FOR THE FINAL UPDATE TO THIS GUIDEBOOK on December 7, 2007, please click please click here.

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/today.html [Today in History]

http://www.tamu.edu/anthropology/news.html [Anthropology In The News} From Texas A&M University]

http://news.google.com/ [GOOGLE} News Information from all over!]

http://www.earthweek.com/ [Earthweek} A Diary of the Planet]

http://www.worldometers.info/ [Worldometers} Real time world statistics]

http://www.fourmilab.ch/cgi-bin/uncgi/Earth/action?opt=-p [Earth View!]

ANTHROPOLOGY 373 FALL 2007

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor Emeritus of Anthropology

Guidebook for Pacific Cultures [Course Number 7137]

California State University, Chico / Office: Butte 202

ANTH 373-01} MWF} Butte Hall 319} 1 -> 1:50pm

Office Hours} Mon + Wed} 8 -> 8:30 + 2 -> 4pm and by appointment; Office Phone: (530) 898-6220 / Dept: (530) 898-6192

e-mail: curbanowicz@csuchico.edu

http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/

© [Copyright: All Rights Reserved] Charles F. Urbanowicz/August 27, 2007} This copyrighted Web Guidebook, printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_373-FA2007.html is intended for use by students enrolled at California State University, Chico, in the Fall Semester of 2007 and unauthorized use / reproduction in any manner is definitely prohibited.

DESCRIPTION: "Case studies of peoples of Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Analysis of origins of indigenous peoples and cultures. Description of traditional cultures in this ecologically diverse area. This is an approved Non-Western course." (2007-2009 Catalog, Page 187.)

THREE REQUIRED TEXTS:
Herb K. Kane, 1997, Ancient Hawai'i (Captain Cook, Hawai'i: The Kawainui Press).
D.L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands (3rd Edition).
Charles F. Urbanowicz, Fall 2007 edition, Anthropology 373 Guidebook [also available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_373-FA2007.html.

OPTIONAL ITEMS FOR THE TRULY INTERESTED INDIVIDUAL:
The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2007. 
K.R. Howe, R.C. Kiste, and N. V. Lal, 1994, The Tides of History: The Pacific Islands in the Twentieth Century (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press).
V. Lockwood, T. Harding, and B. Wallace [Editors], 1993, Contemporary Pacific Societies: Studies in Development and Change (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall).
Moshe Rapaport, 1999, The Pacific Islands: Environment & Society (Honolulu, Hawai'i: The Bess Press).
Marcia Stenson, 2006, Illustrated History of the South Pacific (Randon House).

ASSESSMENT: Make-up exams only allowed IF there has been a documented emergency. Please note the following important dates (and look at dates & requirements for your other courses): 

EXAM I (25%) [Friday} 9/28/2007

ON September 28, 2007 (25%) at the end of Week 5; based on readings and lectures to September 26, 2007.

EXAM II (30%) [Friday} 11/9/2007

ON November 9, 2007 (30%) at the end of Week 5; based on readings and lectures to November 7, 2007.

THANKSGIVING BREAK!

November 19 [Monday] -> November 23 [Friday], 2007

EXAM III} 373} (35%) [Mon} 12->1:50pm} 12/19/2007

ON Wednesday December 19, 2007 (35%); based on readings & lectures from November 12, 2007 to December 14, 2007.

CLASS PARTICIPATION (10%)

27 August 2007 ->11 December 2007 (10%).

THE COURSE is very heavily mediated and you are responsible for information presented in this manner. Individuals are expected to locate major land masses discussed in lectures and readings. Every examination will have a map based on the maps in the Anthropology 373 Guidebook. PLEASE NOTE: Various WWW addresses are provided and will be expanded throughout the semester but at this time no examination questions are based on these WWW locations: they are shared with you for exploration on your own. ALSO NOTE: At times throughout the semester, this web Guidebook will be updated and you may be responsible for some of the information provided in these updates.

NOTE: If you have a documented disability that may require reasonable accommodations, please contact Disability Support Services (DSS) for coordination of your academic accommodations. DSS is located in the University Center (behind Kendall Hall). The DSS phone number is 898-5959 V/TTY or FAX 898-4411. Visit the DSS website at http://www.csuchico.edu/dss/. PLEASE REMEMBER: Free public lectures, ANTHROPOLOGY FORUM (ANTH 497-01} #2769) for One Unit every Thursday from 4 -> 4:50pm in Ayres Hall 120. One unit of credit is available through Dr.Stacy B. Schaefer, Chair, Department of Anthropology.

The Functions of Grading: Underlying the rationale for grades is the theme of communication. Grades communicate one or more of the following functions:

1. To recognize that classroom instructors have the right and responsibility to provide careful evaluation of student performance and the responsibility for timely assignment of appropriate grades;
2. To recognize performance in a particular course;
3. To act as a basis of screening for other courses or programs (including graduate school);
4. To inform you of your level of achievement in a specific course; To stimulate you to learn;
5. To inform prospective employers and others of your achievement.

DEFINITION OF LETTER GRADING SYMBOLS:

A -- Superior Work: A level of achievement so outstanding that it is normally attained by relatively few students.
B -- Very Good Work: A high level of achievement clearly better than adequate competence in the subject matter/skill, but not as good as the unusual, superior achievement of students earning an A.
C -- Adequate Work: A level of achievement indicating adequate competence in the subject matter/skill. This level will usually be met by a majority of students in the class.
D -- Minimally Acceptable Work: A level of achievement which meets the minimum requirements of the course.
F -- Unacceptable Work: A level of achievement that fails to meet the minimum requirements of the course. Not passing.

A NOT SO BIG SECRET: #1} The information (or "meaning") that you will get out of this course will be in direct proportion to the energy you expend on assignments and requirements: readings, writing assignment, examinations, and thinking assignments. #2} I will try to provide you with new information and ideas every class period! PS: "He'd tell us to learn from what happened to him." [The character Ron Weasley to Hermione Granger in] J.K. Rowling, 2007, Harry Potter And The Deadly Hallows (Arthur A. Levine Books/Scholastic Inc.), page 95.


Please Click To Get To The Exact Week In This Web GUIDEBOOK:

SPECIAL: Various Pacific Specifics and Statistics

1. WEEK 1: Beginning Monday August 27, 2007: Introduction & Overview: Area & Ecology, Peopling & Prehistory.

MAP: Pacific Culture Areas

2. WEEK 2: [Campus Closed Monday September 3] So on Wednesday September 5, 2007 and Friday September 7, 2007: Europeans and into the Pacific & Australia. 

3. WEEK 3: Beginning September 10, 2007: Australia.

SPECIAL: Notes on Charles Darwin (February 12, 1809 - April 19, 1882)

4. WEEK 4: Beginning Monday September 17, 2007: Australia and Pacific Changes (continued).

SPECIAL: Anthropology & Cyberspace

5. WEEK 5: Beginning Monday September 24, 2007: World War II and Review [Wednesday] and EXAM I [25%] on Friday September 28, 2007.

6. WEEK 6: Beginning Monday October 1, 2007: Into Melanesia.

7. WEEK 7: Beginning Monday October 8, 2007: Melanesia Continued.

8. WEEK 8: Beginning Monday October 15, 2007: Melanesia and Changes and World War II.

9. WEEK 9: Beginning Monday October 22, 2007: Culture Change Continued.

10. WEEK 10: Beginning Monday October 29, 2007: Out of Melanesia and into Micronesia.

MAPS: Melanesia and Micronesia

11. WEEK 11: Beginning Monday November 5, 2007: Micronesia and World War II and Review (Wed) for EXAM II (30%) on Friday November 9, 2007.

12. WEEK 12: [Campus Closed Monday November 12] So on Wednesday November 14, 2007 and Friday November 16, 2007: To Hawai'i.

13. WEEK 13: THANKSGIVING BREAK: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 2007 - > FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 2007 !

14. WEEK 14: Beginning November 26, 2007: Polynesia and Changes.

15. WEEK 15: Beginning Monday December 3, 2007: Tahiti and World War II (And Pearl Harbor after 57 years).

MAP: Polynesia

16. WEEK 16: Beginning Monday December 10, 2007: Hawai'i, World War II, The Pacific Today, and Review!

17. WEEK 17: EXAM III (35%): ANTH 373} BUTTE 319} On WEDNESDAY December 19, 2007 from 10 -> 11:50am.

SPECIAL: Brief Disclaimer Essay On This Web-Based Syllabus

SELECTED PACIFIC ESSAYS BY URBANOWICZ FOR ANTH 373, FALL 2007


SIX GOALS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AT CSU, CHICO

1.  Understand from an anthropological perspective the phenomenon of culture as it differentiates human life from other life forms. Understand the roles of human biology and cultural processes in human behavior and evolution.

2.  Develop an ability to critically address ethical and moral issues of diversity, power, equality, and survival from an anthropological perspective.

3.  Know substantive data and theoretical perspectives in the subdisciplines of anthropology. Know the history of anthropological theory and be conversant in major issues in each area. 

4.  Be familiar with the forms of anthropological literature and basic data sources.  Know how to access, interpret, evaluate, and apply such information, using a range of sources and information technologies.

5.  Grasp the methodologies of the subdisciplines of anthropology.  Be able to apply appropriate methods when conducting anthropological research.

6.  Be able to present and communicate the results of anthropological research.  


Various Pacific Specifics and Statistics

"That great sea, miscalled the Pacific."
(Charles Robert Darwin [1809-1882],
Journal...During the Voyage...of H.M.S. Beagle, 1832-6 (1839)
"I wish I could tell you about the South Pacific. The way it actually was. The endless ocean. The infinite specks of coral we called islands. Coconut palms nodding gracefully toward the ocean. Reefs upon which waves broke into spray, and inner lagoons lovely beyond description [stress added]." James A. Michener, 1946, Tales of the South Pacific (Fawcett Crest Books), page 9..

