, and I didn't do too badly. ... The only reason we killed people was simply if we hadn't killed them, they would have killed us and our carriers." See San Francisco Chronicle of 8 September 1983 and the words of a New Guinea Native stated in the film: "That man from heaven has just excreted, he told us. As soon as the white man went away, everyone went to look. Their skin is different, we said, but their s--- smells just like ours."

"Of all the colonised people of the earth, New Guinea's highlanders must surely rank among the most fortunate. Colonial domination came late in the day and was short lived--a mere half-century of foreign rule. The Australians arrived in 1930, and left in 1975--not a long time in the scheme of things. Largely because of this, the highland people were spared many of colonialism's more manifest evils [page 9]." ... "This book [and the videotape] is based primarily on interviews with highlanders and Australians who took part in the events described [1930's+] and on the diaries and other written records of the Australians. The interviews were recorded in Papua New Guinea and Australia between 1981 and 1985 [stress added] (page 307)."


PAPUA NEW GUINEA: ANTHROPOLOGY ON TRIAL [VIDEO] = dealing with Margaret Mead (1901-1978) as well as the work of John Barker (New Guinea), Andrew & Marilyn Strathern & Ongka (in New Guinea), and Wari Iamu (in California).

FROM THE VIDEO: "I think in the '80's we must stop anthropologists from coming into the country...[Anthropology is] part and participle of the colonial forces. ... [some of Mead's work]: "half-truths or unrealistic. ... Margaret Mead wrote the story of Peri [not the "story" of the people of Manus]. ... I've stopped the film [Margaret Mead's New Guinea Journal]. ... She [Margaret Mead] didn't understand our customs."

REMEMBER THE WORDS of Derek Freeman: "In my book of 1983 evidence was amassed to demonstrate that Margaret Mead's conclusion of Coming of Age in Samoa, because it is at odds with the relevant facts, cannot possibly have been correct. It had become apparent that the young Margaret Mead had, somehow or other, made an egregious mistake. ... The making of mistakes by humans, in science as in all other forms of human activity, is altogether commonplace." Derek Freeman, 1996, Margaret Mead And The Heretic: The Making And Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth, pages vi and xii-xiii.

"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all of her work?] must consider the controversy surrounding its accuracy. In 1983, several years after her death, Derek Freeman published his detailed refutation of her work. More recently, Freeman has continued his attack with attempts to prove that Mead built her description of adolescent sexuality on scanty information gleaned from a hoax perpetrated by her informants. He has also argued that she was young and credulous, that she had a poor grasp of the language, that she did not carry out her investigations properly, that Coming of Age in Samoa [1929] is littered with errors, that she twisted the facts to suit her (and Boas's and Benedict's) preconceptions, and that she was entirely wrong in her portrayal of Samoa [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.


WORKING FOR A LIVING:

"I don't think being a son or daughter qualifies you to do what your parents do." (Leonard S. Riggio, born 1941: Chief Executive of Barnes & Noble, Inc.)

"You've got to be passionate about something." Steve Jobs. Rama D. Jager & Rafael Ortiz, 1997, Steve Jobs: Apple Computer, NeXT Software, and Pixar--Only The Best--People, Product, Purpose. In The Company of Giants: Candid Conversations With The Visionaries of the Digital World (McGraw-Hill), pages 9-25, page 21.

"Despite their good intentions, the odds are that one of these new teachers will leave the profession. More than a third of California teachers abandon their career within the first three years....Yet California cannot afford to lose them. In the next decade, the state must hire an estimated 250,000 adults....[stress added]." Elizabeth Bell, 2000, New Teachers' First Year. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 28, 2000, pages A13 & A16, page A13.

"The future is something which everyone reaches at the rate of sixty minutes an hour, whatever he [or she] does, whoever he [or she!] is." C.S. Lewis (1898-1963)

"Our winning strategy for finding your perfect job comes from Samantha H. in Jamaica, N.Y. 'First thing, let's not call it a job but your life's career. Job sounds so humdrum, put upon and boring. My mother gave me the best advice: 'Look for the thing that has been with you all of your life. It has brought you through good and bad times. Once you find it, then that is what you should be doing [stress added].'" Bob Rosner, 2001, Working Wounded. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 2, 2001, page J2.

"It's not just the work that has to be learned in each situation. Each job presents a self-contained social world, with its own personalities, hierarchy, customs, and standards. Sometimes I was given scraps of sociological data to work with, such as 'Watch out for so-and-so, he's a real asshole.' More commonly it was left to me to figure out such essentials as who was in charge, who was good to work with, who could take a joke. Here years of travel probably stood me in good stead, although in my normal life I usually enter new situations in some respected, even attention-getting role like 'guest lecturer' or 'workshop leader.' It's a lot harder, I found out, to sort out a human microsystem when you're looking up at it from the bottom, and, of course, a lot more necessary to do so" [stress added]." Barbara Ehrenreich, 2001, Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By In America (NY: Metropolitan Books), page 194.

"Knowledge is power: 5 rules to remember when negotiating salary. 1. Recognize your value....2. Be prepared.....3. Know what you can negotiate....4. Know that you are dealing with future coworkers.....5. Focus on the goals, not winning." (USA Today May 22, 2000, page 7A.)


HRAF (HUMAN RELATIONS AREA FILES)

The Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) is a microform collection of mostly primary source materials on a large sample of cultures, societies and ethnic groups representing all areas of the world. It is a research tool making available descriptive data on many predominantly non-western and non-literate world cultures. Once the basic arrangement of the HRAF Microfiles is understood,the Files can be used for making cross-cultural surveys, for studying a particular culture or cultural trait, for studying cultures in a specific geographical area, and more. HRAF is also available in CD ROM.

ORGANIZATION OF THE HRAF

The Collection is organized into separate Cultural Files,which are indexed in a manual entitled the OUTLINE OF WORLD CULTURES (OWC). The information within each Cultural File is then arranged according to a special subject classification system presented in another manual called the OUTLINE OF CULTURAL MATERIALS (OCM). Using these two manuals, you will be able to find information in the HRAF Microfiles about one specific characteristic of one particularculture or make a cross-cultural comparison or survey of two or more societies.

ASK A LIBRARIAN and please remember The eHRAF Collection of Ethnography available on the WWW.


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

ACCULTURATION: The process that takes place when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, which results in change to the cultural patterns of both groups.

ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES: The knowledge that people use to assign rights to the ownership and use of resources.

APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: Any use of anthropological knowledge to influence social interaction, to maintain or change social institutions, or to direct the course of cultural change.

CULTURAL CONTACT: The situation that occurs when two societies with different cultures somehow come into contact with each other.

CULTURE: The knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior.

CULTURE SHOCK: A form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

INFORMANT: A person who teaches his or her culture to an anthropologist.

LAW: The cultural knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents who have recognized authority.

MARKET ECONOMIES: Economies in which production and exchange are motivated by market factors: price, supply, and demand. Market economies are associated with large societies where impersonal exchange is common.

NAIVE REALISM: The notion that reality is much the same for all people everywhere.

ROLE: The culturally generated behavior associated with particular statuses.

TACIT CULTURE: The shared knowledge of which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally.

TECHNOLOGY: The part of a culture that involves the knowledge that people use to make and use tools to extract and refine raw materials.

WORLDVIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


POSSIBLE EXAM II QUESTIONS FOR FRIDAY November 7, 2008:

1. RThe video First Contact dealt with explorers in: (a) Mexico; (b) North America; (c) South America; (d) New Guinea.

2. According to the Guidebook, names that many Americans use for Native American Indians tribes are: (a) acceptable; (b) believable; (c) creative; (d) derogatory.

3. Anthropologists who do research in "culture and personality" are generally interested in: (a) modal personality; (b) basic personality structure; (c) cultural character; (d) all-of-the-above.

4. The term "dege" in the Dani Language of New Guinea meant: (a) human being; (b) a "moiety" of the Dani people; (c) a term of contempt; (d) a digging stick or a spear.

5. The following has been described as forming the "spine" of Bushmen life: (a) trust; (b) peace; (c) cooperation; (d) all-of-the-above.

6. According to Barnett (in this Guidebook), European mastery of large parts of the globe was due to: (a) racial superiority; (b) possession of gunpowder; (c) possession of iron; (d) both b + c.

7. TRUE FALSE Polyandry is when a woman has two or more husbands at the same time.

8. TRUE FALSEThe shared knowledge which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally is known as "Tacit Culture."

9. TRUE FALSE The culturally generated behavior associated with particular statuses is known as the caste system.

10. TRUE FALSE Margaret Mead was the only female anthropologist to ever work in Melanesia.

11. TRUE FALSE Cosmology refers to a set of beliefs that defines the nature of the universe or cosmos.

12. TRUE FALSE Anomie refers a form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTTwo.htm by Friday October 31, 2008, to assist you in examination #2.


MAPS TO BE USED FOR EXAM II FOR FRIDAY November 7, 2008

 

 AND REMEMBER: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html


WEEK 11: BEGINNING MONDAY November 3, 2008.

I. CULTURE CHANGE CONTINUED, REVIEW ON WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 5, 2008, AND EXAM II (30%) ON FRIDAY NOVEMBER 7, 2008.

II. REMEMBER: ELECTION DAY ON TUESDAY NOVEMBER 4, 2008!

ON ELECTIONS IN GENERAL: "An overwhelming majority of a miniscule number of Chico State university students decided everybody on campus will be paying higher fees at least through 2009. By a margin of 749 to 42, students at Chico State approved a referendum calling for a $14-a-semester fee to fund campus athletics. The total voter turnout amounted to 4.9 percent of the 16,251 eligible students [stress added]." Roger H. Aylworth, 2002, minority Rules: Chico State Approves Sports Fee. Enterprise-Record, May 11, 2002, page 1.

III. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict.
"Globalization" [Overview - repeat], pages 340-343.
"Japanese Hip-Hop and the Globalization of Popular Culture" by Ian Condry, pages 370-385.

IV. PLEASE THINK ABOUT THIS:

IS THIS TRUE?} "No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's." Thomas L. Friedman, 1999, The Lexus And The Olive Tree, (NY: Farrar Straus Giroux), page 195.

V. VIDEOS: GOING INTERNATIONAL Series (2 & 3): Please go back to Film Notes for Week 10 above.

VI. PLEASE REMEMBER:
A.
REVIEW on Wednesday November 5, 2008 & EXAM II (30%) on Friday November 7, 2008.
B. Potential EXAM II Test Questions below
C. Map}: Europe, Middle East, Asia & Pacific, Multiple Choice, and True/False.


WEEK 12: BEGINNING MONDAY November 10, 2008.

I. LAW & POLITICS & RELIGION, MAGIC & WORLD VIEW AND BACK TO THE PACIFIC!

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict. Please begin reading Earth Abides by George R. Stewart; and see immediately below the "film notes" for previous student comments about Earth Abides.)
"Law and Politics" [Overview - repeat], pages 260-263.
"Symbolizing Roles: Beyond The Veil" by Elizabeth & Robert Fernea, pages 223-230.
"Cross-Cultural Law: The Case of the Gypsy Offender" by Anne Sutherland, pages 265-273.

III. INFORMATION OR OIL?

"Railways [in 19th century England] changed everything. People lived differently, worked differently, ate differently, had holidays differently, did almost everything differently, once railways came along. Suburbs were created because people no longer needed to live on top of their work. Fresh fish and vegetables could be brought hundreds of miles. The Grand Tour was open to everyone who could afford the train fare. People were brought together and life was opened up. Even now, the direct and indirect results of railways, apart from the obvious economic and social advantages, have scarcely been realized. Cars and planes, television and satellites have since reduced the world to one electric village, but trains were first [stress added]." Hunter Davis, 1975, George Stephenson: The Remarkable Life of the Founder of the Railways (Middlesex, England: Hamlyn Paperbacks), pages xiii-xiv.

"[In the United States in the mid-19th century:] One of the main reasons for funding the transcontinental [rail]road, however, was national defense--a rationale that also brought about construction of the federal interstate highway system nearly a century later. The idea of a coast-to-coast link had been discussed in California for some time, but Congress did not approve funds for it until the Civil War [1861-1865] was underway. The railroad would be a means of not only hastening shipments to and from California and protecting it from possible attack, but of keeping in loyal to the Union [stress added]." Daniel Lindley, 1999, Ambrose Bierce Takes on the Railroad: The Journalist as Muckraker and Cynic (Westport & London: Praeger), page 63.

IV. PREVIOUS STUDENT COMMENTS ABOUT EARTH ABIDES.

V. BACK TO THE PACIFIC: VIDEO} THE LAST TASMANIAN (and if you wish: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pacific/Tasmania.html.