For the past several years I have been compiling what I call an "On-Going-Work-In-Progress" entitled "Various Pacific References." This muliti-page item is not included in this Guidebook but is available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificReferences.html. The following appears at the beginning of that page:

PLEASE NOTE: this is an on-going "work-in-progress" providing references for "Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific" and is updated on an occasional basis. This page includes tourist information, web pages, academic publications, as well as items that might be found in a city, county, college, or university library. This page was created as a result of providing lectures on various cruises, most recently as one of the lecturers on the m/s Paul Gauguin (part of Regent Seven Seas Cruises) for an eleven-day cruise out of Pape'ete, Tahiti, to various islands of French Polynesia (June-July 2007, Figure I). Prior to that, at the end of February 2007, I was the lecturer on the Sapphire Princess on a twelve-day cruise from Sydney, Australia, to Auckland, New Zealand (Figure II). In January-February 2007 I was one of the "Enrichment Lecturers" for the Cunard Line on the Queen Elizabeth 2 for a twenty-eight day cruise from Los Angeles, California, to Sydney, Australia (Figure III). In April-May 2006 I was one of the lecturers on the Pacific Princess for a twenty-one day cruise from Sydney, Australia, to Osaka, Japan (Figure IV). In May-June 2005 I was one of the lecturers on the Pacific Princess, cruising from Honolulu through Micronesia and Melanesia for twenty-five days en route to Nagasaki, Japan and which terminated in Xingang, China (Figure V). In December 2004 and January 2005, as part of the "Scholarship@Sea" program of Princess Cruise Lines, I was the "destination lecturer" on the Tahitian Princess, providing lectures on French Polynesia and the Cook Islands for two ten-day cruises (Figures VI and VII)." The above-mentioned Figures I-VII will be referred to in this class. This "Pacific Reference" page should provide you with ample information should you wish to pursue various Pacific topics on your own. 

"The largest ocean [on the planet Earth] is the Pacific. Excluding adjacent seas, it represents 45.8% of the world's oceans and is 64,186,300 sq miles in area. The average depth is 13,740 feet. From Guayaquil, Ecuador, on the east, to Bangkok, Thailand, on the west, the Pacific could be said to stretch 10,905 miles in the shortest navigable line. ... The world's most distant point from land is a spot in the South Pacific, approximately 48o30'S., 125o30'W., which is about 1,660 miles from the nearest points of land, namely Pitcairn Island, Ducie Island and Cape Dart, Antarctica. Centered on this spot, therefore, is a circle of water with an area of about 8,657,000 sq mi--about 7,000 sq mi larger than the [former] USSR, [formerly] the world's largest country" [stress added!]. (1985, Guiness Book of World Records, page 122). 

NOTE: LOOKING AT THE "MAP" on the cover of this Guidebook please consider the following:

Pacific Ocean = 64,186,300 square miles
Atlantic Ocean = 33,420,000 square miles
Indian Ocean = 28,350,000 square miles
 

PLEASE NOTE: The following information comes from various sources (and at various points over time) and is only meant to be an "approximation" of information for the various islands and culture areas. 

LOCATION
EST. POP.
AREA (sq.miles)
CAPITAL (or major city)
POLITICAL STATUS

USA (50 states)

301,863,057

3,794,085

Washington, DC
USA

USA (Lower 48)

299,907,516

3,119,887

California

36,457,549

163,696

Sacramento

Butte County

218,069

1,639

Alaska

670,053

663,267

Juneau

Texas

23,507,783

261,797

Austin

Rhode Island

1,067,610

1,545

Providence

MEXICO

107,449,525

761,608

Mexico City
United Mexican States

JAPAN

127,417,000

145,882

Tokyo
Parliamentary Democracy

PHILIPPINES

89,468,677

115,831

Manila
Republic

INDONESIA

233,013,535

741,096

Jakarta
Republic

AUSTRALIA

20,264,082

2,967,893
Canberra, ACT
Commonwealth

Tasmania

487,200

26,200 sq. mi
Hobart [Major City]
State of Australia

MELANESIA

370,875 sq mi

MICRONESIA

1,281 sq. miles

POLYNESIA

116,941 sq. mi

MELANESIA

370,875 sq. mi

NEW GUINEA (Island)

303,476

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

5,708,867

178,703

Port Moresby
Independent State

WEST PAPUA (formerly Irian Jaya) (p/o NG Island]

1,641,000

162,884

Manokwari
Province of Indonesia

FIJI

912,867

7,054

Suva
Republic

SOLOMON ISLANDS

445,697

10,985

Honiaria
Independent

NEW CALEDONIA

219,832

6,530

Noumea
Sui generis Collectivity of France
MICRONESIA

1,281 sq. mi

Federated States of Micronesia (Yap, Chuuk [Truk], Pohnpei, Kosrae)

110,822

271

Palikhir (on Pohnpei Island)
Independent Nation

Guam

156,974

210

Agaña
Self-Govering US Territory

Republic of Palau (or Belau)

20,590

188

Koror
Republic

Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas

82,200

179

Saipan
Commonwealth

Republic of the Marshall Islands

61,271

70

Majuro
Republic

Kiribiti

105,131

313

Tarawa
Republic

Tuvalu

11,859

9

Funafuti
Independent

Republic of Nauru

13,349

8

Yaren
Republic
POLYNESIA

116,941 sq. mi

NEW ZEALAND (all)

4,066,107

103,737

Wellington [460,300]

North Island

3,116,100

44,702

Auckland [Major City]

South Island

981,400

58,384

Christchurch [Major City]

FRENCH POLYNESIA

270,845

French Overseas Collectivity

Tahiti (all islands)

274,656

1,544

Tahiti (Island)

116,745

402

Pape'ete

Tonga(all islands)

115,310

289

Kingdom

Tongatapu Island

100

Nuku'alofa

Cook Islands

19,7765

93

Avarua
Self-Governing

Samoa

179,337

1,137

Apia
Independent State

American Samoa

59,369

90

Pago Pago
Unincorporated Territory of the USA

Niue

1,800

100

Alofi
Self-governing

HAWAI'IAN ISLANDS (all)

1,285,498

6,423

Honolulu
State of the USA

Hawai'i (Island)

138,422

4,028

Hilo

Maui

117,013

1,159

Wailuku

'Oahu

871,766

600

Honolulu

Kauai

56,435

623

Lihue

PITCAIRN ISLAND

51

2

Adamstown
British Dependency

EASTER ISLAND

3,791

64

Hangaroa
Province of Chile

GALAPAGOS ISLANDS

12.500

3,086

Baquerizo
State of Ecuador
LOCATION
EST. POP.
AREA (sq.miles)
CAPITAL (or major city)
POLITICAL STATUS


WEEK 1: BEGINNING Monday August 27, 2007.

I. INTRODUCTION & OVERVIEW: AREA & ECOLOGY, PEOPLING & PREHISTORY (and a thought to ponder):

"Researchers have found that the human brain has a natural affinity for narrative construction. People tend to remember facts more accurately if they encounter them in a story rather than in a list.... [stress added]." Benedict Carey, This Is your life (and How You Tell It). The New York Times, May 22, 2007, Science Times Section, pages D1+D6, page D1.

"To hail Europeans as discoverers of the Pacific Islands is ungracious as well as inaccurate. While they were still moving around in their small, landlocked Mediterranean Sea or hugging the Atlantic shores of Europe and Africa, Pacific Islanders were voyaging hundreds of open-sea miles in their canoes and populating most of the vast Pacific's far-flung islands" (Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands [Third Edition], page 19).

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: 1} The Islands and the Islanders in Pre-colonial Times; part of [hereafter p/o] Ch. 10} Coconuts (pp. 130-138); and Ch. 12} Sea Harvest.

B. Kane} Pages 7-31 as well as pages 98-101.  

C. This Guidebook: 1993 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html [Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. For the Anthropology Forum on September 30, 1993, at California State University, Chico.]

D. This Guidebook: 2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html [Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin). For a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-31, 2004, at CSU, Chico.]  

This first essay is contained in the SELECTED PACIFIC ESSAYS BY URBANOWICZ FOR ANTH 373, FALL 2007, located in this Guidebook (located here).


THIS WILL BE THE MAP THAT WILL BE ON EXAM I ON FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 28, 2007:


WEEK 2: Wednesday [September 5] & Friday [September 7], 2007

I. EUROPEANS AND INTO THE PACIFIC & AUSTRALIA.

"Since the late 1960s, use of the term 'Koori' (or Koorie) to refer to [Australian] Aborigines has become widespread. The word means 'people' in a number of languages from southeastern Australia and is one of a number of such terms used to distinguish the indigenous people of specific regions. A Koori is an indigeneous person from NSW or Victoria, just as a Murri is from Queensland, a Nunga is from South Australia and a Nyungar from Western Australia [stress added]." Paul Smitz [Coordinating Author] et al., 2004, Australia 12th Edition (Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd) , page 35.

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: 2} Explorers: 1521-1792; Oliver: 3} Whalers, Traders, and Missionaries: 1780-1850; Oliver: 7} Lives; p/o 11} Sugar (pp. 174-175).

B. Kane repeat and review pages 7-31 as well as pages 98-101.

C. This Guidebook: 1998 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pacific/Tasmania.html [Comments on Tasmanian Publications of 1884 and 1973/74]. This second essay is contained in the SELECTED PACIFIC ESSAYS BY URBANOWICZ FOR ANTH 373, FALL 2007, located in this Guidebook here (this note will no longer be repeated).

III. FILM NOTES for Primitive People as well as The Last Tasmanian (located immediately below).

IV. INCIDENTALLY, beginning sometimes in September 2007 you will see on PBS:

"THE WAR, a seven-part series directed and produced by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick, tells the story of the Second World War through the personal accounts of a handful of men and women from four quintessentially American towns. The series explores the most intimate human dimensions of the greatest cataclysm in history &emdash; a worldwide catastrophe that touched the lives of every family on every street in every town in America &emdash; and demonstrates that in extraordinary times, there are no ordinary lives. Throughout the series, the indelible experience of combat is brought vividly to life as veterans describe what it was like to fight and kill and see men die at places like Monte Cassino and Anzio and Omaha Beach; the Hürtgen Forest and the Vosges Mountains and the Ardennes; and on the other side of the world at Guadalcanal and Tarawa and Saipan; Peleliu and the Philippine Sea and Okinawa. In all of the battle scenes, dramatic historical footage and photographs are combined with extraordinarily realistic sound effects to give the film a terrifying, visceral immediacy. The film honors the bravery, endurance, and sacrifice of the generation of Americans who lived through what will always be known simply as THE WAR [stress added]." [from: http://www.pbs.org/thewar/]  

V. A VERY INTERESTING Web Site dealing with the three voyages of Captain James Cook (1728-1779) is available at: http://www.bluelatitudes.com/ [based on the 2002 book Blue Latitudes by Tony Horwitz].


PRIMITIVE PEOPLE = "...the Mewites, a small scattered tribe living mainly on the sea-coast and littoral of Arnhem Land in Northern Australia. Like most Aboriginal tribes these people were continually on the move searching for the meagre food supplies available. [George] Heath and his assistant, Australian actor Peter Finch who compiled the material from which the script was constructed and also spoke the commentary, attached themselves to a group of about fifty people and followed them for four weeks. The film is divided into three sections. The first section shows normal community life, the construction of bark shelters, various food-gathering methods and makes reference to social structure; the second section shows scenes of burial rituals; the third describes a wallaby hunt [stress added]."

"...the continent of Greater Australia must have been colonised prior to about 40,000 years ago, the times of our ealiest evidence. From all indications the colonists arrived from Southeast Asia by sea, and can be counted amongst the earliest of modern human populations." Harry Lourandos, 1997, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory (Cambridge University Press), page 296.

"The evidence itself is, however, constantly changing or being modified. As we go to press new claims are being made of a radically early chronology for the prehistory of Australia. From the site of Jinmium in the Kimberly of northwestern Australia have been reported fallen panels of rock art engravings dated at between 58,000 and 75,000 years ago, and stone artefacts at between 116,000 and 176,000 years ago [stress added]." Harry Lourandos, 1997, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory (Cambridge University Press), page xv.

"Australia's Aborigines may have created one of the world's oldest art forms and have certainly created one of the newest. Travelers in the remote outback of central and northwestern Australia can see cave paintings and rock carvings that date back at least 30,000 years. ... that may predate the oldest cave paintings in Europe. ... Thirty years ago [1973] Aboriginal work was hardly recognized as art. ... Less than 20 years ago [1983] 'you could barely give it away,' ... 'But our sales in July [2003]... we'll have people from all over the world bidding hundreds of thousands of dollars of art you could have bought for hundreds in the 1970s [stress added]." Tony Clifton, 2003, Aborigines' art comes out of the cave, into galleries. The San Francisco Chronicle, April 25, 2003, page D21.

"Aboriginal Australia was divided into some three hundred tribes, each associated with a separate area. Tribal unity was based on common language and common mythology, but not usually upon group action. For the individual native, membership in a local group or horde was much more important than tribal membership. Each horde was identified with a subdivision of the tribal area and consisted of a number of families related to one another through various kinship ties. Males usually dwelt throughout their lives in the territory where they were born; wives were selected from other parts of the tribe and moved to their husbands' place at marriage. But although residence was more commonly based upon father relationships, ties with the mother were also emphasized through important totemic means. Yet more important than either of these social groupings was the biological family unit. ... The family unit has been aptly called the group of orientation. For, in Australia as in most other primitive [sic.] cultures, an individual's family relationships determined the kinship terms and behavior he used toward every other person in his social universe [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, The Pacific Islands, 1961, pp. 31-32.

"In considering the political structure of the native Australians we must remember that Australia is a continent, and the only one that was inhabited exclusively by hunters and gatherers. Probably the most formal and the most complex kind of chieftainship recorded in Australia was that of the Jaraldi people in the Lower Murray River country, one of the continents most populous regions. In the middle of the last century, each territorial clan had its own headman and council, and there was also a paramount chief for the entire tribe. The council members of each clan were elected in a meeting between the middle-aged and elderly men, and a few of the outstanding younger ones as well. In a few cases women were also elected [stress added]." Carlton S. Coon, The Hunting Peoples, 1971: 282-283.

See San Francisco Chronicle of 29 May 1997: "Australia ruled out any compensation yesterday for 100,000 Aboriginal children forcibly taken from their families by the government for more than a half a century until the early 1970s. ... Under state laws starting in 1910, the government removed Aboriginal children from their families because the white majority considered it as in their best interest. ... Australia's 303,000 Aborigines make up 1 percent of its population. They have long complained of discrimination, and they lag behind other Australians in access to jobs, education and health services [stress added]." (page A10).

"It spotlights a shameful recent chapter of Australian history, when racist kidnappings were part of that country's official policy, yet 'Rabbit-Proof Fence' turns this dubious past into a breathtaking story of defiance and triumph that has to be considered one of the year's most sublime films. Direcotr Phillip Noyce based his movie on the lives of three Aboriginal girls who, in 1931, escaped from their captors into a shaky freedom that required them to traverse more than 1,000 miles.... Between 1910 and 1970, the Australian government targeted mixed-race Aboriginal children in the outback and took themn to reorientation centers. There they were forced to speak English, attend Church and learn 'skills' they would use as servants and laborers for white people. One hundred thousand Aboriginal children were taken this way from their parents, according to an Australian government report released in 1997 [stress added]." Jonathan Curiel, 2002, Following the fence to freedom: Aboriginal girls' escape makes for gripping drama. The San Francisco Chronicle, December 25, 2002, pages D1 + D9.


THE LAST TASMANIAN = "...is a shocking and heart-wrenching portrait of a primitive [sic.] culture wiped out in the name of civilization and Christianity. When the British first colonized the island of Tasmania in 1803, it was viewed as a natural prison to which they sent many of their worst criminals. These convicts, set loose upon the natives committed hideous, barbarous atrocities. By the 1820's thousands of colonists and one million sheep had arrived on the island. When the natives began to retaliate, the British government reacted with mounting paranoia. Thus began a round-up and eventual extermination of an entire race. Those Tasmanians who did not die from abominable treatment succumbed to the diseases of civilized man. Even in death, the race was violated by a ghoulishly curious scientific world. Skeletons and skulls became prized as a means of tracing man's origins. This dramatic film tells the story of Truganini, a daughter of a tribal chief and the last true Tasmanian, who died [on May 8] 1876 at the mission station on Flinders Island. Her skeleton was long displayed in the Hobart Museum until finally, a century after her death, she was given a state funeral and her remains cremated. The Last Tasmanian has won Australia's top awards for documentary, the SAMMY and the LOGIE, and has been praised as a tour de force [stress added]."

"European treatment of Aborigines during the last 200 years has been grossly unjust, but it was in Tasmania during the first 30 years of European settlement that the Aboriginals' plight was the most tragic. European settlers fenced off all the best land for farms, and as they encrouched upon traditional hunting grounds, the Aboriginals began fighting back. In turn, the settlers hunted and shot down the Aboriginal men as they would animals, kidnapped native children to use as slave labor, and raped and tortured the women. In 1828 Governor Arthur proclaimed a law that gave police the right to shoot Aboriginals on sight. Within a couple of years the entire population had been flushed out from settled districts, and over the following five years the remaining stragglers, numbering less than 200, were transported to Flinders Island to be converted to Christians [stress added]." Marael Johnson et al., 1997, Australia Handbook (Chico: Moon Publications), page 598.

"Like all other forms of life, bacteria and viruses evolve over time, and the complex ways in which they react with their human hosts may give to variable virulence [stress added]." Gerald N. Grob, 2002, The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America (Harvard university Press), page 207.

"Les Eyzies is the normal point of first entry for visitors to the land of prehistory. It has a national museum, the cave where Cro-Magnon man was discovered, and much else--all in the midst of spectacular scenery. ... The National Museum of Prehistory lies within Les Eyzies, in a structure built into the side of a cliff, with overhanging rock above, which was originally a thirteenth-century fortress. It houses a rich collection of prehistoric items, not only from the Dordogne but also from other French archaeological sites...." Charles Tanford & Jacqueline Reynolds, 1992, The Scientific Traveller: A Guide to the People, Places, and Institutions of Europe, page 205.

Les Eyzies-De-Tayax-Sireuil = "The science of prehistory originated in this village....The first drawing of a mammoth was discovered here along with the first skeleton of Cro-Magnon Man, 30,000 years ago." Anon., 1988, The Hachette Guide To France (NY: Pantheon Books), page 111.

"The Dordogne River twisted in loops like a brown snake in the valley it had cut hundreds of thousands of years before." Michael Crichton, 1999, Timeline (Ballantine Books November 2000 Paperback), page 43.

"In 1856, at the very time Charles Darwin was writing The Origin of Species [published in 1859!],which would popularize the revolutionary concept of evolution worldwide, the fossilized remains of a stocky, powerful, human-like creature were discovered in a German valley called Neander Tal." Erik Trinkaus and Pat Shipman, 1993, The Neanderthals: Changing The Image of Mankind .

Settlement of Australia began in 1788, with the landing of a part of transported convicts from Great Britain.

Tasmania is 26,200 square miles in size and is a State of the Commonwealth of Australia [2,967,893 square miles]. Tasmania has an estimated population of ~487,200. The estimated population of Australia is 20,264,082. The capital of Tasmania is Hobart. The State of California is approximately 163,696 Square Miles, the State of West Virginia is approximately 24,078 square miles, and Costa Rica is approximately 19,730 square miles.

The potential of British-French rivalry in Australia prompted the British in Australia (where they had established a convict colony in 1788) to send a ship to Tasmania. On December 14, 1802, while Frenchmen were already on Tasmania, the British raised their flag and took formal possession of Tasmania in the name of King George of England.

"When Tasmania was first colonised the natives were roughly estimated by some at 7000 and by others at 20,000. Their number was soon greatly reduced, chiefly by fighting with the English and with each other. After the famous hunt by all the colonists, when the remaining natives delivered themselves up to the government, they consisted only of 120 individuals,* who were in 1832 transported to Flinders Island. This island, situated between Tasmania and Australia, is forty miles long, and from twelve to eighteen miles broad: it seems healthy, and the natives were well treated. Nevertheless, they suffered greatly in health. In 1834 they consisted (Bonwick, p. 250) of forty-seven adult males, forty-eight adult females, and sixteen children, or in all of 111 souls. In 1835 only one hundred were left. As they continued rapidly to decrease, and as they themselves thought that they should not perish so quickly elsewhere, they were removed in 1847 to Oyster Cove in the southern part of Tasmania. They then consisted (Dec. 20th, 1847) of fourteen men, twenty-two women and ten children.*(2) But the change of site did no good. Disease and death still pursued them, and in 1864 one man (who died in 1869), and three elderly women alone survived. The infertility of the women is even a more remarkable fact than the liability of all to ill-health and death. At the time when only nine women were left at Oyster Cove, they told Mr. Bonwick (p. 386), that only two had ever borne children: and these two had together produced only three children! (* All the statements here given are taken from The Last of the Tasmanians, by J. Bonwick, 1870. * This is the statement of the Governor of Tasmania, Sir W. Denison, Varieties of Vice-Regal Life, 1870, vol. 1, p.67.). [stress added]." Charles Darwin (1871), The Descent of Man)

FROM THE VIDEO: "Fear mixed with the old contempt had produced hate and indiscriminate retaliation."
"Wherever the European has trod, death seems to pursue the aboriginal. We may look to the wide extent of the Americas, Polynesia, the Cape of Good Hope, and Australia, and we find the same result. Nor is it the white man alone that acts as the destroyer; the Polynesian of Malay extraction has in parts of the East Indian archipelago, thus driven before him the dark-coloured native. The varieties of man seem to act on each other in the same way as different species of animals--the stronger always extirpating the weaker [stress added]." Charles R. Darwin [1809-1882], 1839, The Voyage of the Beagle (Chapter 19: "Australia"), 1972 Bantam paperback edition (with "Introduction" by Walter Sullivan), page 376.