SAUDI ARABIA: THE OIL REVOLUTION = Saudi Arabia: Located in all but the southern and eastern portions of the Arabian Peninsula. SIZE: 756,984 square miles [size of California = 163,696 Square Miles. Saudi Arabia has an estimated year population of 27,601,038. According to the census, the capital of Riyadh had a population of 4,193,000.

"In the early years of this century the house of Sa'ud emerged from the desert to conquer the greatest part of the Arabian peninsula, and they called the empire they created after themselves: Sa'udi Arabia. They control the Kingdom to this day." Robert Lacey, 1981, The Kingdom: Arabia & The House of Sa'ud, page 13.
According to the 2008 Information Please Almanac (page 823), the current literacy rate in Saudi Arabia is 82.9%.

"Rising Poverty Is New Concern for Saudis. Booming Population Forces The Oil-Rich Kingdom To Address Resentment. ... As Saudi Arabia tries to address Riyadh's problems, it is coming to terms with a reality that hasn't registered with most Americans yet: This isn't a rich country anymore. Gross domestic product, per capita, has dwindled to one-fifth of the U.S's. The Saudi population is growing rapidly, but oil production remains roughly the same every year and the country hasn't diversified much [stress added]." Daniel Pearl, 2000, The Wall Street Journal, 26 June 2000, page A26.

"Since 1980, the Saudi population has more than doubled, to 17.3 million, with nearly three-fourths under the age of 30. Despite all the oil billions, pockets of poverty have emerged, and debt has soared out of control. It stands at about $170 billion, matching the country's total annual outpoot of goods and services. Gross national product per capita fell from $15,800 in 1980 to $8,200 in 2001. Unemployment is estimated as high as 30%. Much of the population is poorly educated [stress added]." Donald L. bartless and James B. Steele, 2003, Iraq's Crude Awakening. Time, May 19, 2003, pages 49-52, page 52.

"In the Middle East, as elsewhere, geography and ecology have been among the important architects of history" (Ismail I. Nawab et al., 1980, Aramco And Its World: Arabia And The Middle East, page 4).

FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: Fasting, Declaration of Faith, Daily Prayers, Charity, and a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca.

FROM THE VIDEO: "The internal tensions of this kingdom in transition since the oil boom of the mid 1960's and the reforms of KING FAISAL are probed in this overview of a country that is changing practically day-to-day. Everywhere are images of the often bizarre collisions between Muslim orthodoxy and the demands of modernization. In this, the world's richest oil-producing country, the majority of the people are land-poor fellahin; 92% of them are illiterate. They till the soil with crude implements unchanged for a thousand years. Some of their countrymen, however, train on the latest jet fighters, and cavalry men of the Saudi army churn up the desert on their world famous Arabian ponies while practising their traditional saber-wielding skills."

FROM THE VIDEO: Four faces of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Soil, Sea, City, & Wanderer. Before Muhammad [570-632], Arabia was divided among numerous warring tribes and small kingdoms until Muhammad [570-632] unified the tribes.

FROM THE VIDEO: Out in the desert, in a Bedouin (nomad) family's hovel, the master's several wives remain veiled and totally submissive. Elsewhere liberated women emulate the dress and habits of those in the West and attend schools and universities. Faisal encouraged the growth of these segregated schools for women, against the advice of many. ...Women in Saudi Arabia may take any job, as long as they are not seen. ...King Faisal, absolute ruler until his assassination in 1975, kneels in devout prayer five times a day like any of the Muslim faithful."


THAT UNCERTAIN PARADISE = The (dated) film deals with an area and "people spread over an area of the tropical [North] Pacific, slightly larger than the continental United States. The people who occupy about 100 of some 2,000 small islands, are virtually unknown to the American public, although annually more than 80 million American tax dollars are injected into the region. Places such as Truk [Chuuk], Eniwetok, Ulithi, which were household words in the United States during WWII, have returned to their former isolation."The question that gnaws at Micronesians today is whether to attempt to preserve their old ways or to propel themselves as fast as possible into the 20th Century. Automobiles and air-conditioned hotels are standard fixtures in the district centers. Thatched huts, bare-breasted women and dugout canoes are still part of outer island life."

FILM: "Recently a growing political awareness, influenced by the global trend away from colonialism, has brought about political unrest. No one knows what to do about it. Micronesia constitutes a model of the problems primitive [sic.] people face when confronted with the 20th Century." Film "visits all districts including some outer islands and observes the cultural, social, economic, and political conflicts. The old culture, represented by dances, ceremonies, island architecture, and family life in a typical village, is contrasted to the often tawdry facade of the district center, the gleaming luxury hotels, the jet liners, and the local variety of Life in the United States. The old South Seas [sic.] romance comes to life during a trip on a government ship to the outer islands. Appearing in the film are former Secretary of State Dean Rusk [1909-1994]; Ambassador Haydn Williams; Senator Petrus Tun and Representative John Rugulmar of the Congress of Micronesia; Chief Ngirakebou; Chief Tagachilbe; the people of Ngchesar on Babeldup Island [Palau]; Trust Territory officials; and Micronesians from all walks of life."(from Annals of Tourism Research, Oct/Dec'77:73-4). 

NOTE: "The two aspects of the Micronesian environment that seem to dominate Micronesian thought are the near-universal scarcity of land and the weather (depending on the location), either in the form of droughts or typhoons. Nearly all of the people of Micronesia have had to adapt to these harsh facts of the envioronment." (W.A. Alkire, The Peoples and Cultures of Micronesia, 1972: 5). ... "Micronesian political systems fall into the type generally called chiefdoms. All recognized distinctions of rank based largely on genealogical seniority in a system of ranked matriclans segmented into lineages or other subunits. ... Everywhere, chiefs had some authority over decision making about public labor and resources and control over some kinds of conduct. Chiefly clans generally received some kind of first fruits or other payment, most commonly in return for grants of land made generations ago to more recent immigrants." (James G. Peoples, 1993, "Political Evolution in Micronesia" in Ethnology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 17, pp. 4-5). Major islands in Micronesia (from West to East): Northern Marianas, Guam, Belau (Palau), Federated States of Micronesia (Yap, Chuk [Truk], Ponape, and Kosrae), Marshall Islands, Kiribiti (formerly Gilbert Islands), Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands), and Nauru. 


THE LAST TASMANIAN = "...is a shocking and heart-wrenching portrait of a primitive [sic.] culture wiped out in the name of civilization and Christianity. When the British first colonized the island of Tasmania in 1803, it was viewed as a natural prison to which they sent many of their worst criminals. These convicts, set loose upon the natives committed hideous, barbarous atrocities. By the 1820's thousands of colonists and one million sheep had arrived on the island. When the natives began to retaliate, the British government reacted with mounting paranoia. Thus began a round-up and eventual extermination of an entire race. Those Tasmanians who did not die from abominable treatment succumbed to the diseases of civilized man. Even in death, the race was violated by a ghoulishly curious scientific world. Skeletons and skulls became prized as a means of tracing man's origins. This dramatic film tells the story of Truganini, a daughter of a tribal chief and the last true Tasmanian, who died [on May 8] 1876 at the mission station on Flinders Island. Her skeleton was long displayed in the Hobart Museum until finally, a century after her death, she was given a state funeral and her remains cremated. The Last Tasmanian has won Australia's top awards for documentary, the SAMMY and the LOGIE, and has been praised as a tour de force [stress added]."

"European treatment of Aborigines during the last 200 years has been grossly unjust, but it was in Tasmania during the first 30 years of European settlement that the Aboriginals' plight was the most tragic. European settlers fenced off all the best land for farms, and as they encrouched upon traditional hunting grounds, the Aboriginals began fighting back. In turn, the settlers hunted and shot down the Aboriginal men as they would animals, kidnapped native children to use as slave labor, and raped and tortured the women. In 1828 Governor Arthur proclaimed a law that gave police the right to shoot Aboriginals on sight. Within a couple of years the entire population had been flushed out from settled districts, and over the following five years the remaining stragglers, numbering less than 200, were transported to Flinders Island to be converted to Christians [stress added]." Marael Johnson et al., 1997, Australia Handbook (Chico: Moon Publications), page 598.

"Like all other forms of life, bacteria and viruses evolve over time, and the complex ways in which they react with their human hosts may give to variable virulence [stress added]." Gerald N. Grob, 2002, The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America (Harvard university Press), page 207.

REMEMBER FROM WEEK TWO:

"Les Eyzies is the normal point of first entry for visitors to the land of prehistory. It has a national museum, the cave where Cro-Magnon man was discovered, and much else--all in the midst of spectacular scenery. ... The National Museum of Prehistory lies within Les Eyzies, in a structure built into the side of a cliff, with overhanging rock above, which was originally a thirteenth-century fortress. It houses a rich collection of prehistoric items, not only from the Dordogne but also from other French archaeological sites...." Charles Tanford & Jacqueline Reynolds, 1992, The Scientific Traveller: A Guide to the People, Places, and Institutions of Europe, page 205.

Les Eyzies-De-Tayax-Sireuil = "The science of prehistory originated in this village....The first drawing of a mammoth was discovered here along with the first skeleton of Cro-Magnon Man, 30,000 years ago." Anon., 1988, The Hachette Guide To France (NY: Pantheon Books), page 111.

"The Dordogne River twisted in loops like a brown snake in the valley it had cut hundreds of thousands of years before." Michael Crichton, 1999, Timeline (Ballantine Books November 2000 Paperback), page 43.

"In 1856, at the very time Charles Darwin was writing The Origin of Species [published in 1859!],which would popularize the revolutionary concept of evolution worldwide, the fossilized remains of a stocky, powerful, human-like creature were discovered in a German valley called Neander Tal." Erik Trinkaus and Pat Shipman, 1993, The Neanderthals: Changing The Image of Mankind .

Settlement of Australia began in 1788, with the landing of a part of transported convicts from Great Britain.

Tasmania is 26,200 square miles in size and is a State of the Commonwealth of Australia [2,941,300 square miles]. Tasmania had an estimated 2006 population of ~473,365. The 2006 estimated population of Australia is 20,434,176. The capital of Tasmania is Hobart. The State of California is approximately 163,696 Square Miles, the State of West Virginia is approximately 24,078 square miles, and Costa Rica is approximately 19,730 square miles. [See page 748, The World Almanac And Book of Facts 2008.]

The potential of British-French rivalry in Australia prompted the British in Australia (where they had established a convict colony in 1788) to send a ship to Tasmania. On December 14, 1802, while Frenchmen were already on Tasmania, the British raised their flag and took formal possession of Tasmania in the name of King George of England.

"When Tasmania was first colonised the natives were roughly estimated by some at 7000 and by others at 20,000. Their number was soon greatly reduced, chiefly by fighting with the English and with each other. After the famous hunt by all the colonists, when the remaining natives delivered themselves up to the government, they consisted only of 120 individuals,* who were in 1832 transported to Flinders Island. This island, situated between Tasmania and Australia, is forty miles long, and from twelve to eighteen miles broad: it seems healthy, and the natives were well treated. Nevertheless, they suffered greatly in health. In 1834 they consisted (Bonwick, p. 250) of forty-seven adult males, forty-eight adult females, and sixteen children, or in all of 111 souls. In 1835 only one hundred were left. As they continued rapidly to decrease, and as they themselves thought that they should not perish so quickly elsewhere, they were removed in 1847 to Oyster Cove in the southern part of Tasmania. They then consisted (Dec. 20th, 1847) of fourteen men, twenty-two women and ten children.*(2) But the change of site did no good. Disease and death still pursued them, and in 1864 one man (who died in 1869), and three elderly women alone survived. The infertility of the women is even a more remarkable fact than the liability of all to ill-health and death. At the time when only nine women were left at Oyster Cove, they told Mr. Bonwick (p. 386), that only two had ever borne children: and these two had together produced only three children! (* All the statements here given are taken from The Last of the Tasmanians, by J. Bonwick, 1870. * This is the statement of the Governor of Tasmania, Sir W. Denison, Varieties of Vice-Regal Life, 1870, vol. 1, p.67.). [stress added]." Charles Darwin (1871), The Descent of Man)

FROM THE VIDEO: "Fear mixed with the old contempt had produced hate and indiscriminate retaliation."
"Wherever the European has trod, death seems to pursue the aboriginal. We may look to the wide extent of the Americas, Polynesia, the Cape of Good Hope, and Australia, and we find the same result. Nor is it the white man alone that acts as the destroyer; the Polynesian of Malay extraction has in parts of the East Indian archipelago, thus driven before him the dark-coloured native. The varieties of man seem to act on each other in the same way as different species of animals--the stronger always extirpating the weaker [stress added]." Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882], 1839, The Voyage of the Beagle (Chapter 19: "Australia"), 1972 Bantam paperback edition (with "Introduction" by Walter Sullivan), page 376.