October 17, 1995: "...the premier [of Tasmania], Ray Groom, announced that he would introduce legislation to transfer 3800 hectares [~9390 acres] of land to the Tasmanian Aborigines. ... The Premier stressed that this was the government's first and final transfer of land to the Tasmanian Aborigines [stress added]." Lyndall Ryan, 1996, The Aboriginal Tasmanians [2nd edition] (Australia: Allen & Unwin), page 310.

"The Tasmanian Aboriginal population was gradually wiped out with the arrival of Europeans in the 19th century, however more than 4,000 people [~.84% of the population] claim Aboriginality in Tasmania today. Evidence of their link with the landscape has survived in numerous cave paintings. Many Aboriginal sites remain sacred and closed to visitors, but a few, such as the cliffs around Woolnorth [in the extreme northwest of Tasmania], display this indigenous art for all to see [stress added]." Zoë Ross [Managing Editor], 1998, Australia (Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc.), page 445. 

ADDITIONAL NOTES: The term "genocide" was first used by Raphael Lemkin [1900-1949] in his 1944 publication entitled Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: "By genocide we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group." Lemkin combined a Greek and Latin root to create the word. On the 1986 Nobel Peace Prize Winner Elie Wiesel: "But because of his telling, many who did not care to believe have come to believe, and some who did not care have come to care. He tells the story out of infinite pain, partly to honor the dead, but also to warn the living--to warn the living that it could happen again and that it must never happen again. Better that one heart be broken a thousand times in the retelling, he has decided, if it means that a thousand other hearts need not be broken at all." Robert McAfee Brown, 1986, Night (NY: Bantam Edition), page vi.

"It's not born in you! It happens after you're born . . .
You've got to be taught to hate and fear,
You've got to be taught from year to year,
It's got to be drummed in your dear little ear--
You've got to be carefully taught!"
(Rodgers & Hammerstein, II, 1949, South Pacific in
Six Plays by Rodgers & Hammerstein, pages 346-347)


WEEK 3: BEGINNING MONDAY September 10, 2007

I. AUSTRALIA.

Captain James Cook [1728-1779] on Australian Aborigines: "They may appear to some to be the most wretched people upon Earth, but in reality they are far more happier than we Europeans: being wholy unacquainted not only with the superfluous but the necessary Conveniences so much sought after in Europe, they are happy in not knowing the use of them. They live in a tranquility which is not disturb'd by the Inequality of Condition: The Earth and the sea of their own accord furnishes them with all things necessary for life.... They seem'd to set no Value upon anything we gave them, nor would they ever part with any thing of their own for any one article we could offer the; this is my opinion argues that they think themselves provided with all the necessarys of Life [stress added]." Tony Horwitz, 2002, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before (NY: Henry Holt and Company), pages 177-178.

II. NO NEW READINGS:

III. FILM NOTES (repeated) forThe Last Tasmanian (located above)

IV. CHARLES DARWIN (12 February 1809 - 18 April 1882)


NOTES ON Charles Darwin, born 12 February 1809 and died on 18 April 1882. Buried in Westminster Abbey, London, England.

"In the complex history of modern biology, only Darwin's theory of evolution has so shocked the mind as to raise serious questions about man's place in the universe. Darwin forced men to consider that they are animals, and that the designs of creation are played out on a much wider stage than was imagined. From the point of view of the theory of evolution, mankind is only one species among thousands which have their place within the field of organic life on earth. The fact that people took the theory of evolution as an enemy of religion only shows how rigidly they understood the idea of God [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 64.

"The [1937] Hungarian Nobel Prize winner [in Physiology/Medicine], Szent-Györgyi [von Nagyrapolt], once said that a scientist should see what everybody else has seen and then think what nobody has thought. Nobody did this better than Charles Darwin, who first realized that the evolution of life took place by Natural Selection. Darwin taught us all to see more clearly what everyone had seen, and Darwin also taught us to think, along with him, what no one else had thought. No branch of science is more dominated by a single theory, by a single great idea, than is the whole of biology by the idea of evolution by Natural Selection [stress added]." J. Livingston and L. Sinclair, 1967, Darwin and the Galapagos.

FROM: USA Today, January 4, 1999: "The idea was simple. Sit around and pick the 1,000 most important people of the millenium. ... [#1] Johannes Gutenberg (1394?-1468) Inventor of printing.... [#5] William Shakespeare (1564-1616) 'Mirror of the millennium's soul'.... [#6] Isaac Newton (1642-1727) Laws of motion helped propel the Age of Reason.... [#7] Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Theory of Evolution [stress added]." From the book by Barbara and Brent Bowers & Agnes Hooper Gottlieb and Henry Gottlieb, 1998, 1,000 People: Ranking The Men And Women Who Shaped The Millennium.

The concept of CHANGE is definitely vital to an understanding of Darwin, whether you are reading Darwin himself, reading about him, or discussing him. In 1859 Darwin published On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. Please note the changes Darwin made in the SIX editions of the same volume during his lifetime (as calculated by Morse Peckham [Editor], 1959, The Origin Of Species By Charles Darwin: A Variorum Text):
THE VARIOUS EDITIONS FROM 1859-1872:

YEAR/Ed.
COPIES
Sentences
Sentences
Sentences
TOTAL
% CHANGE
1859/1st
1,250

3,878

1860/2nd
3,000
9 eliminated
483 rewritten
30 added
3,899
7 %
1861/3rd
2,000
33 eliminated
617 rewritten
266 added
4,132
14 %
1866/4th
1,500
36 eliminated
1073 rewritten
435 added
4,531
21 %
1869/5th
2,000
178 eliminated
1770 rewritten
227 added
4,580
29 %
1872/6th
3,000
63 eliminated
1699 rewritten
571 added
5,088
21-29 %

In the 5th edition of 1869, Darwin used (for the first time) the famous phrase (borrowed from Herbert Spencer [1820-1903]): "Survival of the Fittest." In the 6th edition of 1872, "On" was dropped from the title. In the 1st edition of 1859, Darwin only had the following phrase about human beings: "In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. Psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of the necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. Light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history." In the 2nd edition of 1860 Darwin wrote the following:

"Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is a grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator [stress added] into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."

INCIDENTALLY, in his 1839 publication The Voyage Of The Beagle, Darwin wrote the following:

"Among the scenes which are deeply impressed on my mind, none exceed in subliminity the primeval forests undefaced by the hand of man; whether those of Brazil, where the powers of Life are predominant, or those of Tierra del Fuego, where Death and Decay prevail. Both are temples filled with the varied productions of the God of Nature:--no one can stand in these solitudes unmoved, and not feel that there is more in man than the mere breath of his body [STRESS added]" 1839, page 436.

"The great value of Darwinism, it seems to me, was that it jolted modern men into questioning various sentimental beliefs about nature and man's place in it. In this, Darwin's influence closely parallels that of Galileo [1564-1642]. Just as the first modern astronomers and physicists destroyed a naive geocentrism, so Darwin and his successors overwhelmingly displaced what may be called homocentrism, the belief that nature exists for the sake of man [stress added]." Jacob Needleman, 1975, A Sense of the Cosmos: The Encounter of Modern Science and Ancient Truth (NY: Doubleday & Co., Inc.), page 72.

AND PLEASE CONSIDER the words of the Pulitzer Prize Winner (1940) and Nobel Prize Winner (1962) John Steinbeck (1902-1968) on Charles R. Darwin: "In a way, ours is the older method, somewhat like that of Darwin on the Beagle. He was called a 'naturalist'. He wanted to see everything, rocks and flora and fauna; marine and terrestrial. We came to envy this Darwin on his sailing ship. He had so much room and so much time. ... This is the proper pace for a naturalist. Faced with all things he [or she] cannot hurry. We must have time to think and to look and to consider [stress added]." John Steinbeck, 1951, The Log From The Sea of Cortez [1967 printing: Pan Books: London], page 123.

"Biologists do not accept the truth of evolution on the basis of Darwin's authority but on the basis of the evidence. Evolutionary theory has been out of Darwin's hands from the moment The Origin of Species appeared in 1859. Once Darwin published his evolutionary hypotheses and the evidence upon which they were based, these entered the public domain of knowledge, and others took the ball and ran with it. Scientific knowledge is not 'owned' by any individual so no individual, even the discoverer, can 'take back' a theory [stress added]. Robert T. Pennock, 1999, Tower of Babel: The Evidence Against the New Creationism (MIT Press), page 71.

"Biology also became historical after the publication in 1859 of Charles Darwin's [1809-1882] theory of evolution by natural selection. He argued that all species were descended from earlier ones, and that all creatures were locked in a struggle for existence which selected for the traits most advantageous for surival at a given time and place. Darwin's ideas were the most revolutionary and powerful scientific propositions of modern times, and posed a direct challenge to religious accounts of the origins of life and humankind. For this reason his views attracted vigorous opposition, especially from those who took the Bible as the literal word of God. ... gradually Darwin's views became--with modifications--universally accepted among the world's scientifically educated [stress added]." J.R. McNeill & William H. McNeill, 2003, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 176.

http://darwin.ws/day/ [Darwin Day Home Page]
http://www.galapagos.org/cdf.htm [Charles Darwin Foundation, Inc.]
http://www.aboutdarwin.com/ [About Darwin.com]
http://www.gruts.demon.co.uk/darwin/index.htm [The Friends of Charles Darwin Home Page]
wysiwyg://5/http://www.iexplore.com/multimedia/galapagos.jhtml [The Galápagos Islands!]
http://www.natcenscied.org [The National Center for Science Education]
http://www.darwinawards.com/ [Official Darwin Awards} "...showing us just how uncommon common sense can be." Wendy Northcutt, 2000, The Darwin Awards: Evolution in Action (Dutton).  


WEEK 4: BEGINNING MONDAY September 17, 2007

I. AUSTRALIA AND PACIFIC CHANGES (CONTINUED)

"The term Polynesia was coined by Charles de Brosses [1709-1777] in 1756 and applied to all the Pacific islands. The present restricted use was proposed by Dumont D'Urville [1790-1842] during a famous lecture at the Geographical Society of Paris in 1831. At the same time he also proposed the terms Melanesia and Micronesia for the regions which still bear those names [stress added]." David Stanley, 1989, South Pacific Handbook (Chico, CA: Moon Publications, Inc.), page 51.

II. READINGS

A. This Guidebook: 1972 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1972TonganPaper.html [Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction]. Originally presented on December 2, 1972, at the ASAO [Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania] Symposium that I organized for the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Toronto, Canada.

B. This Guidebook: 1976 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/John_Thomas.html [John Thomas, Tongans, and Tonga! The Tonga Chronicle (July 15, 1976), Nuku'alofa, Tonga, Vol. 13, No. 7: 7.]