October 17, 1995: "...the premier [of Tasmania], Ray Groom, announced that he would introduce legislation to transfer 3800 hectares [~9390 acres] of land to the Tasmanian Aborigines. ... The Premier stressed that this was the government's first and final transfer of land to the Tasmanian Aborigines [stress added]." Lyndall Ryan, 1996, The Aboriginal Tasmanians [2nd edition] (Australia: Allen & Unwin), page 310.

"The Tasmanian Aboriginal population was gradually wiped out with the arrival of Europeans in the 19th century, however more than 4,000 people [~.84% of the population] claim Aboriginality in Tasmania today. Evidence of their link with the landscape has survived in numerous cave paintings. Many Aboriginal sites remain sacred and closed to visitors, but a few, such as the cliffs around Woolnorth [in the extreme northwest of Tasmania], display this indigenous art for all to see [stress added]." Zoë Ross [Managing Editor], 1998, Australia (Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc.), page 445. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES: The term "genocide" was first used by Raphael Lemkin [1900-1949] in his 1944 publication entitled Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: "By genocide we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group." Lemkin combined a Greek and Latin root to create the word. On the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize Winner Elie Wiesel: "But because of his telling, many who did not care to believe have come to believe, and some who did not care have come to care. He tells the story out of infinite pain, partly to honor the dead, but also to warn the living--to warn the living that it could happen again and that it must never happen again. Better that one heart be broken a thousand times in the retelling, he has decided, if it means that a thousand other hearts need not be broken at all." Robert McAfee Brown, 1986, Night (NY: Bantam Edition), page vi.

"It's not born in you! It happens after you're born . . .
You've got to be taught to hate and fear,
You've got to be taught from year to year,
It's got to be drummed in your dear little ear--
You've got to be carefully taught!"
(Rodgers & Hammerstein, II, 1949, South Pacific in
Six Plays by Rodgers & Hammerstein, pages 346-347)  


V. PREVIOUS STUDENT COMMENTS ABOUT EARTH ABIDES.

"Earth Abides fits into Anthropology 113 because it is basically an overview from day 1."

"After having sat in this same seat three times a week for an entire semester I feel as though I may leave here today taking some textbook knowledge with me, but more importantly taking a broader understanding of the world and the big picture. Earth Abides allowed me to think about, and re-eavluate all of the things that I rake for granted day and if need be, could I survive without them?"

"This book [Earth Abides] has become like a pass to the class, you can't have Anthropology 113 without Earth Abides; just like you don't wear two different shoes at the same time."

"Earth Abides was the missing piece in the anthropological puzzle. It combined all the elements of the class and made it easier to understand for me, and it also made it interesting."

"I think Earth Abides was fun to read and I think it very well fit into Anthropology 113. I don't enjoy reading but this book was good & helpful to make the connection to what we are learning in class. The book helped tie all the videos and Guidebook notes together & helped me understand what this course is really about."

"Personally, I believe that the book Earth Abides was a perfectly fitting reading for this course. Not only did it follow along with all we learne of culture and society but it opened our minds up to a world without technology....Please continue to assign the book for future classes, it will open their minds and make them think!"

"Earth Abides has a lot of the words we studied in the Guidebook."

This was a great book [Earth Abides] to choose to go along with the course. I did not want to read it at first but after reading it really enjoyed it. I did not want to put the book down because I was so fascinated with what was to come next. This book was definitely a great ending to tie up the entire course."

"This is the second time I read Earth Abides , yet it is still gripping. The first time I read it from an environmentalist and scitific perspective and this time from the anthropological perspective. Earth Abides , without a doubt, had put eveything in this class in perspective. From the environment, destruction of a culture, hope, attitude, the negative contact with outsiders...and many more. It is a great book that fits for any time any decade or generation, with a little modification it could be setting today."   

"Earth Abides was immediately a book I knew I would put off or possibly not read at all....I had mentioned to my Grandmother that I had to read Earth Abides for an Anthropology course: she immediately instructed me to read it and return to her as soon as I was finished. We discussed it over dinner and most of the adults in my family had read the novel and loved it. I figured it couldn't be that bad. I began reading and by the end of the first day I was already 130 pages into the novel. It was not what I expected. I was surprised to find that I was kept interested and wanted to know more and more about....[Earth Abides] helped me grasp the concepts illustrated in the Anthro 113 course."
"I told my Mom we were reading Earth Abides and it tuns out she remembered it from reading it 30 years ago! She remembered everything about it and was very excited for me to read it! She has been looking for a copy and thought it was out of print. I told her she could have mine now that I'm finished!"


WEEK 13: BEGINNING Monday November 17, 2008

I. TASMANIA CONTINUED (AND REMEMBER: NO CLASS ON FRIDAY NOVEMBER 21, 2008!)!

II. AND OPENING, on November 21, 2008:  Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. [Now scheduled for a 2009 release.]

"As Harry Potter begins his 6th year at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, he discovers an old book marked mysteriously "This book is the property of the Half-Blood Prince" and begins to learn more about Lord Voldemort's dark past."

III. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook.
"Identity, Roles, and Groups" [Overview - repeat], pages 218-222.

IV.PLEASE CONTINUE READING EARTH ABIDES BY GEORGE R. STEWART, and:

December 19, 2003: "Influenza has become widespread in 12 more states in the last week, bringing the total to 36, with sporadic cases in the remaining states...." Lawrence K. Altman & Denise Grady, 2003, Flu Becomes Widespread in 12 More States, for Total of 36. The New York Times, December 19, 2003, page A24.

"The headlines told him what was most essential. The United States from coast to coast was overwhelmed by the attack of some new and unknown disease of unparalleled rapidity of spread, and fatality. Estimates for various cities, admitterdly little more than guesses, indicated that between 25 percent and 35 percent of the population had already died. ... In its symptoms the disease was like a kind of super-measles. No one was sure in what part of the world it had originated; aided by airplane travel, it had sprung up almost simultaneously in every center of civilization, outrunning all attempts at quarantine [stress added]." George R. Stewart, 1949, Earth Abides (NY: Fawcett Crest), page 13.

"One of the more consequential human tendencies that we have explored in these pages is that towards pseudospeciation: falsely treating another member of our species as if he or she were member of a different species. It is this capacity that allows us to turn off our natural identification with other members of our species and so be able to kill them. Its power and consequence have been very evident in recent years in a variety of locales, from the Balkans to Rwanda. It is difficult to brutalize and kill human beings, but it is not so hard to commit atrocities against 'Gooks,' 'Niggers.' 'Honkies,' 'Spics,' 'Micks,' 'Nips,' 'Krauts,' or other creatures we have used language to dehumanize. Clearly this ability to engage in pseudospeciation is a major part of the basis for warfare [stress added]." Robert S. McElvaine, 2001, Eve's Seed: Biology, the Sexes, and the Course of History (NY: McGraw-Hill), pages 284-285

NATURAL SELECTION: "The process of differential survival and reproduction that results in changes in gene frequencies and in the characteristics that the genes encode."(Paul W. Ewald, 1994, Evolution of Infectious Disease, page 220.

"One Scary Bug: A New Virus from Asia raises a host of unnerving questions." ... "And as nature constantly reshuffles the genes in her microbial repertoire, new diseases or variations of old ones keep appearing in new places at an alarming rate. The 'Nipah' virus jumped from pigs to humans in Malaysia in 1998, for instance, killing 105 people before being stamped out. West Nile virus swepat across the U.S. last year, killing 277 people. 'It is the nature of these organisms to change [EVOLUTION!] in order to survive,' explains Dr. John B. Bruss, Pharmacia Corp's clinical director for infectious disease research in Kalamazoo, mich. 'As they change [or EVOLVE!], they can become more pathogenic to humans.' And a global urbanization and travel continue to increase, 'this type of worldwide outbreak will be more prevalent,' says Dr. Neil O. Fishman, director of health-care epidemiology and infection control and the university of Pennsylvania Medical Center [stress added]." John Carey et. al, 2003, One Scary Bug: A New Virus from Asia raises a host of unnerving questions. Business Week, April 14, 2003, pages 56-57, page 56.

SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

ACCULTURATION: The process that takes place when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, which results in change to the cultural patterns of both groups.

CULTURAL CONTACT: The situation that occurs when two societies with different cultures somehow come into contact with each other.

CULTURAL ECOLOGY: The study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments, the effects they have on their natural surrounding, and the impact of the environment on the shape of culture, including its long-term evolution.

CULTURE: The knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior.

CULTURE SHOCK: A form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

HUNTING AND GATHERING: A subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occuring foods.

LANGUAGE: The system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.

NAIVE REALISM: The notion that reality is much the same for all people everywhere.

PASTORALISM: A subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals.

TACIT CULTURE: The shared knowledge of which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally.

TECHNOLOGY: The part of a culture that involves the knowledge that people use to make and use tools to extract and refine raw materials.

WORLDVIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


WEEK 14: THANKSGIVING BREAK: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 2008 - > FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 28, 2008!


WEEK 15: BEGINNING Monday December 1, 2008.

I. ALMOST OVER & WINDING DOWN!! (AND PLEASE RETURN TO GOING INTERNATIONAL #4 FILM NOTES ABOVE [IN WEEK 10]).

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook (and you are supposed to be reading Earth Abides by George R. Stewart!
"Law and Politics" [Overview - repeat] by S&M, pages 260-263.
"Notes from an Expert Witness" by Barbara Joans, pages 274-283..

III. CHANGE AS THE NATURAL / CULTURAL ORDER OF THINGS
A. Remember some words from the first Week?

"In a way, looking back at the past 20 years is like going to your high school reunion: Everyone there looks somewhat the same, but everything has completely changed. Twenty years ago, only doctors had pagers, there were no cell phones, no personal computers, no ATM machines, no Internet, no Starbucks. San Francisco looked like a smaller Manhattan, and San Jose looked like a smaller Los Angeles." San Francisco Chronicle, May 30, 1999, page 1.

B. Exploration/Exploitation:

"No one has ever doubted that Columbus attained South America (although not until 1498), and he did trace along Central America in 1502. But no scholar of history has ever claimed that he did discover North America. His real contribution was to prove the reliability of the Atlantic trade winds, which had been discovered in previous decades by the Portuguese and others exploring for islands [stress added]." James R. Enterline, 2002, Erikson, Eskimos & Columbus: Medieval European Knowledge of America (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press), page 215.

"When Columbus set sail from Spain in 1492, he speculated that his fastest route to the gold and spices of the Orient was west by sea. After 33 days of sailing, Columbus was within sight of land and assumed he was approaching Asia. He had no idea that the Carribean island before him was the doorstep to two 'unknown' continents. Neither Columbus nor the islands inhabitants who greeted him could have predicted the global consequences of the encounter that began that day. Seeds of Change [video and 1991 book] commemorates the 500th anniversary of Columbus's voyage by focusing on the exchange of plants, animals, and peoples that resulted. Five 'seeds'--corn, potatoes, diseases, horses, and sugar--form the core of this exhibition which tells the story of 500 years of encounter and exchange" [stress added] (1991 Smithsonian Institution brochure).

"The slave trade was responsible for one of the largest human migrations the world has ever seen. Even before Europeans began shipping African slaves to the New World, millions were sent to Europe, the Middle East, and as far away as China. ... The flow of Africans to the New World eventually exceeded that to the Old. Between the early 1500s, when the first slaves were transported directly from Africa to the Americas, and 1870, when the last verified shipment of African slaves made landfall in Cuba, approximately 12 million enslaved Africans traveled across the Atlantic. Africans quickly became a major portion of the population in the Americas, especially as indigenous poplations were decimated by Old World diseases. As late as 1800, several times as many Africans as Europeans lives in the New World [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), page 57.

C. Native Americans and Continuous Culture Change and Cahokia, Illinois.

"People create their own pasts by acknowledging what they choose to acknowledge. In the 1960 U.S. census -- the first that allowed people to classify themselves by racial category -- just over 500,000 people identified themselves as Native Americans. By the 1980 census more than 1.4 million said they were Native Americans. And in the 2000 census, which for the first time allowed people to identify themselves as belonging to one race, more than 4 million Americans marked 'Native American' on their census forms [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering The Past Through Our Genes (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page 206.

"Why Was Cahokia Abandoned? No other issue in scholarly circles is thornier than the question of Cahokia's abandonment. Why did the Mississippians leave this splendid constellation of mounds, buildings, plazas, council houses, lodges, palisades, and woodhenges behind them? Why does the site show no signs of human habitation from 1400 to about 1650, when Illini Indians moved into the area? Did circumstances foce the Mississippians to leave, or did they choose to take advantage of better resources in another place? Until new evidence is uncovered, we might content ourselves with a simple answer: we do not know why Cahokia was abandoned. But .... Climactic changes and environmental stress? ... Deforestation and an unintended suicide? ... Nutritional stress? ... Health and sanitation problems? ... Conflict? [stress added]." Sally A. Kitt Chappel, 2002, Cahokia: Mirror of the Cosmos (University of Chicago Press), pages 71-74.

D. And please consider California and the local Native American story:

"Had we been able to visit the coast of California between 5000 and 400 years ago we would have seen a remarkable sight. We could have wandered into large, permanent villages, some perhaps consisting of a thousand or more people. There we would have found a ruling elite, a working class, ritual specialists and skilled craftsmen and women, as well as extensive evidence of trade. While this kind of society may seem familiar, the thing that made the Californias special was that nowhere around these towns would you have seen fields or pasture. All of this social complexity was generated in the absence of agriculture [stress added]." Tim Flannery, 2001, The Eternal Frontier: An Ecological History of North America And Its People (NY: Atlantic Monthly Press), pages 239-240.

"The Maidu people who shared the Sacramento Valley with other tribes built small villages along the rivers, collected acorns and vegetables and wove intricate baskets. But their lives were disrupted by the arrival of European settlers, ushering in a violent era of massacres and treachery....Two years after California became a state in 1850, government agents and Native American peoples signed 18 treaties that set aside pieces of land for tribes. The Maidu were promised thousands of acres of land in the Chico-Oroville area. But Congress never ratified the treaties, and the Maidu never received the promised land.... in 1863, the Maidu were rounded up in Chico and marched 100 miles west to the Round Valley Reservation in Covelo. Only about half of the 461 native people who started the journey reached the destination. Some were killed, many died and a few escaped. Patsy Seek, chairwoman of the Konkow Valley Band of Maidu, heard stories from her grandfather who survived the march. She remembers hearing that U.S. soldiers rounded up a group of Native Americans and forced them into a circle. Then they were shot [stress added]." Jennifer MacDonald, 2008, Maidu history of upheaval: European settlers of Butte County brought disease and death to Native Americans. Chico News & Review, June 19, 2008.

IV. EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE AND THE FUTURE

"...organisms, and their microbial cousins, have an influence on life that is wholly disproportionate to their dimensions and invisibility. First, consider the difference in size between some of the very tiniest and the very largest creatures on earth. A small bacterium weighs as little as 0.000000000001 grams. A blue whale weighs about 100,000,000 grams. Yet a bacterium can kill a whale." Bernard Dixon, 1994, Power Unseen: How Microbes Rule The World, page xvii.

V.REMEMBER:
A. EXAM III for ANTH 113-01 is on MONDAY December 15, 2008 from 10 ->11:50am.
B.
Potential EXAM III Test Questions below
C. Map for EXAM III below: EXAM III (35% of your final grade) will consist of a World Map, Multiple-Choice, and True/False questions.


SPECIFIC TERMS FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY's "GLOSSARY" pp. 447-451.

ACCULTURATION: The process that takes place when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, which results in change to the cultural patterns of both groups.

CULTURAL CONTACT: The situation that occurs when two societies with different cultures somehow come into contact with each other.

CULTURAL ECOLOGY: The study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments, the effects they have on their natural surrounding, and the impact of the environment on the shape of culture, including its long-term evolution.

CULTURE: The knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

POLITICAL SYSTEM: The organization and process of making and carrying out public policy according to cultural categories and rules.

PRIEST: A full-time religious specialist who intervenes between people and the supernatural, and who often leads a congregation at regularl cyclical rites.

REDISTRIBUTION: The transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation. The U.S. income tax is a good example.

SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE: A form of horticulture in which wild land is cleared and burned over, farmed, then permitted to lie fallow and revert to its wild state.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: The ranking of people or groups of based on their unequal access to valued economic resources and prestige.

SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES: Strategies that are used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities. Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, and iindustrialism are subsistence strategies.

TECHNOLOGY: The part of a culture that involves the knowledge that people use to make and use tools to extract and refine raw materials.

WORLDVIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


NOTES ON NATIVE AMERICANS AND CONTINUOUS CULTURE CHANGE

REMEMBER FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE COURSE?: "A people who may have been ancestors of the first Americans lived in Arctic Siberia, enduring one of the most unforgiving environments on Earth at the height of the Ice Age, according to researchers who discovered the oldest evidence yet of humans living near the frigid gateway to the New World. Russian scientists uncovered a 30,000-year-old site where ancient hunters lived on the Yana River in Siberia, some 300 miles north of the Arctic Circle and not far from the Bering land bridge that then connected Asia with North America. ... The researchers found stone tools, ivory weapons and the butchered bones of mammoths, bison, bear, lion and hare, all animals that would have been available to hunters during that Ice Age period. Using a dating technique that measures the ratios of carbon, the researchers determined the artifacts were deposited at the site about 30,000 years before the present. That would be about twice as old as Monte Verde in Chile, the most ancient human life known in the American continents [stress added]." Paul Recer, 2004, Ice Age hunters' camp found in Siberia: Possible link to ancestors of 1st Americans. The San Francisco Chronicle, January 2, 2004, page A5.

"The English mistook the Indians' war chants for songs of welcome, while the Indians mistook the red wine the settlers offed them for blood. When Powhatan, the powerful Chesapeake chief, offered food to the Jamestown settlers, it was to signal the visitors' dependent status, allies who required his protection. To his delighted guests, however, the gesture had another meaning: proof of willing subordination. The Indians, the English agreed with relief, would become the docile subjects of King James. So went some of the culture clashes in the New World as Europeans and Native Americans encountered each other for the first time [stress added]." Emily Eakin, Think Tank: History You Can See, Hear, Smell, Touch and Taste. The New York Times, December 20, 2003, page A21.

"We need to understand that the encounter of European Americans with the geography and native peoples of America forms a decisive element in who we are now and need to become [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 2002, The American Soul: Rediscovering the Wisdom of the Founders (NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam), page 40.

"Columbus changed forever the history of the planet. But he did so by connecting two worlds of equal maturity, not by 'discovering' a new one. Knowing this, some find it easy to dismiss European insistence on calling America the New World as nothing more than Eurocentric arrogance. Convinced that Europe was synonymous with civilization, colonizing Europeans failed to see anything of value in Indian civilizations. They regarded Indian people as 'primitive' and viewed the land as virgin wilderness. Like other human beings, they were blind to much of what lay before them and instead took in what they wanted to. In a very real sense, however, America did exists as a new world for Europeans. America was more than just a place; it was a second opportunity for humanity--a chance, after the bloodlettings and the pogroms, the plagues and the famines, the political and religious wars, the social and economic upheavals, for Europeans to get it right this time. In the beginning, the American dream was a European dream, and it exerted emotional and motivational power for generations" [stress added]." Colin G. Galloway, 1997, New Worlds For All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America, page 10.

"In 1589 the Jesuit scholar José de Acosta, who lived and traveled widely in South America, proposed that native Americans were descended from people who had migrated from Siberia. More than four hundred years later, Acosta's idea has held up pretty well. Perhaps 75 million people were living in North and South America when Columbus reached the New World in 1492. Most, perhaps all, of their ancestors have been shown to be people from Asia who made their way across what is today the bering Strait. The questions--and the controversies--lie entirely in the details. The single most contentious question concerns the dates of these migrations [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering The Past Through Our Genes (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page 195-196.  

"People create their own pasts by acknowledging what they choose to acknowledge. In the 1960 U.S. census -- the first that allowed people to classify themselves by racial category -- just over 500,000 people identified themselves as Native Americans. By the 1980 census more than 1.4 million said they were Native Americans. And in the 2000 census, which for the first time allowed people to identify themselves as belonging to one race, more than 4 million Americans marked 'Native American' on their census forms [stress added]." Steve Olson, 2002, Mapping Human History: Discovering The Past Through Our Genes (Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Co.), page 206.

On the Mashantucker Pequot: "The Pequot War of 1636-37 paved the way for the establishment of English hegemony in southern New England." Alfred A. Cave, 1996, The Pequot War (U Mass press), page 1.

"The Spanish and French who first saw these hillocks found it difficult to believe them to be the deliberate creations of mankind. They were so much larger than any work of architecture known to them. The entire facade of the Palace of the Louvre, in Paris, can fit easily within the space surrounded by the D-shaped earthen rings at Povery Point, Louisiana, built at the same time as Stonehenge. The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in Rome, complete with its plaza and gardens, could be placed within the circular embankement at Watson Brake [Louisiana], which is probably at least a thousand years older than Poverty Point [stress added]." Roger G. Kennedy, 1996, Hidden Cities: The Discovery And Loss of Ancient North American Civilization , page 8.

"The pucará [fortress] of Sascahuamán [in Perú, South America] is not only one of the greatest single structures ever built in preliterate America, but it is also unlike its counterparts in that we know the identity of its architects, who gave their names to the three gateways to the fortress. …'The first and principal one was Huallpu Rimanchi Inca, who designed the general plan…. [citing Garcilasco de la Vega, born in Cuzco, Perú, in 1535]. … The fortress was built into a limestone outcrop 1,800 feet long, and formed of three tiers of walls rising to fifty feet high.The precise Inca records, as revealed in their quipus, state that '20,000 labourers, in continuous relays', worked for sixty-eight years to build Sascahuamán [stress added]." Victor Wolfgang von Hagen, 1976, The Royal Road of the Inca (London: Gordon Cremonesi Ltd), page 93.

"The truth about California Indians isn't pleasant. Driven from the land that sustained them, decimated by unfamiliar diseases, they were hunted to near-extinction during the Gold Rush. Once estimated at 300,000, only 15,000 remained by the 1900 census. Almost 95 percent of the original population had vanished." Anon., July 7, 2002, Native California still determined to set historical record straight [stress added]." The Chico Enterprise-Record, page 1D.

"Ishi is in the news again, and again his story is a poignant reflection of our society. Ishi's saga begins in the 1860s. White settlers in this area had either enslaved, murdered, or expelled the Maidu [Native Americans] from the valley, but had not yet subdued the Yahi, who were protected by the remote and tortuous terrain of Deer and Mill Creek canyons, and could survive on the limited resources of that area supplemented with goods gathered on occasional raids of the settlers' ranches. These raids were met with retaliatory attacks, and violence escalated. In 1862, three white children were killed, and in response the settlers resolved to destroy the entire native population. The genocide of the Yahi was ferocious and absolute. ... By 1870 the Yahi population, once in the hundreds, was five. For the next 41 years this small group hid themselves along Dear Creek. In 1911, the last survivor [subsequently named], Ishi, reappeared in the white man's world, ironically at a slaughterhouse [stress added]." Tim Bousquet, The Chico News & Review, June 12, 1997, Vol. 20, No. 46, page 8. And please see: Theodora Kroeber, 1961, Ishi In Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America (Berkeley: UC Press).

"...the bloody years of Yana history: 1850-1872. It was in the early 'sixties that the whole white population of the Sacramento Valley was in an uproar of rage and fear over the murder of five white children by hill Indians--probably Yahi. But the soberly estimated numbers of kidnappings of Indian children by whites in California to be sold as slaves or kept as cheap help was, between the years 1852 and 1867, from three to four thousand; evey Indian woman, girl, and girl-child was potentially and in thousands of cases actually subject to repeated rape, to kidnapping, and to prostitution. Prostitution was unknown to aboriginal California, as were the venereal diseases which accounted for from forty to as high as eighty per cent of Indian deaths during the first twenty years following the gold rush [stress added]." Theodora Kroeber, 1961, Ishi In Two Worlds: A Biography of the Last Wild Indian in North America (Berkeley: UC Press), page 46.

STATEMENT about ISHI from Dr. Saxton Pope: "[Ishi] looked upon us as sophisticated children--smart, but not wise. We knew many things, and much that is false. He knew nature, which is always true. His were the qualities of character that last forever. He was kind; he had courage and self-restraint, and though all had been taken from him, there was no bitterness in his heart. His soul was that of a child, his mind that of a philosopher [stress added]." From: James Freeman, 1992, Ishi's Journey: From The Center to the Edge of the World (Happy Camp, CA: Naturegraph), back cover.

NOTE ELSEWHERE / ELSEWHEN: "There are various estimated and several arguments about the social, cultural, and physical damage caused by the 1838 [Cherokee] removal. The main portions of all five tribes were uprooted and the people became socially disoriented, their town and clan organizations disrupted. ... How many Cherokees and their slaves died? The answer is a mystery, enhanced, complicated by decades. In the detention camps, from three hundred to two thousand died, depending on the authority accepted; on the trail, from five hundred to two thousand. In other words, the answer is a combined total of between eight hundred and four thousand." John Ehle, 1988, Trail of Tears: The Rise And Fall Of The Cherokee Nation (NY: Anchor), page 390.