III. FILM NOTES forFirst Contact (located below)  

IV. ANTHROPOLOGY & CYBERSPACE (located below)

V. A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH373FA2007TESTOne.htm by FRIDAY September 21, 2007, to assist you in the examination on September 28, 2007. 

VI. PACIFIC MAP ON EXAM I: Based on the Map printed in this Guidebook at the end of Week I (above).

VII. A REPEAT of some of the PowerPoints used on Day one of the class (August 27, 2007) is available at:

http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PowerPoint/ANTH373FA2007

 

FIRST CONTACT VIDEOTAPE = Based on a 1987 book entitled First Contact by Bob Connolly and Robin Anderson [CSUC: GN/671/N5/C66/1987]. Footage of 1930's expedition into New Guinea by the Leahy brothers: Michael, Daniel, and James Leahy.

FROM THE VIDEO: "It's no good pretending I went up there for the good of the natives, because I didn't. I went there for the good of James Leahy, and I didn't do too badly. ... The only reason we killed people was simply if we hadn't killed them, they would have killed us and our carriers." See San Francisco Chronicle of 8 September 1983 and the words of a New Guinea Native stated in the film: "That man from heaven has just excreted, he told us. As soon as the white man went away, everyone went to look. Their skin is different, we said, but their s--- smells just like ours."

"Of all the colonised people of the earth, New Guinea's highlanders must surely rank among the most fortunate. Colonial domination came late in the day and was short lived--a mere half-century of foreign rule. The Australians arrived in 1930, and left in 1975--not a long time in the scheme of things. Largely because of this, the highland people were spared many of colonialism's more manifest evils [page 9]." ... "This book [and the videotape] is based primarily on interviews with highlanders and Australians who took part in the events described [1930's+] and on the diaries and other written records of the Australians. The interviews were recorded in Papua New Guinea and Australia between 1981 and 1985 [stress added] (page 307)."


ANTHROPOLOGY & CYBERSPACE (FALL 2007)

"In the summer of 1994 [and how old were you then?] the Internet was still mainly an academic plaything. The company that became Netscape Communications had not yet released its web browser. Many computers still ran MS-DOS. Intel's new Pentium chip was a luxury, and a 1-gigabyte hard drive was considered huge." Stephen H. Wildstrom, Lessons from a Dizzying Decade in Tech. Business Week, June 14, 2004, page 25.

Go to: http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline/ [Hobbes' Internet Timeline v6.0] where you will see that:

In June 1993 there were a total of 130 World Wide Web Sites
In June 1994 there were a total of 2,738 World Wide Web Sites
In January 1996 there were a total of 100,000 World Wide Web Sites
In April 1997 there were a total of 1,002,612 World Wide Web Sites
In February 2000 there were a total of 11,161,811 World Wide Web Sites
In December 2002, there were a total of 35,543,105 World Wide Web Sites.
In July 2003, there were a total of 42,298,371 World Wide Web Sites.
In January 2004, there were a total of 46,067,743 World Wide Web Sites.
/In December 2004, there were a total of 56,923,737 World Wide Web Sites
In August 2005, there were a total of 70,392,567 World Wide Web Sites.
In November 2006, there were a total of 101,435,253 World Wide Web Sites.

CYBERSPACE: A term used William Gibson in Neuromancer (1984) to describe interactions in a world of computers and human beings. Cyberspace can be viewed as another location to be explored and interpreted by anthropologists. Urbanowicz believes that the "World Wide Web" is very similar to the period known as "The Enlightenment" in France (which, combined with the industrial revolution that began in approximately the 1760's, created the world that we know today). For some of the reasons that Urbanowicz does what he does, see: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/K12Visuals98.htm. If you "surf" the web (and I do), please surf carefully and evaluate wisely: below you have some examples for information concerning "Charles R. Darwin" available on the web at various points in time: note the different amounts of data generated by different search engines: evaluate carefully! Before examing the "Search Engine Results" below, please consider the following: 

DATE
GOOGLE
ALTA VISTA
WISENUT
ALLTHEWEB
April 23, 2007
1,410,000
2,240,000
1,000
1,960,000
June 19, 2006
8,090,000
1,980,000
11,568
1,710,000
November 30, 2005
2,180,000
2,980,000
8,202
2,600,000
July 5, 2005
688,000
1,100,000
937
958,000
March 22, 2005
750,000
909,000
937
776,000
January 19, 2005
697,000
531,000
1,775
435,000
November 2, 2004
306,000
597,000
5,186
506,000
October 12, 2004
292,000
601,000
5,186
497,000
May 4, 2004
264,000
108,303
18.247
91,931
April 14, 2004
268,000
106,585
18,247
90,571
March 22, 2004
279,000
90,610
18,247
556,125
February 10, 2004
260,000
90,749
26,209
582,798
January 4, 2004
251,000
89,979
26,209
568,418
September 27, 2003
278,000
81,607
39,116
463,572
November 27, 2002
143,000
84,274
76,294
516,281
May 2, 2002
130,000
36,608
64,940
N/A
February 6, 2002
118,000
40,131
N/A
N/A
October 17, 2001
120,000
65,975,088
N/A
N/A

Incidentally, MSN Search had 538,697 on April 23, 2007. Two things should be obvious: (#1) interest in Darwin appeats to be accelerating and (#2), obviously, just as with people, all "search engines" are not created equal and there is "cultural selection" involved in everything we do! How does one "evaluate" and "use" this wide range of information? One does it just as Darwin did, carefully, patiently, and slowly, for as Darwin wrote:

"False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened." Charles R. Darwin, 1871, The Descent of Man And Selection in Relation to Sex[1981 Princeton University Press edition, with Introduction by John T. Bonner and Robert M. May], Chapter 21, page 385.

"Though Darwin died more than a century before the advent of the World Wide Web, his unforgiving survival theory applied as much to outdoors-oriented sites as to the species. The fittest are still with us...." Michael Shapiro, 2002, Returning to nature easier after trekking through Net. San Francisco Chronicle, June 2, 2002,Section C8, page 8.

"The driving force in the semiconductor industry has been the theorem known as Moore's Law. First posited by Intel Corp. co-founder Gordin Moore in the 1960s, Moore's Law states that the number of transistors that fit on a chip will double every 18 months. ... Moore's Law has held true so far, with Intel's latest Pentium cramming 8 million transistors on a tiny sliver of silicon. The industry is confident that it can achieve even more astounding figures, such as 100 million transistors on a chip [stress added]." San Francisco Chronicle, August 10, 1998, page E1.

"The great thing about crummy software is the amount of employment it generates. If Moore's law is upheld for another 20 or 30 years, there will not only be a vast amount of computation going on planet Earth, but the maintenance of that computation will consume the efforts of almost every living person. We're talking about a planet of help desks [stress added]." Jaron Lanier, 2000, One-Half of a Manifesto: Why stupid software will save the future from neo-Darwinian machines. Wired, December 2000, 8.12, pages 158-179, page 174.

"'It's the information age, and librarians are the information specialists,' said Kevin Starr, state librarian for California. ... I think information service is the profession for the millennium [said Cora Iezza]." Beyond the Dewey Decimal. Julie N. Lynem, July 14, 2002, The San Francisco Chronicle, page B1.

"When this circuit learns your job, what are you going to do?" In Marshall McLuhan & Quentin Fiore (1967), The Medium Is The Massage, page 20.

"Clyde Presowitz says he had a revelation in 2003 when his oldest son, a software developer living on Lake Tahoe in California, asked him to co-invest in a snow-removal company. Why, wondered Prestowitz, would his high-tech offspring go into a business 'as mundane as snow removal?' Explained the son: "Dad, they can't move the snow to India [stress added].'" Paul Magnusson, 2005, Why Asia Will Eat Our Lunch [book review of]: Three Billion New Capitalists: The Great Shift of Wealth and Power to the East (2005) by Clyde Prestowitz, Business Week, June 20, 2005, page 22. 

"Career advice for the 21st century: Stay away from any job that can be done online.... profiting from the Darwinian labor economics of the Internet [stress added]." Mani and Me: Hearing 'Mister,' I work Cheap' From Across The Globe. Lee Gomes, June 3, 2002, The Wall Street Journal, page B.

"'We used to educate farmers to be farmers, factory workers to be factory workers, teachers to be teachers, men to be men, women to be women.' The future demands 'renaissance people. You can't be productive in the information age if you don't know how to talk to a diverse population, use a computer, understand a world view instead of a parochial view, write, speak [stress added].'" In Byrd L. Jones and Robert W. Maloy, 1996, Schools For An Information Age: Reconstructing Foundations For learning And Teaching, page 15.
"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic."
Clarke's Third Law, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible by Arthur C. Clarke, 1984, page 26.

"Google--or any search engine--isn't just another website; it's the lens through which we see that information, and it affects what we see and don't see. At the risk of waxing Orwellian, how we search affects what we find and by extension, how we learn what we know [stress added]. Lev Grossman, 2003, Search And Destroy. Time, December 22, 2003, pages 46-50, page 50.


WEEK 5: BEGINNING MONDAY September 24, 2007

I. WORLD WAR II AND REVIEW AND EXAM I (25%) on FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 28, 2007

"To the overwhelming majority of Europeans [and, perhaps, Americans] the term the Second World War immediately conjures up memories or impressions of the conflict against Hitler's Germany. Perceptions of this war vary greatly from nation to nation.... That Europeans should be Eurocentric in their view of events is natural." H. P. Willmott, 1982, Empires in the Balance: Japanese and Allied Pacific Strategies to April 1942 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Insitute Press), page 1.

II. READINGS TO DATE:

1. Oliver: 1} The Islands and the Islanders in Pre-colonial Times; part of [hereafter p/o] Ch. 10} Coconuts (pp. 130-138); and Ch. 12} Sea Harvest.  

2. Oliver: 2} Explorers: 1521-1792; Oliver: 3} Whalers, Traders, and Missionaries: 1780-1850; Oliver: 7} Lives; p/o 11} Sugar (pp. 174-175).

3. Kane} Pages 7-31 as well as pages 98-101.  

4. This Guidebook: 1993 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html [Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. For the Anthropology Forum on September 30, 1993, at California State University, Chico.]

5. This Guidebook: 2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html [Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin). For a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-31, 2004, at CSU, Chico.]  

6. This Guidebook: 1998 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pacific/Tasmania.html [Comments on Tasmanian Publications of 1884 and 1973/74].

7. This Guidebook: 1972 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1972TonganPaper.html [Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction]. Originally presented on December 2, 1972, at the ASAO [Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania] Symposium that I organized for the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Toronto, Canada.