"What do the Indian nations of Arizona, California, Connecticut, Minnesota, Oregon, Washington and several other states have now that they did not have 15 years ago? The answer is political clout. ... According to Bill Eadington, a specialist in gambling economics at the University of Nevada-Reno, by the end of the decade the Indian casinos in California will be raking in $5.1 billion to $10.3 billion a year in gambling revenues. He said about half of this will be profits. The $5.1 billion figure is still higher than the income generated by the entire Las Vegas strip casinos [stress added]." Tim Giago, 2000, Jury Still Out On Indian Gaming's Impact. The San Francisco Chronicle, July 30, 2000, page 5.

NOTE on the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe: "The tiny Mashantucket Pequot tribe--grown wealthy by casino profits--is putting the finishing touches on a $135 million museum that resurrects a nearly forgotten past. The Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center, which celebrates the lives of American Indians of southeastern Connecticut, open Aug. 11 [1998]. The 308,000-square-foot complex is set on the tribe's reservation, also home to the Foxwoods Resort Casino. ... The money to build the museum comes from the tribe's casino.... The Pequot tribe, which has about 400 members, got assistance from about 50 other tribes, from helping to reproduce artifacts to sharing oral histories and providing original artwork [stress added]." Anon., 1998, The Washington Post, August 4, 1998, page C10.

"Foxwoods Resort Casino reported to the State Division of Special Revenue a net slot win of $57.5 million for the month of February [2008], a $4.3 million or 7 percent decrease from February 2007. The casino's owners, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation, also reported a $14.4 million contribution to the State of Connecticut for February 2008, increasing to $2.620 billion the amount given to the State since January 1993, when slot machines were introduced at Foxwoods. [stress added]." Anon., 2008, The Pequot Times, April 2008.

"Imagine a California with 40 or more Foxwood-sized gaming facilities, many lining the thoroughfares leading from Southern California to the Nevada border, each aggressively wooing the millions of customers from the population centers of Anaheim and San Diego to the gambling meccas of Las Vegas, Reno, Stateline, and Laughlin. That's the doomsday prediction of some gaming observers watching the action in California.... [stress added]" (Matt Connor, 1998, "Nevada's Bad California Dream" in International Gaming & Wagering Business, July 1998, page 1, pages 26-31, page 1 and 26).

"Although Indian casinos are not required to make public their revenues, the fact that Thunder Valley is operated by a publicly traded company, Station Casinos Inc., does afford some grounds for educated guesses. Station, which collects 24 percent of the casino's net revenues in exchange for handling the day-to-day management, recently told its stockholders it expects to make from $65 million to $75 million in annual fees at Thunder Valley. That would mean total net annual revenues for the tribe of around $270 million to $300 million per year, figures that tribal officials do not dispuite with any vigor.... Even at $270 million a year, that projects to at least $200 million for the 240-member tribe by next July. And, that, just for perspective, projects to about $739,726 a day, $30,840 an hour or $514 a minute [stress added]." Steve Wiegand, 2003, Cautious Optimism, The Sacramento Bee, November 24, 2003, page A1 + A15.

"California Indian Country has 107 independent, sovereign nations from the Mexican border to the Oregon state line. They range from tribes of just a few members to those with several thousand. Each is ruled by a chairman or woman elected by the tribe, and they form a diverse collection of leaders that includes former welfare moms, college professors, recovering alcoholics, activists and novelists. In the 57 tribes staewide powered by Casino revenue, the new chiefs wield tremendous political influence, often controlling millions of dollars. Some can be ruthless, dispensing with political opponents by firing them, cutting off their share of casino money and tribal benefits, or kicking them out of the tribe altogether. Tribal leaders can make their own laws and are rarely subject to state or federal intevention--unless a crime is committed. That's how the[Priscilla] Hunter regime in Coyote Valley [Shodakai Casino, Redwood Valley, Mendocino County] became notorious. Theirs is the first Indian nation in California history to have its entire tribal council taken out by a corruption probe [stress added]. Stephen Magagnini, 2007, The New Chiefs: A tribe in upheaval. The Sacramento Bee, April 8, 2007, pages A1 + A12.

FOR THUNDER VALLEY, May 2004: "An average daily attendance of 8,000 to 10,000 people.... A total amount gambled, incluing money that is won and then re-bet, of well-over $5 billion - or a dozen times large than the operating budget fir Sacramento County, Total net profits to the 240-member tribe and Station Casinos, the Las Vegas-based company that operates the casino for the tribe, of more than $300 million." Steve Wiegand, 2004, Thunder Valley deals mostly a winning hand. The Sacramento Bee, May 30, 2004, pages A1-A3.

"...[A May 2006] report provides a snapshot of a fast-growing [gambling] industry in transition--a business that's generating at least $13 billion in annual revenue but also contributing to a variety of social ills, including gambling addiction and increased crime....As of 2004, Indian casinos accounted for almost half of all gambling revenue in California--an estimated $5.78 billion....Sixty-six of California's 108 federally recognized Indian tribes have compacts to run casinos, and 61 are already operating gambling centers [stress added]." David Lazarus, 2006, State's gambling in dustry yields astounding data. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 4, 2006, pages F1-F2. [For the complete 176-page report by Charlene Wear Simmons entitled Gambling in the Golden State: 1998 Forward, prepared for California Attorney general Bill Lockyer, see: http://www.library.ca.gov/html/statseg2a.cfm.]

"Indian gambling pulled in $25 billion in 2006, 11 percent more than the year before as the industry's explosive growth outpaced Las Vegas. Federal figures announced Monday [June 4, 2007], compiled from 387 tribal facilities in 28 states, show Indian gambling revenue has nearly doubled in five years. Indian casinos brought in $12.8 billion in 2005 and $25.1 billion in 2006, according to the National Gaming Commission. 'The continued growth is eye-opening considering the tribal gaming industry is still relatively young,' said commission Chairman Phil Hogen. Most of the growth has come since 1988 when Congress passed a law creating the legal framework for Indian gambling. The law let Indian tribes, with the consent of a state's governor, run slot machines and other profitable games on their reservations not allowed elsewhere in the state. Indian gambling revenue in 2006 was far richer than the $12.62 billion gambling take in Nevada in 2006. But Nevada casinos make a lot of money with restaurants, hotels and other entertainment, so their total 2006 revenue was $24.08 billion. Indian casinos aren't required to report their profits, and most don't disclose that information, so it's not possible to know the tribes' net income. Nevada's major hotel-casinos posted their highest net-income ever in fiscal 2006--a combined $2.1 billion [stress added]." Anon., 2007, Indian casinos post record $25 billion. The Chico Enterprise-Record, June 5, 2007, page 5A.

JULY 6, 2008, from the Sacramento Bee: "Red Hawk Casino opens a temporary employment and training center Monday in El Dorado Hills to begin processing applications for some 1,750 jobs, everything from dishwashers to dealers, cashiers to maintenance workers. The massive, 270,000-foot gambling facility is set to open sometime in the fourth quarter of 2008. The region's latest Indian casino will offer 2,000 slot machines and 75 table games, initially. Under a state compact approved on Monday, the number of slots could grow to as many as 5,000. Red Hawk is expected to attract thousands of patrons and will be the biggest private employer in El Dorado County [stress added]."

July 15, 2008 Media Advisory: "Thunder Valley Casino and the United Auburn Indian Community will hold a groundbreaking ceremony on Wednesday, July 16 at 11:00a.m. to honor the commencement of Thunder Valley's expansion. The ceremony will take place on the South Entrance Parking Lot of Thunder Valley Casino. The United Auburn Indian Community, owners of Thunder Valley Casino, plan to construct a five-star level hotel, a performing arts center, a parking structure, spa, ballrooms, exhibit space, additional gaming space, new restaurants and a tribal cultural exhibit area. The expansion is expected to create 1,000 construction jobs and 1,200 new permanent jobs. The completion date is approximately 24 months. Upon completion, Thunder Valley Casino's expansion is projected to generate $10.2 million in property tax, $900,000 in food and beverage tax and $1 million in occupancy tax for Placer County. The Casino is also expected to spend $70 million with local vendors. Thunder Valley Casino will continue to pay Placer County approximately $1.3 million dollars annually for fire protection services and $1.2 million to the Placer County Sheriff's Office for safety and protective services. Thunder Valley Casino is currently an approximately 200,000 square foot entertainment facility that includes a casino with 2,700 slot machines, 98 table games, a VIP gaming room and two private gaming salons.  The casino has numerous dining and entertainment amenities, including a center pit bar, a 500-seat buffet, a food court with five quick-service outlets, three full-service restaurants, six additional bars and parking for 3,000 vehicles [stress added]." 


WEEK 16: BEGINNING Monday December 8, 2008.

I. CULTURAL DIVERSITY AND REVIEW!

II. READINGS in Spradley & McCurdy, 2006, Conformity And Conflict, as well as below in this Guidebook, and you are supposed to be finishing Earth Abides by George R. Stewart!
"Using Anthropology" [repeat] by David W. McCurdy, pages 422-435.
"Career Advice for Anthropology Undergraduates" by John T. Omohundro, pages 436-446.

PLEASE RE-READ ALL FOUR ESSAYS AT THE END OF THIS Guidebook: A few exam questions will come from these four essays for EXAM III.
"Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty.
Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep your mind young." Henry Ford [1863-1947]

"But there's just so much in life that each of us takes for granted. We wander through our days, we waste a lot of time. You have to embrace your life, you know? Live every moment to the best of your abilities. Live every day like it's gonna be your last. That's my advice. And keep your sense of humor. Where would any of us be without it?" Jonathan Winters (1925 -> ). In Mike Sage, 2003, He Who Laughs Last. AARP The Magazine, July & August 2003,page 27-29, page 29.

"'The best thing for being sad,' replied Merlyn, beginning to puff and blow, 'is to learn something. That is the only thing that never fails. You may grow old and trembling in your anatomies, you may lie awake at night listening to the disorder of your veins, you may miss your only love, you may see the world about you devastated by evil lunatics, or know your honour trampled in the sewers of baser minds. There is only one thing for it then--to learn. Learn why the world wags and what wags it. That is the only thing which the mind can never exhaust, and never dream of regretting. Learning is the thing for you. Look at what a lot of things there are to learn--pure science, the only purity there is. You can learn astronomy in a lifetime, natural history in three, literature in six. And then, after you have exhausted a milliard lifetimes in biology and medicine and theocriticism and geography and history and economics--why, you can start to make a cartwheel out of the appropriate wood, or spend fifty years learning to begin to learn to beat your adversary at fencing. After that you can start again on mathematics, until it is time to learn to plough [stress added].'" E.B. White [1899-1985], 1939, The Once And Future King (1967 G.P. Putnam edition), page 183.

III. CULTURE CHANGE AND APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY
A.
What is Change? and How does Change take place?
B. What is Creativity? and The Global Society (Continued)
C. You may also wish to read a brief essay on the Galápagos Islands by Urbanowicz, which may be viewed by clicking here: ESSAY #4, the final essay, at the end of this printed Guidebook.)

Isaac Asimov (1920-1992)} "What is lacking in a teenager is not intelligence or reasoning ability, but merely experience." Janet Jeppson Asimov, 2002, Isaac Asimov: It's Been a Good Life (NY: Prometheus Books), page 125.

IV. FOR INFORMATION
A. The Applied Anthropology Computer Network (http://www.acs.oakland.edu/~dow/anthap.html)
B. http://www.janegoodall.org/ [Jane Goodall].
C. http://www.uacg.org/ [United Anglers of Casa Grande, Petaluma, CA]

JANE GOODALL, born 1934} "The greatest danger to our future is apathy. We cannot expect those living in poverty and ignorance to worry about saving the world. For those of us able to read this magazine, it is different. We can do something to preserve our planet. You may be overcome, however, by feelings of helplessness. You are just one person in a world of 6 billion. How can your actions make a difference? Best, you say, to leave it to decision makers. And so you do nothing. Can we overcome apathy? Yes, but only if we have hope. One reason for hope lies in the extraordinary nature of human intellectual accomplishment [stress added]." [http://www.time.com/time/2002/greencentury/engoodall.html] [See: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/0,9263,1101020826,00.html [Special Report in Time magazine, August 26, 2002: "How To Save the Earth"]

On the hatchery at Adobe Creek, California: "The hatchery was dedicated on April 25, 1993, as students unfurled their banner: 'Together we will change the world' [from the United Anglers of Casa Grande high School, Petaluma, CA.] [stress added]." SEE: Malcolm McConnel, 1999, Miracle at Adobe Creek. The Reader's Digest, Vol. 154, No. 924, pages 78-84, page 84.

"Chimps in Peril. Famed naturalist Jane Goodall issued a warning that chimpanzees across central Africa are coming under a grave threat due to commercial hunting, wars and increased logging in the region. She told reporters that new logging roads allow the hunters to now go deep into the forest where they kill the primates and shop their smoked meat off to be eaten in exotic restaurrants. Goodall warned that the entire chimp population across 21 African nations has declined from about 2 million a century ago to 220,000 today. 'Because they are very slow breeders and give birth only at five-year intervals, the species could be on its way to extinction if nothing is done to protect the animals and their habitat,' Goodall said [stress added]." Earthweek: A Diary of the Planet, by Steve Newman, The San Francisco Chronicle, July 7, 2001, page A4.

"When Goodall [born 1934 -> ] came to Gombe in the 1960s, about 150 chimpanzees inhaibted the area. Today about a hundred survive in the dwindling forest. 'When the first satellite images were taken of Gombe in 1972, there was little difference between what was inside the parl and what was outside,' says conservation biologist Lilian Pintea of the University of Minnesota .... Today Gombe, only eight miles wide, is surrounded by farms and people, including thousands of refugees fleeing violence in nearby countries [stress added]." In an article by] Jane Goodall, 2003, Update Lessons From Gombe, Tanzania. The National Geographic, April 2003, pages 76-89, pages 80-81.

"My reasons for hope are fourfold: (1) the human brain; (2) the resilience of nature; (3) the energy and enthusiasm that is found or can be found or can be kindled among young people worldwide; and (4) the indomitable human spirit [stress added]." Jane Goodall [with Phillip Berman], 1999, Reason For Hope: A Spiritual Journey (NY: Warner Books), page 233.

V. REMEMBER
A.
EXAM III (35%) based on Spradley & McCurdy readings since EXAM II and
B.
George R. Stewart's Earth Abides and Guidebook readings and
C.
Four Essays in the Guidebook, and
D. Seventy-two Specific Terms (cumulative of all terms in previous chapters) below.
E. Map of the world: see below.

"At the end of your life, you will never regret not having passed one more test. not winning one more verdict or not closing one more deal. You will regret time not spent with a husband, a child, a friend or a parent [stress added]." Statement by Barbara Bush. In Alan Ross [Editor], 2001, Speaking of Graduating: Excerpts From Timeless Graduation Speeches (Nashville, TN: Walnut Grove Press), page 136.

VI. AND TO RETURN TO THE BEGINNING OF August 25, 2008:

WHY MAN CREATES / The Edifice: A series of explorations, episodes, & comments on creativity:

Mumble, mumble, roar!
The lever.
Harry, do you realize you just invented the wheel?
I know, I know.

Bronze, Iron.
Halt.
All was in chaos 'til Euclid arose and made order.

What is the good life?
And how do you lead it?
Who shall rule the state?
The philosopher king.
The aristocrat.
The people.
You mean all the people? 

What is the nature of the good?
What is the nature of justice?
What is happiness? 

Hail Caesar!
Roman law is now in session.

Allah be praised, I've invented the zero.
What?
Nothing, nothing.

What is the shape of the earth?
Flat.
What happens when you get to the edge?
You fall off.
Does the earth move?
Never!

The earth moves.
The earth is round.
The blood circulates.
There are worlds smaller than ours.
There are worlds larger than ours. 

Hey, whatya doing?
I'ma paintin' the ceiling.
Whatya doing?
I'ma paintin' the floor.

Darwin says man is an animal.
Rot. Man is not an animal.
Animal.
Man.
Is.
Isn't. 

Hmmm. Shall we start from the beginning?

I'm a bug, I'm a germ.
Louie Pasteur!
I'm not a bug, I'm not a germ. 

Think it will work Alfred?
Let's give it a try.
Whatya think?
It worked.

All men are created equal....
Life, Liberty, and the pursuit....
Workers of the world....
Government of the people by the people....
The world must be made safe....
The war to end all wars....
A league of nations....
I see one third of a nation ill-housed....
One world....

Help!

# # #

VII. AND THE FINAL URBANOWICZ QUOTES FOR FALL 2008:

"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)

and finally

"The Moving Finger writes; and, having writ,
Moves on: nor all your Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it."
From the 1859 publication of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám [1048-1131] by
Edward Fitzgerald [1809-1883]

"I am an optimist. It does not seem too much use being anything else." Sir Winston Churchill [1874-1965].

"A teacher affects eternity;
he [or she!] can never tell
where his [or her] influence stops."
Henry Brooks Adams [1838-1918],
The Education of Henry Adams, chapter 20

# # #


IMPORTANT NOTE: HERE ARE SOME SPECIFIC TERMS, FROM SPRADLEY & McCURDY, 2006, CONFORMITY AND CONFLICT: READINGS IN CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (12th edition), WHICH HAVE ALREADY BEEN EMPHASIZED IN THIS GUIDEBOOK AND WHICH COULD APPEAR ON EXAM #3.

ACCULTURATION: The process that takes place when groups of individuals having different cultures come into first-hand contact, which results in change to the cultural patterns of both groups.

AFFINITY: A fundamental principle of relationship linking kin through marriage.

AGRICULTURE: A subsistence strategy involving intensive farming of permanent fields through the use of such means as the plow, irrigation, and fertilizer.

APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY: Any use of anthropological knowledge to influence social interaction, to maintain or change social institutions, or to direct the course of cultural change.

BILATERAL (COGNATIC) DESCENT: A rule of descent relating someone to a group of consanguine kin through both males and females.

CASTE: A form of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, which is acquired at birth and does not permit individuals to alter their rank.

CLAN: A kinship group normally comprising several lineages; its members are related by a unilineal descent rule, but it is too large to enable members to trace actual biological links to all other members.

CLASS: A system of stratification defined by unequal access to economic resources and prestige, but permitting individuals to alter their rank.

CONSANGUINITY: The principle of relationship linking individuals by shared ancestry (blood).

COSMOLOGY: A set of beliefs that defines the nature of the universe or cosmos.

CULTURAL CONTACT: The situation that occurs when two societies with different cultures somehow come into contact with each other.

CULTURAL ECOLOGY: The study of the way people use their culture to adapt to particular environments, the effects they have on their natural surrounding, and the impact of the environment on the shape of culture, including its long-term evolution.

CULTURE: The knowledge that is learned, shared, and used by people to interpret experience and generate behavior.

CULTURE SHOCK: A form of anxiety that results from an inability to predict the behavior of others or act appropriately in cross-cultural situations.

DESCENT: A Rule of relationship that ties people together on the basis of a reputed common ancestry.

DIVISION OF LABOR: The rules that govern the assignment of jobs to people.

ECOLOGY: The study of the way organisms interact with each other within an environment.

ECONOMIC SYSTEM: The provision of goods and services to meet biological and social wants.

ENDOGAMY: Marriage within a designated social unit.

ETHNOCENTRISM: A mixture of belief and feeling that one's own way of life is desirable and actually superior to others.

ETHNOGRAPHY: The task of discovering and describing a particular culture.

EXOGAMY: Marriage outside any designated group.

GRAMMAR: The categories and rules for combining vocal symbols.

HORTICULTURE: A kind of subsistence strategy involving semi-intensive, usually shifting, agricultural practices. Slash-and-burn farming is a common example of horticulture.

HUNTING AND GATHERING: A subsistence strategy involving the foraging of wild, naturally occuring foods.

INCEST TABOO: The cultural rule that prohibits sexual intercourse and marriage between specified classes of relatives.

INDUSTRIALISM: A subsistence strategy marked by intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks.

INFORMANT: A person who teaches his or her culture to an anthropologist.

INNOVATION: A recombination of concepts from two or more mental configurations into a new pattern that is qualitatively different from existing forms.

KINSHIP: The complex system of social relations based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity).

LANGUAGE: The system of cultural knowledge used to generate and interpret speech.

LAW: The cultural knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents who have recognized authority.

LINEAGE: A kinship group based on a unilineal descent rule that is localized, has some corporate powers, and whose members can trace their actual relationships to each other.

MAGIC: Strategies people use to control supernatural power to achieve particular results.

MANA: An impersonal supernatural force inherent in nature and in people. Mana is somewhat like the concept of 'luck' in U.S. Culture.

MARKET ECONOMIES: Economies in which production and exchange are motivated by market factors: price, supply, and demand. Market economies are associated with large societies where impersonal exchange is common.

MARRIAGE: The socially recognized union between a man and a woman that accords legitimate birth status rights to their children.

MATRILINEAL DESCENT: A rule of descent relating a person to a group of consanguine kin on the basis of descent through females only.

MORPHEME: The smallest meaningful category in any language.

MYTHOLOGY: Stories that reveal the religious knowledge of how things have come into being.

NAIVE REALISM: The notion that reality is much the same for all people everywhere.

NUCLEAR FAMILY: A family composed of a married couple and their children.

PASTORALISM: A subsistence strategy based on the maintenance and use of large herds of animals.

PATRILINEAL DESCENT: A rule of descent relating consanguine kin in the basis of descent through males only.

PHONEME: The minimal category of speech sounds that signals a difference in meaning.

PHONOLOGY: The categories and rules for forming vocal symbols.

POLITICAL SYSTEM: The organization and process of making and carrying out public policy according to cultural categories and rules.

POLYANDRY: A form of polygamy in which a woman has two or more husbands at one time.

POLYGAMY: A marriage form in which a person has two or more spouses at one time. Polygyny and polyandry are both forms of polygamy.

POLYGYNY: A form of polygamy in which a man is married to two or more wives at one time.

PRAYER: A petition directed at a supernatural being or power.

PRIEST: A full-time religious specialist who intervenes between people and the supernatural, and who often leads a congregation at regular cyclical rites.

RAMAGE: A cognatic (bilateral) descent group that is localized and holds corporate responsibility.

REDISTRIBUTION: The transfer of goods and services between a group of people and a central collecting service based on role obligation. The U.S. income tax is a good example.

RELIGION: The cultural knowledge of the supernatural that people use to cope with the ultimate problems of human existence.

REVITALIZATION MOVEMENT: A deliberate, conscious effort by members of a society to construct a more satisfying culture.

ROLE: The culturally generated behavior associated with particular statuses.

SEMANTICS: The categories and rules for relating vocal symbols to their referents.

SHAMAN: A part-time religious specialist who controls supernatural power, often to cure people or affect the course of life's events.

SLASH-AND-BURN AGRICULTURE: A form of horticulture in which wild land is cleared and burned over, farmed, then permitted to lie fallow and revert to its wild state.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION: The ranking of people or groups of based on their unequal access to valued economic resources and prestige.

SOCIOLINGUISTIC RULES: Rules specifying the nature of the speech community, the particular speech situations within a community, and the speech acts that members use to convey their messages.

SORCERY: The malevolent practice of magic.

SPEECH: The behavior that produces meaningful vocal sounds.

STATUS: A culturally defined position associated with a particular social structure.

SUBSISTENCE STRATEGIES: Strategies that are used by groups of people to exploit their environment for material necessities. Hunting and gathering, horticulture, pastoralism, agriculture, and iindustrialism are subsistence strategies.

SUPERNATURAL: Things that are beyond the natural. Anthropologists usually recognize a belief in such things as goddesses, gods, spirits, ghosts, and mana to be signs of supernatural belief.

SYMBOL: Anything that humans can sense that is given an arbitrary relationship to its referent.

TACIT CULTURE: The shared knowledge of which people usually are unaware and do not communicate verbally.

TECHNOLOGY: The part of a culture that involves the knowledge that people use to make and use tools and to extract and refine raw materials.

WITCHCRAFT: The reputed activity of people who inherit supernatural force and use it for evil purposes.

WORLDVIEW: The way people characteristically look out on the universe.


WEEK 17: BEGINNING DECEMBER 15, 2008: FINALS WEEK

POTENTIAL QUESTIONS FOR MONDAY December 15, 2008 (AYRES HALL, ANTH 113-01) from 10am -> 11:50am.

1. George R. Stewart was a Professor of: (a) Anthropology at UC Berkeley; (b) English at UC Berkeley; (c) Anthropology at CSU, Chico; (d) English at UC Santa Barbara.

2. Ishi, the "last" of the California Native Americans was "found" in: (a) 1859; (b) 1911; (c) 1929; (d) 1949.

3. The phrase "Trail of tears" referred to in the Guidebook referred to: (a) Tasmanian relocations; (b) the rise & fall of the Cherokee nation; (c) Spanish Missions in California; (d) Ishi's move to San Francisco.

4. When a woman wears a hijab (veil), a Muslim male knows that: (a) she believes in herself; (b) she believes in her family; (c) she believes in her Islamic traditions; (d) all-of-the-above.

5. The islands of Micronesia were discovered in the 16th Century by: (a) American whalers; (b) British warships; (c) Spanish Explorers; (d) Dutch merchants.