8. This Guidebook: 1976 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/John_Thomas.html [John Thomas, Tongans, and Tonga! The Tonga Chronicle (July 15, 1976), Nuku'alofa, Tonga, Vol. 13, No. 7: 7.] 


WEEK 6: BEGINNING MONDAY October 1, 2007

I. INTO MELANESIA.

"The barbarous heathen are nothing more strange to us than we are to them.... Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity [stress added]." Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592], Essays, page 53 [1959 paperback publication of a translation from 1603].

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: 4} Planters, Labor Recruiters, and merchants: 1850-1914.

III. FILM NOTES for Dead Birds (located below).

IV. INCIDENTALLY, PLEASE CONSIDER THE HISTORICALSIGNIFICANCE OF AN EVENT WHICH OCCURED FIFTY YEARS AGO THIS WEEK ON OCTOBER 4, 1957:

"History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a basketball, weighed only 183 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start of the space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R space race." [From: http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/


DEAD BIRDS = "Intensive two year ethnographic study documents the way of life of the Dani, a people dwelling in the Mts. of Western New Guinea. The Dani base their values on an elaborate system of inter-tribal warfare and revenge. Clans engage in formal battles and are constantly on guard against raiding parties. When a warrior is killed, the victors celebrate and the victims plan revenge. There is no thought in the Dani world of war ever ending: without them there would be no way to satisfy the ghosts of the dead. Wars also keep a sort of terrible harmony in a life that otherwise would be hard and dull." There were approximately 350 Dani in the group at the time of the film-making; sweet potato furnished about 90% of their diet; pigs also an essential part of Dani life. In the language of the Dani, dege was a term for both "fighting spear and digging stick." According to Karl Heider, "These two objects [fighting spear and digging stick], more than anything else, set the tone for Dani culture [stress added]."

FROM THE VIDEO: "There is a fable told by the mountain people living in the ancient Highlands of New Guinea about a race between a snake and a bird. It tells of a contest which decided if men would be like birds and die, or be like snakes which shed their skins and have eternal life. The bird won and from that time, all men, like birds, must die."

FROM THE VIDEO: "The ghosts, which more than anything else, rule the lives of these people, are known to be most active in the dark. ... The enemy came this morning to kill, to avenge the ghost of their warrior slain by Wejak's group more than two weeks before. Until they do, they live in a state of spiritual decline. Both sides believe that each man has a soul, to which they attribute the shape of seeds. These seeds at birth are planted in the solar plexus. They call them edai-egen, or seeds of singing. Until a child is able to walk and talk, his edai-egen are only rudimentary. As he or she grows older, the edai-egen also grow. One's soul, or seeds, are especially sensitive to the death of a friend or a member of the family. By contrast, causing the death of an enemy is tonic for the soul and lifts the spirit."

"Sociopolitical Organization. [of the Dani. It is] Kinship based. patrilineal sibs and moieties are cross-cut by territorial confederations and alliances. The alliances are the largest social groups and have up to 5,000 people [stress added]." Karl Heider, 1997, Seeing Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film (Boston: Allyn & Bacon), page 59.

FROM THE VIDEO: "A little boy is dying by the Aikhe [River]....Each life that's taken is celebrated by both sides. The ones that lose a life prepare a chair, the only furniture that they know, to lift the corpse for ghosts to see while they cry and have their funeral....The bones are all together--the end of all the work and love it took to make a boy."

FROM THE VIDEO: "Soon both men and birds will surrender to the night. They'll rest for the life and death of days to come. For each, both awaits; but with the difference that men, having foreknowledge of their doom, bring a special passion to their life. They will not simply wait for death nor will they bear it lightly when it comes--instead they'll try with measured violence to fashion fate themselves. They kill to save their souls and, perhaps to ease the burden of knowing what birds will never know and when they as men, who have forever killed each other, cannot forget...."


WEEK 7: BEGINNING MONDAY October 8, 2007 

I. INTO MELANESIA CONTINUED.

"The ethnographic method has long been associated with Malinowski, who repeatedly claimed credit for its invention. But while Malinowski--through his many students--was clearly responsible for establishing local, village-based research as the anthropological norm in Britain, claims that he single-handedly developed the ethnographic method during his fieldwork in the Trobriands are exaggerated." Robert L. Welsch, 1998, An American Anthropologist in Melanesia: A.B. Lewis and the Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition 1909-1913, pages 558-559.

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: 5} Miners and Administrators: 1914-1939; p/o 10} Sugar (pp. 154-173); p/o Ch. 11} Sea harvest (pp. 1940-203); and p/o Ch. 13} Mines (pp. 220-228).

B. This Guidebook: 1968 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Malinowski1968.html [Comments on Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942). For the Graduate Seminar (ANTH 507) taken at the University of Oregon in the Fall Quarter of 1968. The original paper was entitled "Notes" and was dated October 29, 1968 and was originally placed on the WWW on December 30,1998.

III. NOTES for Malinowski (located immediately below).


"Malinowski's [1884-1942] position in British anthropology is analogous to that of Boas [1858-1942] in American Anthropology.... Like Boas, Malinowski was a Central European natural scientists brought by peculiar circumstances to anthropology and to the English-speaking world. Like Boas, he objected to armchair evolutionism and invented a fieldwork tradition based on the use of native language in 'participant observation'. Furthermore, both Boas and Malinowski were pompous but liberal intellectuals who built up very strong followings through their postgraduate teaching [stress added]." Alan Barnard, 2000, History and Theory in Anthropology (Cambridge University Press), pages 65-66.

"The ethnographic method has long been associated with Malinowski, who repeatedly claimed credit for its invention. But while Malinowski--through his many students--was clearly responsible for establishing local, village-based research as the anthropological norm in Britain, claims that he single-handedly developed the ethnographic method during his fieldwork in the Trobriands are exaggerated. As Stocking (1983 [Observers And Observed: Essays on Anthropological Fieldwork, pages 70-120] has shown, Malinowski was at best only one of a number of fieldworkers who had been experimenting with systematic village-based research for several years; he was certainly not the first. But as a prolific and talented writer, who was equally adept at self-promotion, he transformed the discipline in Britain in a single generation [stress added]." Robert L. Welsch, 1998, An American Anthropologist in Melanesia: A.B. Lewis and the Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition 1909-1913, pages 558-559.

"The ability to understand very different kinds of people is often related to an innate lack of set values and standards. It is no accident that a great novelist like Balzac [1799-1850], who could penetrate and portray with impartial accuracy the character of bankers, prostitutes, and artists, was a relativist of psychopathic proportions. It is also no accident that the most successful field worker in the history of anthropology, Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942], was the most eccentric and controversial figure ever to enter the field of anthropology [stress added]" Abraham Kardiner and Edward Preble, 1961, They Studied Man (NY: Mentor Book), page 140.

"Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942], my father, was strongly influenced by women all his life: by his Polish mother, his two British wives, his women pupils; by women not his pupils with whom he had intellectual friendships; and by the women of various nationalities whom he loved. He also had three daughters, of whom I am the youngest [stress added]." Helena Wayne (Malinowska), 1985, Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence of Various Women on His Life and Works. American Ethnologist, Vol. 12, No. 3, pages 529-540, page 529.

"Malinowski [1884-1942] has a strong claim to being the founder of the profession of social anthropology in Britain, for he established its distinctive apprenticeship--intensive fieldwork in an exotic community. For the fifteen years [1923-1938] which he spent at the London School of Economics after his return from the Trobriand islands he was the only master ethnographer in the country, and virtually everyone who wished to do fieldwork in the modern fashion went to work with him [stress added]." Adam Kuper, 1973, Anthropologists and Anthropology: The British School 1922-1972 (London: Allen Lane), page 13.

"In England Bronislaw Malinowski [1884-1942] had just begun to publish the results of his field research on the Trobriand Islands. Yet in the 1920s American anthropology was far from being in the mainstream of scholarship. It was most certainly not a career which could promise security or many rewards to an ambitious scholar. There was a jocose saying among anthropologists in the late '20s that 'You don't have to be crazy to become an anthropologist, but it sure helps.' Another comment, credited to Malinowski, was 'Anthropology is the study of man, embracing woman.' However one felt about the validity of these observations, it was true that one needed a high degree of determination and dedication, as well as a natural curiosity and a sense of the romantics, to select anthropology as a career in those early days [stress added]." Adelin Linton and Charles Wagley, 1971, Ralph Linton (Columbia University Press), page 5.

"An anthropologist on a South Sea Island! How romantic! But the reality entails a kind of squalid loneliness which might otherwise be encountered only by a victim of political torture in solirtary confinement. The anthropologists's position is highly anomalous. He [or she!] wants to understand the values of the society which he observes around him, yet his ultimate purpose is to translate those values into his own. He must not be totally absorbed--he must not be brainwashed. So the more deeply he comes to know his tribal families the more desperately he clutches at any tenuous straw which may help him to remember that he is still, in his own right, a member of modern civilisation. Letters from home become treasures... The private diaries of fieldwork anthropologists record.... Bronislaw Malinowski, the originator of modern anthropological field method, kept such diaries in New Guinea and Melanesia in 1914-15 and 1917-18, and it is to the discredit of all concerned that they have been committed to print. ...The context of the diary adds nothing at all to our understanding of Malinowski's work as an anthropologist. ... Malinowski's widow, who holds the copyright, justifies the publication by claiming that these documents give 'direct insight into the author's inner personality'. They do nothing of the sort, but both Malinowski and his loved ones survive their sacrifice to Mammon remarkably well [stress added]." Edmund Leach, 1967, An Anthropologist's Trivia [originally published in The Guardian on 11 August 1967 as a review of A Diary in the Strictest Sense of the Term]. Stephen Hugh-Jones and James Laidlaw [editors], 2000, The Essential Edmund Leach Volume I: Anthropology and Society (Yale University Press), pages 61-62.

"A great deal has been written about the publication of this book [A Diary In The Strict Sense of the Term, 1967]. I myself don't think it was well edited and presented, but I have read other early diaries and diary fragments of my father's and can see what a difficult task it is to translate and edit such jottings. All the more, I feel the diaries should not have been published as they were but kept, together with his correspondence of that time, as raw material for a biographer, or perhaps published in a different form. I know many anthropologists do not agree with my point of view. They have mined the diaries for insights (often distorted insights) into Malinowski's character and into what day-to-day life in the field can mean, and have found these insights most valuable [stress added]." Helena Wayne (Malinowska), 1985, Bronislaw Malinowski: The Influence of Various Women on His Life and Works. American Ethnologist, Vol. 12, No. 3, pages 529-540, page 540.

BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI} "Anthropology is the science of the sense of humour. It can be thus definied without too much pretentiousness or facetiousness. For to see ourselves as others see is is but the reverse and the counterpart of the gift to see others as they really are and as they want to be: And this is the metier of the anthropologist. He [and she!] has to break down the barriers of race and cultural diversity; he has to find the human being in the savage; he has to discover the primitive in the highly sophisticated Westerner of to-day, and, perhaps, to see that the animal, and the divine as well, are to be found everywhere in man [stress added]." Bronislaw malinowski, 1937, Introduction. Julius E. Lips, 1937, The Savage Strikes Back (Hyde Park, NY: University Books), pages vii-ix, page vii.

ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI (1884-1942): "Nineteen twenty-two saw the publication of The Waste Land [by T.S. Elliot] and Ulysses [by James Joyce], as well as Argonauts of the Western Pacific and A.R. Radcliffe-Brown's first monograph, The Andaman Islanders, all of which effectively remapped the discourse of their fields. As George Stocking notes, 1922 also saw the death of the prominent British anthropologist W.H.R. Rivers [born 1864], more than symbolically marking Malinowski's victory as the leading light in British cultural anthropology. ... For his publication of this book Malinowski has been credited with creating, virtually overnight, the seminal twentieth-century anthropological discourse known as the monograph.... [stress added]." Marc Manganaro, 2002, Culture, 1922: The Emergence of a Concept (Princeton University Press), pages 7-8 and page 56.

ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI (1884-1942): "Bronislaw Malinowski is perhaps the first recognized ethnographer. He spent more than two years doing fieldwork in a foreign land and set forth the the first scientific caveats of doing good ethnography. He believed it possible to conduct a scientific study of human behavior in the naturalistic surroundings of cultures, far from a laboratory. Set in the emiricism of the day, Malinowski's method strained to stay rigorous in application while bowing to the unpredictability of both the fieldworker and those being studied. Malinowski launched the modern ethnographic method, which soon became a staple method of an entire discipline, the later, the adopted method of many other disciplines [stress added]." Robert Sands, 2002, Sport Ethnography (Champaign, Ill: Sport Kinetics), page 9.

1938 WORDS OF BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI: "For, to quote William James [1842-1910] , 'Progress is a terrible thing.' It is terrible to those of us who half a century ago were born into a world of peace and order; who cherished legitimate hopes of stability and gradual development; and who now have to live through the dishonesty and immorality of the very historical happenings. I refer to the events of the last few years which seem to demonstrate once more than Might is Right; that bluff, impudence and aggression succeed where a decent readiness to co-operate has failed [stress added]." From the "Introduction" to Jomo Kenyatta, 1938, Facing Mount Kenya: The Tribal Life of the Gikuyu (NY: 1962 Vintage Books edition], page ix.

COMMENT ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI [1884-1942]} "'That man had no aesthetic sense. If as if he was color-blind,'[Giancarlo] Scoditti said. 'Reading Malinowski, when he talks of the canoe prow boards or the dance [in the Trobriand Islands], one sees a world of absolute grayness. I was overwhelmed by the colors and vivacity of everything." Alexander Stille, 2002, The Future of the Past (NY: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux), page 161.

NOTE A.R.Radcliffe-Brown [1881-1955] from a 1940 paper: "I hope you will pardon me if I begin with a note of personal explanation. I have been described on more than one occasion as belonging to something called the 'Functional School of Social Anthropology' and even as being its leader, or one of its leaders. This Functional School does not really exist; it is a myth invented by Professor Malinowski [1884-1942]. He has explained how, to quote his own words, 'the magnificent title of the Functional School of Anthropology has been bestowed by myself, in a way on myself, and to a large extent out of my own sense of irresponsibility.' Professor Malinowski's irresponsibility has had unfortunate results, since it has spread over anthropology a dense fog of discussion about 'functionalism.' Professor Lowie [1883-1957] has announced that the leading, though not the only, exponent of functionalism in the nineteenth century was Professor Boas [1858-1942]. I do not think that there is any special sense, other than the purely chronological one, in which I can said to be either the follower of Professor Boas or the predecessor of Professor malinowski. The statement that I am a 'functionalist,' or equally the statement that I am not, would seem to me to convey no definite meaning. There is no place in natural science for 'schools' in this sense, and I regard social anthropology as a branch of natural science. Each scientist starts from the work of his [of her!] predecessors, finds problems which he believes to be significant, and by observation and reasoning endeavours to make some contribution to a growing body of theory. Co-operation among scientists results from the fact that they are working on the same or related problems. Such co-operation does not result in the formation of schools, in the sense in which there are schools of philosophy or of painting. There is no place for orthodoxies and heterodoxies in science. Nothing is more pernicious in science than attempts to establish adherence to doctrines. All that a teacher can do is assist the student in learning to understand and use the scientific method. It is not his business to make disciples. I conceive of social anthropology as the theoretical natural science of human society, that is, the investigation of social ,phenomena by methods essentially similar to those used in the physical and biological sciences. I am quite willing to call the subject 'comparative sociology,' if anyone so wishes [stress added]." On Social Structure. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 70, 1940, pages 1-12, pages 1 + 2.

Interesting (And Somewhat Appropriate) Web Sites Are:

http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/socthink/malinowski.html [Bronislaw Malinowski]
http://emuseum.mnsu.edu/information/biography/klmno/malinowski_bronislaw.html [Bronislaw Malinowski]  


WEEK 8: BEGINNING MONDAY October 15, 2007

I. MELANESIA AND CHANGES AND WORLD WAR II

"The Pacific war was waged with a barbarism, savageness and race hatred that is unparalleled in history. Each side regarded the other with seething contempt and saw the other as subhuman animals. Atrocities abounded, with no quarter being asked and none given. With the jungle for a battlefield and flamethrowers, suicide fighters and cannibalism almost routine, the conflict was often described by the participants as a descent into the deepest hell [stress added]." Paul D. Walker, 2003 , Truman's Dilemma: Invasion or The Bomb (Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Co.), page 15.

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: 6} The Dimensions of Change; p/o Ch #9} Souls (pp. 126-129).

B. This Guidebook: 1991 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Dec1991.html [Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.) 

C. This Guidebook: 2005 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 1.]

III. FILM NOTES for Margaret Mead's New Guinea Journal (below).  

IV. REMEMBER
A. EXAM II (30%) on Friday November 9, 2007.
B. WORDS / THOUGHTS ON "TRADITION ("CULTURE")

"A fiddler on the roof. Sounds crazy, no? But in our little village of Anatevka, you might say that every one of us is a fiddler on the roof, trying to scratch out a pleasant, simple tune without breaking his neck. It isn't easy. You may ask, why do we stay up here if it's so dangerous. We stay because Anatevka is our home. And how do we keep our balance? That I can tell you in a word--tradition!" Hoseph p. Swain, 2002, The Broadway Musical: A Critical and Musical Survey (Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.), page 281 (citing Joseph Stein, 1964, Fiddler on the Roof (NY: Crown), page 1.

V.THE EMERGENCE OF THE GLOBAL CULTURE: WORLD WAR II AS CULTURAL PHENOMENA! (and see http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/timeline/ww2time.htm as well as http://www.msstate.edu/Archives/History/USA/WWII/ww2.html and http://quaboag.k12.ma.us/worwar.html and http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/amex/) and http://www.yadvashem.org.il and http://www.vwc.edu/WWWpages/dgraf/holocaus.htm and finally: http://www.ushmm.org.

"To anyone born after 1980, World War Two must seem as distant as the Civil War was to our parents." The character "Dirk Pitt" in Atlantis Found, 1999, by Clive Cussler [2001 Berkley paperback], page 503.

"...even in the United States. The undercurrent of genteel anti-Semitism was always there. The occasional violence of the more ignorant street gangs always existed. But there was also the pull of Nazism. We can discount the German-American Bund, which was an open arm of the Nazis. However, people such as the Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin [1891-1979] and the aviation hero Charles Lindbergh [1902-1974] openly expressed anti-Semitic views. There were also homegrown Fascist movements that rallied round the anti-Semitic banner [stress added]." Isaac Asimov [1920-1992], 1994, I. Asimov: A Memoir (NY: Bantam Books), page 20.

"To mark the arrival of the year 2000, a panel of Chronicle editors and reporters gathered recently for a series of discussions about the top news events of the past 100 years." The "Top World Event" was World War II. "In short, this war changed everything--the way the world looked, and the way people looked at the world." The San Francisco Chronicle, December 27, 1999, page 1.

"Put the world in perspective. After Sept. 11 [2001], we're far less worried by little annoyances. ... So many things seem less significant now than before Sept. 11. ... Many of us have had a change of perspective...." Karen S. Peterson, USA Today, November 13, 2001, page 1.
DEAR PEOPLE: AND PLEASE THINK ABOUT THE FOLLOWING WORDS:

"Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry and narrow-mindness." (Samuel Langhorn Clemens, also known as Mark Twain [1835-1910], The Innocents Abroad, 1869) and "In the field of observation, chance only favors those who are prepared." (Louis Pasteur [1822-1895])

"If I am not for myself, who will be for me? If I am not for others, what am I? And if not now, when?" (Rabbi Hillel, 12th Century)

"Lisa, get away from that jazzman! Nothing personal. I just fear the unfamiliar [stress added]." Marge Simpson, February 11, 1990, Moaning Lisa. Matt Groening et al., 1997, The Simpsons: A Complete Guide To Our Favorite Family (NY: HarperCollins), page 22.

"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic." Clarke's Third Law, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible by Arthur C. Clarke, 1984, page 26. 

MARGARET MEAD'S NEW GUINEA JOURNAL = Margaret Mead [1901-1978] discusses the cultural transformation of the people of Manus Island (largest of the Admiralty Islands in Melanesia) based on her visits to the village of Peri in 1928, 1953, and 1967.

HISTORICAL NOTE: "America's foremost woman anthropologist, Margaret Mead authored scientific studies...that made anthropology meaningful to an unprecedented number of American readers. Coming of Age in Samoa [1928] and Growing Up In New Guinea [1930] both ranked as national best sellers; these and other studies introduced Americans to cultures where male and female roles differed markedly from those in Western society.... Over the years Margaret Mead became a national institution; she wrote over thirty books and lectured widely. Of her profession she concluded (in her autobiography): 'There is hope, I believe, in seeing the human adventure as a whole and in the shared trust that knowledge about mankind, sought in reverence for life, can bring life [1972, Blackberry Winter]." Vincent Wilson, Jr., 1992, The Book of Distinguished American Women, page 68.

"Margaret Mead arrived at the American Museum of Natural History in 1926. Having just completed her first significant ethnographic research in Samoa, she was wappointed assistant curator in the Department of Anthropology. ... Over the course of her fifty-two year association with the Museum, Margaret Mead was a scientist, curator, teacher, author, social activist, and media celebrity. The success of her first book, Coming of Age in Samoa, published in 1928, had thrust her into the mdia spotlight" [stress added]." Nancy C. Lutkehaus, 2001-2002, American Icon. Natural History, 12/01 - 1/02, pages 14 & 15, page 14.