6. Anthropologists look at various items to create "culture areas" around the world; these include: (a) Language; (b) Mythology; (c) Religion; (d) all-of-the-above.

7.The cultural knowledge that people use to settle disputes by means of agents who have recognized authority is called: (a) acculturation; (b) political elections; (c) colonialism; (d) law.

8. According to Jared Diamond, all people exploit and often change their _____. (a) attitudes; (b) biology; (c) culture; (d) natural environments.

9. TRUE FALSE The "city" of Cahokia never had a population over 1,000 individuals.

10. TRUE FALSE According to Going International #1, for countries, corporations and individuals who want to get ahead, the question isn't whether to embrace diversity, but how.

11. TRUE FALSE Robben Island was used at various times between the 17th and the 20th century as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups, and a military base.

12. TRUE FALSE According to Jack Weatherford, Uzbeks have created a national identity around their culture hero, Genghis Khan.

13. TRUE FALSE In Japan, a kereitsu describes a lineage or a group in a vertical order.

14. TRUE FALSE Tasmanians entered that island from a land bridge from New Zealand.

15. TRUE FALSE A "Shaman" is defined as a full-time religious specialist who controls supernatural power..

16. TRUE FALSE François Peron has been described as an early anthropologist.

A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTThree.htm by FRIDAY December 5, 2008, to assist you in the final examination.


MAP TO BE USED FOR EXAM III FOR ANTH 113-01 (Ayres Hall 106) on MONDAY December 15, 2008 from 10 -> 11:50am.

 

Source: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/world/polit/politf.htm

AND REMEMBER: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html


A Short Course In Human Relations:

The Six most important words: I admit I made a mistake.
The Five most important words: You did a good job.
The Four most important words: What is your opinion?
The Three most important words: If you please.
The Two most important words: Thank you.
The One most important words: We.
The Least important word: I 
 
Proper Prior Planning Prevents Poor Performance;
and
"Your procrastination is not necessarily my emergency." 

TABLE OF EXCUSES: Please Give Excuse By Number In Order To Save Time:
1. That's the way we've always done it.
2. I didn't know you were in a hurry for it.
3. That's not in my department.
4. No one told me to go ahead.
5. I'm waiting for an OK.
6. How did I know this was different?
7. That's his or her job, not mine.
8. Wait until the boss gets back and ask.
9. I forgot.
10. I didn't think it was very important.
11. I'm so busy I just can't get around to it.
12. I thought I told you.
13. I wasn't hired to do that.
[ALL sources: Anonymous.]


Selected University Resources For Students

Career Planning & Placement Office
http://www.csuchico.edu/plc/welcome2.html

Disability Support Services
http://www.csuchico.edu/dss/

Psychological Counseling & Wellness Center
http://www.csuchico.edu/cnts/

Office of Experiential Education
http://ids.csuchico.edu/

AND PLEASE GO TO Student Services (http://www.csuchico.edu/misc/studentserv.html), off of the University's Home Page, for these and many more services available to you, the student!


BRIEF DISCLAIMER ESSAY for those who make the time to read about this FALL 2008 Web-assisted courses taught by Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, California State University, Chico.

NOTE TO STUDENTS: This is actually a very brief "essay" about web-based instruction and web pages (which you are reading either "electronically" or in the required Guidebook form). The World Wide Web is an "electronic creation" of human beings, is constantly modified by human beings, and as human beings change, the WWW continues to "evolve" over time. Education will radically change by the time I fully retire and eventually die and (a) while I try to "keep up" with as much as possible for my students (and myself) I realize that (b) I am behind as soon as I begin! With that in mind, the reader (or viewer) of these pages (either "electronically" or in print") is reminded that this course is not a web-based course but is a "traditional" course, taught on the campus of California State university, Chico, to "traditional" (or perhaps a "semi-traditional" group of) students who are sitting in a classroom in for ~sixteen weeks. These web pages contain no frames, no Javascripts, no interactive exams, no streaming video, no Power Point Presentations, and no other "bells-and-whistles" which are current on the WWW but they do contain numerous "live" links which are appropriate for various weeks of the semester-long course. These WWW pages are not meant to be "downloaded" and printed out at home or in a computer laboratory but (a) they are meant to be read in the required printed form and (b) checked for the updates that will be added throughout the entire semester: it is in the updating this Guidebook that the WWW is "alive" (as well as this course and, indeed, all education) and evolving through time. Please note that the pages in this Guidebook do contain numerous links appropriate for various weeks of the semester-long course (and some links will eventually guide you to sample exams, streaming videos, and Power Point presentations!).

THE READER MAY WELL ASK: Why make these "printed pages" (gasp!) available on the WWW? Why did Urbanowicz go through all-of-the-trouble to place this on the WWW if it is not an interactive course? As The Wall Street Journal on July 20, 1998 pointed out: "It Isn't Entertainment That Makes The Web Shine: It's Dull Data" (Page 1 and page A8). Although I trust that you have not purchased a bound volume of "dull data" but a volume of ideas (with data) I also add that for more than a decade I have been providing my students (in varous lower-and-upper-division courses) with Guidebooks that have "video notes" and "lecture outlines" for the appropriate course that semester. Human beings are "visual creatures" and I use NUMEROUS films, slides, and Power Points (most of which are not included on these web pages) in my classes and since I am comfortable with the Guidebook format, I continue to place the Guidebook on "the web" (with numerous links) for students. I encourage all readers of these pages to "weigh" all of the information very carefully: contrast and compare what you know with what is being presented and please consider the following from The Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11):

"Who invented the telephone? Microsoft Corp's Encarta multimedia encyclopedia on CD-ROM has an answer to that simple question. Rather, two answers. Consult the U.S., U.K., or German editions of Encarta and you find the expected one: Alexander Graham Bell. But look at the Italian version and the story is strikingly different. Credit goes to Antonio Meucci, an impoverished Italian-American candlemaker who, as the Italian-language Encarta tells it, beat Bell to the punch by five years. Who's right? Depends on where you live. ... in the age of the Internet, the issue of adapting products to local markets is raising trickier problems. Technology and globalization are colliding head-on with another powerful force: history. Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American. It's Microsoft's peculiar accomplishment that it has so mastered the adaptation of its products to different markets that they reflect different, sometimes contradictory, understandings of the same historical events. 'You basically have to rewrite all of the content,' says Dominique Lempereur, who, from her Paris office, oversees the expansion of Microsoft's education-related products to foreign markets. 'The translation is almost an accessory.' ... Consistency is clearly not Encarta's goal, and that's something of a controversial strategy. Encyclopedia Britannica, for example, has a policy of investigating contradictions across its editions and deciding on a standard presentation. Where it can establish a fact that is internationally solid, 'we go with that, and present other interpretations as need be,' says Dale Holberg, Britannica's editor in Chicago. His staff has looked into the Meucci question. Their verdict: Bell still gets the credit, world-wide, for inventing and patenting the electric telephone. ... Microsoft, as a technology conglomerate, has an interest in not stirring up controversies that endanger the sale of its other products. But the universaility of the Web also frustrates efforts to localize content. And there remains the possibility that it will bring about pressure for one universally aplicable version of history. Perhaps one day Mr. Meucci will share space with Alexander Graham Bell in all of the Encartas [stress added]." Kevin J. Delaney, 1999, Microsoft's Encarta Has Different Facts For Different Folks. The Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11. 

ALTHOUGH THE ELECTRONIC WORLD is changing very rapidly, and one might question the value of the "printed word" (considering the number of "electronic books" currently on "the web" such as the Bible or Darwin and 1000s of other available from sources such as the INCREDIBLE Books on Line and Project Gutenberg), there will always (I honestly believe as of this writing), a place for the "printed page" that you can hold in your hands, that YOU can read in bed, read outside when the electricity goes off, or read when you can't make an Internet connection to read the Web pages located in cyberspace! In short, while the ephemeral culture of the WWW is extremely important, the tangible culture of a physical object is just as important and I follow some of the thoughts in the Library of Congress: Litera scripta manet, or the written (or physically published) word endures! Incidentally, as with EVERYTHING, double-check the written (printed) word as well.

PLEASE: the reader of this Guidebook is strongly encouraged to process, question, read, search, and think about various issues and ideas throughout the semester and perhaps come to an understanding of how you relate to anthropology and how anthropology relates to you! As Clark Kerr stated: "The university is not engaged in making ideas safe for students. It is engaged in making students safe for ideas [stress added]." The University and the Internet and the World Wide Web and Cyberspace are changing the very environment "we" all interact in and the "web" should point to new sources to provide you with new thoughts. This is how I have personally envisioned this web-related web-related Guidebook (of ~50,429 words): NOTE, this does not count the words in the 4 essays in the printed Guidebook); it is a GUIDE to other resources to explore on your own to prepare for your individual futures. Please consider your own age, where you wish to go in the future, and please ponder the following:

"It's a cliche of the digital age: Parents wonder how children so helpless in the real world can navigate the virtual world with such skill. Using computers is second nature to most kids--and with good reason, according to many neurologists. Being exposed to the wired world at early ages is effectively wiring children's brains differently, giving them an ease and comfort with computers that adults may never match. Will the new millennium see the generation gap turn into the digital divide? ... The cognitive gap is likely to continue well into the future, even as today's cyberkids become tomorrow's parents. While kids are growing up with brains well suited to the digital world of today, as adults they are likely to face the difficult task of adapting to a future where technology evolves even more rapidly--and more profoundly--than it does today [stress added]." Yocki J. Dreazen & Rachel Emma Silverman, 2000, Raised In Cyberspace. January 1, 2000, The Wall Street Journal, page R47.

FINALLY, please think about the following statements and why I may have chosen them:

"Knowledge, we have to realize, is not fixed in stone. It is ephemeral and exists only so long as we pump it with meaning. It is merely part of the mad, vaporous wheel of existence, an ongoing cycle of discovering and forgetting, of lurching forward and then stumbling back and standing up again and taking everything we think we know and packing it into a little puffy snowball and hurling it at the head of the Future in the hopes that the Future will turn around and unbutton its liquid trench coat and show us something surprising. Or maybe just laugh and return fire. It's pretty much all we can do. How many thousands of species are as yet undiscovered in the world's oceans? How many tens of thousands of undiscovered plants and animals exist in the rain forest? What about the capacity of the human mind, the mystery of the dream state or the immensity of space, the knowledge that the tiny portion of our galaxy we've been able to see and measure, our entire solar system is merely the equivalent of a grain of sand on the edge of a beach stretching for roughly 1 billion miles. Are you exercising the muscle of wonder? Is this synapse firing in your head every damn day? Are you aware of how much you are not aware of and are you completely humbled and amused and made drunk and giddy and turned on by this fact? Because let me tell you, it is easy to forget [stress added]." Mark Morford, 2006, Awakening pinch from a mysterious new crustacean. The San Francisco Chronicle, March 17, 2006, pages E6+E8, page E8.

"If by some fiat I had to restrict all this writing to one sentence, this is the one I would choose: The summit of Mt. Everest is marine limestone." John McPhee, 1998, Annals of the Former World (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux), page 124.


FOUR ESSAYS BY URBANOWICZ FOR ANTH 113, FALL 2008:

The pages that follow in the printed version of the Fall 2008 Anthropology 113 Guidebook came from various web pages created over the years. (On the web, the essays may be accessed by clicking below.) The essays provide information about me for students for this course, and, hopefully, place some of my ideas and actions into context and perspective. I have been a member of the faculty at CSU, Chico, since August 1973. I received my Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1972 from the University of Oregon, based on 1970-1971 fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. In 1972-1973, prior to joining the faculty at CSU, Chico, I taught at the University of Minnesota.

Perhaps being born in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1942, graduating from high school in 1960, commuting to New York City and New York University for 1960-61, flunking out of NYU in 1961, enlisting in the United States Air Force (1961-1965) and getting married in 1963 and ... is why I became an anthropologist! A lot of everything goes into who, what, and why each of us is what we are today and how we do what we do and when and where we do it! Incidentally, I retired after 32 years at CSU, Chico on May 31, 2005 and am participating in the FERP (Faculty Early Retirement Program) and am currently a Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, teaching the fall semester. I also like the words of the columnist/humorist Art Buchwald (1925-2007) who wrote the following in his 2006 book (shortly before he died):

"The thing that is very important, and why I'm writing this book, is that whether they like it or not, everyone is going to go. The big question we still have to ask is not where we're going, but what we were doing here in the first place." Art Buchwald, 2006, Too Soon To Say Goodbye (NY: Random House), page 30.
and

"Old age has a way of forcing a person back upon themselves. The pace of life slows an brings with it a natural inclination to reflect upon the past." Linda Lear, 2007, Beatrix Potter: A Life In Nature (NY: St. Martin's Press), page 427.

THE FOLLOWING FOUR ESSAYS (printed in the bound Guidebook available in the Associated Students Bookstore at CSU, Chico) ARE FOR ANTHROPOLOGY 113 FOR FALL 2008:

#1} 2002 A "STORY" (VISION OR NIGHTMARE?) OF THE REGION IN 2027. [Printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/aStoryof2027.html]. 

#2} 2002, CALIFORNIA, CANCER, AND 1999 DATA FROM THE WALL STREET JOURNAL. [Printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WSJCancerOctober2000.html]  

#3} 1990, A DOSSIER ON DARWIN: LETTER TO THE EDITOR [Printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1990DossierOnDarwinLetter.html]

#4} 2001, THE GALÁPAGOS ISLANDS: EVERY LITTLE BIT HELPS [Printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/GalapagosIslandsoilspill.htm]


Throughout the entire Fall 2008 semester, I shall be "updating" these web pages; when you go to the URL for this class http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_113-FA2008.html, at the top of the "web page" you will see:

FOR UPDATED INFORMATION ADDED Month & Day, 2008 please click here.

and this will take you to the bottom of the pages.


On December 5, 2008, the final items were added to these pages:

"Try to learn something about everything and everything about something."
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895)

Your final exam for ANTH 113 (worth 35% of your final grade) is scheduled for Monday December 15, 2008, from 10am->11:50am in Ayres 106. A "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTThree.htm to assist you in examination #3. ALSO, please remember the terminology, map, and test questions in your printed ANTH 113 Guidebook.

Please remember the "Map Quiz" at http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html.

My office hours for finals week will be: Monday 12/15/2008 from 8->10am & Tuesday 12/16/2008 from 8->11am.

And for your cross-cultural information:

http://www.interfaithcalendar.org/ [Interfaith Calendar] "Sacred times are windows into religions"

http://aish.com/holidays/chanukah/songfest.asp [Aish HaTorah - Chanukah Site ]

http://www.officialkwanzaawebsite.org [The Official Kwanzaa Web Site]

Finally,

The Universality of the Golden Rule in World Religions:

from: http://www.teachingvalues.com/goldenrule.html 

Christianity: All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye so to them; for this is the law and the prophets.   Matthew 7:1.

Confusianism: Do not do to others what you would not like yourself. Then there will be no resentment against you, either in the family or in the state. Analects 12:2.

Buddhism: Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful. Udana-Varga 5,1

Hinduism: This is the sum of duty; do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you. Mahabharata 5,1517.

Islam: No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. Sunnah.

Judaism: What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman. This is the entire Law; all the rest is commentary. Talmud, Shabbat 3id.

Taosim: Regard your neighbor's gain as your gain, and your neighbor's loss as your own loss. Tai Shang Kan Yin Píien.

Zoroastrianism: That nature alone is good which refrains from doing another whatsoever is not good for itself. Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5.

And see: http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm

AND SOME LAST WORDS:

"Nothing is so easy as to deceive one's self; for what we wish, we readily believe." (Demosthenes, Athenian orator and statesman [384B.C.-322B.C.])

"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)


On Saturday November 1, 2008, the following items were added to these pages:

ONCE AGAIN, a "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTTwo.htm to assist you in the examination next FRIDAY November 7, 2008. Please remember the "sample" test questions and map in your printed ANTH 113 Guidebook: pages 56 & 57. EXAM II will have map components, multiple choice, and true-false questions.

AS POINTED OUT ON OCTOBER 31, THIS ADDRESS: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html provides numerous Geography self-tests but for EXAM II, you should really concentrate on:

http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/euroquiz.html [The Europe Quiz} 48 Questions]

and

http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/asiaquiz.html [The Asia Quiz} 32 Questions]


On October 31, 2008, the following items were added to these pages:

HERE IS SOME SCHOLARSHIP INFORMATION we have been asked to make you aware of:

The 2009-2010 CSU, Chico scholarship application is now available. This single online application allows students to apply for any of the over 700 university scholarships for which they may be eligible. Paper applications are not available. Scholarship criteria may include scholastic achievement, financial need, campus or community service, and educational objectives, as well as other measures. Please encourage students to apply before the end-of-semester rush. The scholarship Web site also includes a guide for writing letters of recommendation. The application deadline is December 15, 2008 for all materials, including references. Additional information regarding scholarships is available at the above Web site.

SECONDLY, some of you might be interested in seeing what this is like (or mentioning it to someone you know): The Chico State Career Center will host its fall All Majors Career and Internship Fair, Wednesday, Nov. 5, from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. in the BMU Auditorium.

Attendees such as Auberge Resorts, Federated Mutual Insurance, Lam Research, Systron Donner Automotive and Enloe Medical Center will have contact with a variety of students from across campus seeking internships and full-time positions. "Career Fairs at Chico State continue to be strong, even in light of the current challenging economic times," said Career Center Director Jamie Starmer. "Students continue to make significant professional contacts at our career fairs, which directly lead to professional jobs and internships." Starmer said he expects approximately 60 employers and 1,000 students to attend the fair. See: http://www.csuchico.edu/plc/welcome2.html.

AND ONCE AGAIN, a "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTTwo.htm to assist you in the examination next FRIDAY November 7, 2008. Please remember the "sample" test questions and map in your printed ANTH 113 Guidebook: pages 56 & 57. EXAM II will have map components, multiple choice, and true-false questions.

As this Guidebook and course syllabus point out, EXAM II will be worth 30% of your final grade. (EXAM I was worth 20% and your final EXAM, EXAM III is worth 35% of your final grade. Class participation is worth 5% of your final grade and your writing assignment was worth 10% of your final grade.) EXAM III is on Monday, December 15, 2008.

REMEMBER: http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/index.html

FINALLY, some of you might be interested in the following words:

"For nearly 3 million years of human history, saving and investment was a dumb dea. We hunted, we gathered, we consumed, and we moved on to greener pasture. Only when migrating tribes learned to settle down and farm did they need to save and plan, storing seeds and surpluses to tide them over from season to season. We've had 10,000 years to absorb the truth that cultures that don't value thrift ultimately flame out and die. Apparently that isn't long enough to learn the lesson [stress added]." Nancy Gibbs, 2008, Essay. Time, October 13, 2008, page 96.
Interesting, no?

AND FOR RECENT news on Jane Goodall, please see The San Francisco Chronicle of October 30, 2008: "Goodall, Nishida win Leakey Prize" (also at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/10/30/BAE613Q4GO.DTL).


On September 19, 2008, the following items were added to these pages:

A "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH113FA2008TESTOne.htm to assist you in the examination next FRIDAY September 26, 2008. (Incidentally, I am aware that "older" versions of ANTH 113 Exams exist "out there" - I return the exams so you can learn from mistakes; if you have access to "old" exams, do look at them; but r.e.m.e.m.b.e.r to read and study for EXAM I (and eventually EXAM II and EXAM III) as if you might be faced with BRAND NEW EXAMINATION QUESTIONS - which could well be the case!)! ALSO, please remember the "sample" test questions and map in your printed ANTH 113 Guidebook: pages 27-28. EXAM I will have a map component, multiple choice, and true-false questions.

Remember, for a Sample "Map Quiz" go to:

http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/samericaquiz.html as well as http://www.lizardpoint.com/fun/geoquiz/afrquiz.html   

You also might be interested in the following site: www.enchantedlearning.com and then go to http://www.EnchantedLearning.com/label/geography.shtml.

AND: what do you think about the following from USAToday of September 10, 2008, when the author (Don Campbell) writes about:

"...the lack of intellectual curiosity in students that I have noticed in recent years, along with a decline in such basic skills as grammar, spelling and simple math. A sense of history? History is what happened since they left middle school. ... for the younger generation, the Internet has moved knowledge from the brain to the fingertips: Who needs to know about Impressionism or Charles Dickens [or Charles Darwin!] or George Washington Carver or - hell - even George Washington? Why carry such information around in your head when Google will deliver it in seconds [stress added]. AND: "The digital culture has changed the way kids learn, but at the expense of Cultural awareness." Don Campbell, Plugging in, tuning out. USAToday, September 10, 2008, page 11A.

Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) was an amazing individual and you might be interested in all of the following Darwin "videos" available on the web as indicated below:

Note: The 1997 video (#1 in the series) was shown in class on Friday September 12, 2008.

The 2003 video (#4 in the series) were shown in class on Monday September 15, 2008.

There is a 2004 item entitled "The Darwin Project: 1996 to 2004!" (explaining the making of the four videos) which can be found at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/CELTOctober2004Darwin.html.

1997 Charles Darwin: Reflections - Part one: The Beginning. [ ~Seventeen Minutes Video. Darwin in England]. [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwinreflections.ram]. Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

Imagine that you could visit with Charles Darwin as he remembers his youth. Perhaps you could learn what early experiences sharpened his power of observation and contributed to his unique perspective of the world. Join Dr. Charles Urbanowicz as he portrays the fascinating and very human Charley Darwin in the first program of the series Charles Darwin: Reflections: The Beginning. 

1999 Charles Darwin: - Part One: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-two Minute Video. Darwin sailing from England to South America.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwinvoyage.ram] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

Sail along with Charley Darwin on the first half of his historic journey around the world aboard the HMS Beagle. In this second video in the series, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz ) travels from England to unexplored reaches of South America and along the way he confronts slavery, rides with gauchos, experiences gunboat diplomacy, encounters a future dictator of Argentina, explores uncharted rivers, and discovers dinosaur bones. 

2001 Charles Darwin: - Part Two: The Voyage. [ ~Twenty-seven Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/darwin/RV/darwin3.ram] Edited by Ms. Vilma Hernandez and Produced by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

The second half of the historic journey of the HMS Beagle finds Charles Darwin exploring more of South America and several islands in the Pacific. In this episode, Charley Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) views several active volcanoes, experiences an earthquake, treks to the Andes, explores the Galapagos Islands, and then heads for home. 

2003 Charles Darwin: - Part Three: A Man of Science. [ ~Twenty-four Minute Video. Darwin from South America, through the Galápagos Islands, and back to England.] [http://rce.csuchico.edu/Darwin/RV/darwin4.ram] Produced and Edited by Ms. Donna Crowe: Instructional Media Center, CSU, Chico. Available via the Internet with REAL PLAYER [http://www.real.com/player/index.html].

Within a few years of his return to England, Charles Darwin happily settled into marriage, moved to a quiet house in the country, and begun a routine of research and writing which would occupy the rest of his life. In this episode discover why Darwin (Professor Charles Urbanowicz) waited over 20 years to publish his groundbreaking work Origin of Species, and learn how ill health, family tragedies, friends, respected colleagues and ardent supporters shaped his life and career.

If you are interested, I have created various Darwin self-tests and they are listed below; also, please remember Essay #3 in your Fall 2008 Guidebook.

2005 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestFive.htm (Darwin Self-Test Five} February 2005).

2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestFour.htm (Darwin Self-Test Four} September 2004).

2003 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestThree.htm (Darwin Self-Test Three} October 2003).

2001 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestTwo.htm (Darwin Self-Test Two} November 2001].

2000 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/DarwinTestOne.htm (Darwin 2000-2001 [Self]Test One} January 2000).


On September 5, 2008, the following items were added to these pages:

Here is the address from The Chico Enterprise-Record documenting the "Public Safety" in Chico:

http://www.chicoer.com/publicsafety [Public Safety Report]

Other addresses that might be of interest to some of you:

http://www.ncseweb.org/ [National Center for Science Organization]

http://www.becominghuman.org/ [Paleoanthropology, Evolution and Human Origins]

http://www.culture.fr/culture/arcnat/lascaux/en/ [The Cave of Lascaux]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kayapo [The Kayapo: From Wikpedia, the Free Encyclopedia]

http://www.aschico.com/?Page=8 [CAVE: Community Action Volunteers in Education]

"A play [or a classroom lecture or a public presentation] should make you understand something new. If it tells you what you already know, you leave it as ignorant as you went in [stress added]." (The character John Wisehammer. In Timberlake Wertenbaker's Our Country's Good [based upon the novel The Playmaker by Thomas Keneally], 1989, Act II, sc. 7, page 89.]

To go to the home page of Charles F. Urbanowicz.

To go to the home page of the Department of Anthropology.

To go to the home page of California State University, Chico.

© [Copyright: All Rights Reserved] Charles F. Urbanowicz/August 25, 2008} This copyrighted Web Guidebook, printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_113-FA2008.html is intended for use by students enrolled at California State University, Chico, in the Fall Semester of 2008 and unauthorized use / reproduction in any manner is definitely prohibited.

 [~50,429 words} 25 August 2008]

 [~52,688 words} 5 December 2008]

© Copyright 2008; All Rights Reserved Charles F. Urbanowicz

5 December 2008 by CFU


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