"Although the earliest recorded European contact with the main part of Manus [Island] was probably by Menezes in 1517....substantial impact did not take place until the 1870s, when the area became a commercial source of pearlshell, tortoise shell, and beche-de-mer. By the time of German annexation in 1884, most of the Manus were familiar with European goods, if not with Europeans themselves. ... By the early 1920s almost the entire region had come under full Australian control. ... The fundamental change was in the Manus economy. As a result of colonization, Manus ceased to be an independent system of interdependent villages tied by a complex arrangement of production and circulation. Instead it became a dependent outlier of the main Papua New Guinean economy.... [stress added]." James G. Carrier and Achsah H. Carrier, 1985, A Manus Centenary: Production, Kinship, and Exchange in the Admiralty Islands. American Ethnologist, Vol, 12, No. 3, pages 505-522, pages 510-511.

FROM THE VIDEO: In 1928, there was an endless effort to repay debts to one another in the islands; marriage was purely a financial arrangement. Copra was the main export of the territory and Manus Islanders "were in the European world but not of it." In traditional times, as hard as life was for men it was harder for women: surrounded by various taboos.

"When the people of Peri beat the death drums as our canoe pulled away from the village in 1929, neither they nor I expected that I would ever return. ...In 1953, twenty-five years after the first field work in Peri village, I decided to go back in response to questions no one had answered about the incredible changes that had taken place in Manus and to find answers to new problems on the postwar world...." (Margaret Mead, New Lives For Old: Cultural Transformation in Manus, 1928-1953, 1966 edition, pp. xi-xii) ... "The transformation I witnessed in 1953 taught me a great deal about social change--change within one generation--and about the way a people who were well led could take their future in their own hands [stress added]." Margaret Mead, 1996, New Lives For Old, page: xiv & xii-xiii. ...

FROM THE VIDEO: In 1944, on the 2nd of March, American armed forces attacked the Japanese bases in the Admiralty Islands and eventually the islands were secured for the Allies and a huge American base was established for the continuation of the war in the Pacific against the Japanese.

CARGO CULTS [http://www.altnews.com.au/cargocult/jonfrum/] = "These revitalization movements (also designated as revivalist, nativistic, or millenarian) received their name from movements in Melanesia early in this century that were and are characterized by the belief that the millennium will be ushered in by the arrival of great ships loaded with European trade goods (cargo). The goods will be brought by the ancestral spirits and will be distributed to the natives who have acted in accordance to the dictates of the cults. Sometimes the cult leaders call for the expulsion of all alien elements, the renunciation of all things European on the part of the cult followers, and a return to the traditional way of life. In contrast, other cult leaders promise a future ideal life if followers abandon their traditional ceremonies and way of life in favor of copying European customs. Cargo cults, like other revitalization movements, develop in situations where there is extreme material and other inequality between societies in contact. Cargo cults attempt to explain and erase the differences in material wealth between natives and Europeans." D.E. Hunter & P. Whitten, Encyclopedia of Anthropology, 1976: 67.

NOTE: The nation of Papua New Guinea has an estimated population of 5,708,867 and covers approximately 178,703 squares miles [California is 163,696 square miles].

"MARGARET MEAD. The century's foremost woman anthropologist, Margaret Mead [1901-1978] was an American icon. On dozens of field trips to study the ways of primitive [sic] societies, she found evidence to support her strong belief that cultural conditioning, not genetics, molded human behavior. That theme was struck most forcefully in Mead's 1928 classic, Coming of Age in Samoa. It described an idyllic pre-industrial society, free of sexual restraint and devoid of violence, guilt and anger. Her portrait of free-loving primitives [sic!] shocked contemporaries and inspired generations of college students--especially during the 1960s sexual revolution. But it may have been too good to be true. While few question Mead's brilliance or integrity, subsequent research showed that Samoan society is no more or less uptight than any other. It seems Mead accepted as fact tribal gossip embellished by adolescent Samoan girls happy to tell the visiting scientist what she wanted to hear [stress added]." Leon Jaroff, Time, March 29, 1999, page 183.

For the 2005-2006 Academic Year, a total of 603 individuals received the Ph.D. in Anthropology: there were 329 females [55%] and 274 males [45%]; note, this includes degrees from Australia (18), Canada (43), Croatia (2),Finland (5), Mexico (7), and the United Kingdom (32). Source: The 2006-2007 American Anthropological Association Guide, pages 635-636.

"The single most important discovery for women explorers may be the freedom that lies at the heart of the very act of exploration." Reeve Lindberg, 2000, Introduction. Living With Cannibals And Other Women's Adventures, by Michele Slung (Washington, D.C., National Geographic Society), pages 1-7, page 2.


WEEK 9: BEGINNING MONDAY October 22, 2007 

I. CULTURE CHANGE CONTINUED.

"Politics is in the main personal politiking in these Melanesia societies, and the size of a leader's faction as well as the extent of his renown are nomrally set by competition with other ambitious men" (M. Sahlins, 1963, "Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man, Chief: Political Types in Melanesia and Polynesia" in A.P. Vayda's People's and Cultures of the Pacific, 1968: 164].

II. NO NEW READINGS (although, if you haven't finished it, please finish the following from last week (in this Guidebook): 2005b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 1.]

III. FILM NOTES

A. Ongka's Big Moka (located below)

B. Anthropology on Trial (located after Ongka notes)

 

ONGKA'S BIG MOKA [Was recorded over the period of June-August 1974 and in1980 the Videotape was released.] Ongka is a individual with authority - a "man of authority" or a "bigman" among the Kawelka Tribe in the Western Highlands on the island of New Guinea. A "moka" is a ceremonial exchange which takes between groups. 

VIDEO "Papua New Guinea lies 100 miles off the north coast of Australia. Near Mt. Hagen, in the Western Highalns Province, there are many tribes. One of them is the Kawelka. One of the most prominent leaders or 'big men' of the Kawelka people is Ongka. For ten years, the Kawelka, driven on by Ongka, have been struggling to assemble a hugh gift--mainly of pigs--to present to a neighboring tribe. All his life, Ongka has been involved in a system of receiving gifts and later repaying them. This system is called Moka. It provides a way of making peace and a means of forming aliances between tribes. A prominent bigman of the tribe that would receive the gift is Perua. He is also the local representative to the national Parliament." 

Papua New Guinea = 1989 est. pop. of 3,613,000; est. 14% are urban dwellers; the independent nation (Parliamentary Democracy) covers 176,280 sq. mi. [California = 156,299 sq.miles] and the Capital is Port Moresby (1985 estimated population of 144,000) located on the island of New Guinea. 

VIDEO: "In Mt. Hagen, you can survive without pigs. Your food, the materials for your house, the traditional clothes, all come from the gardens and the forest and you only eat pig on special occasions. But if you want to marry and be a success in life, then you must have pigs. A woman reaises the pigs that her husband gives in Moka and allies him with other families who can become exchange partners." 

"The film concentrates on how Ongka can and cannot use his status to organise others for political gift-giving. ... The difference between authority and influence in politics is focused on...." (The Royal Anthropological Institute Newsletter, 1974.] 

Also see: A. Strathern, 1978, The Rope of Moka: Big-Men and Ceremonial Exchange in Mount Hagen, New Guinea and B.R. Finney, 1987, Business Development in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.


PAPUA NEW GUINEA: ANTHROPOLOGY ON TRIAL [Dealing with Margaret Mead (1901-1978) as well as the work of John Barker (New Guinea), Andrew & Marilyn Strathern & Ongka (in New Guinea), and Wari Iamu (in California).

FROM THE VIDEO: "I think in the '80's we must stop anthropologists from coming into the country...[Anthropology is] part and participle of the colonial forces. ... [some of Mead's work]: "half-truths or unrealistic. ... Margaret Mead wrote the story of Peri [not the "story" of the people of Manus]. ... I've stopped the film [Margaret Mead's New Guinea Journal]. ... She [Margaret Mead] didn't understand our customs."

DEREK FEEEMAN: "In my book of 1983 evidence was amassed to demonstrate that Margaret Mead's conclusion of Coming of Age in Samoa, because it is at odds with the relevant facts, cannot possibly have been correct. It had become apparent that the young Margaret Mead had, somehow or other, made an egregious mistake. ... The making of mistakes by humans, in science as in all other forms of human activity, is altogether commonplace." Derek Freeman, 1996, Margaret Mead And The Heretic: The Making And Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth, pages vi and xii-xiii.

"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all of her work?] must consider the controversy surrounding its accuracy. In 1983, several years after her death, Derek Freeman published his detailed refutation of her work. More recently, Freeman has continued his attack with attempts to prove that Mead built her description of adolescent sexuality on scanty information gleaned from a hoax perpetrated by her informants. He has also argued that she was young and credulous, that she had a poor grasp of the language, that she did not carry out her investigations properly, that Coming of Age in Samoa [1929] is littered with errors, that she twisted the facts to suit her (and Boas's and Benedict's) preconceptions, and that she was entirely wrong in her portrayal of Samoa [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.


WEEK 10: BEGINNING MONDAY October 29, 2007

I. OUT OF MELANESIA AND INTO MICRONESIA.

"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. If, now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment and the interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprising identity emerges: the unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" [italics in original; stress added]." Gregory Bateson [1904-1980], 1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), page 483.

II. READINGS

A. Oliver: 7} Lives; p/o Ch #10} Coconuts (pp. 138-141).

B. Kane pages 32-51 as well as pages 82-87.

C. This Guidebook: 1980 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1980PolynesianPaper.html [Women In The Pacific: Some Polynesian Examples. For the "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25.]

III. REMEMBER, EXAM II (30%) will be on Friday November 9, 2007. A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH373FA2007TESTTwo.htm by FRIDAY November 2, 2007, to assist you in the examination on November 9, 2007. 

IV. FILM NOTES for Mokil (located below)

V. MAPS FOR EXAM II (located below film notes)


MOKIL = "Organized around the problems of a growing population in a closed ecological setting. The film touches on almost all aspects of Mokilese life. The viewer is left with a dramatic visual understanding of life on a tiny Micronesian atoll [only 0.48 square miles!]."

The film Mokil, although released in the 1970s, was shot in the late 1940s when the filmaker was there as part of CIMA, the Coordinated Investigation of Micronesian Anthropology. As Kiste & Schaefer stated in the American Anthropologist in 1974, however, the film was still a good one: "Mokil is the best ethnographic film to come out of Micronesia, and it is a contribution to general ethnology as well....Showing the people of Mokil at work and at play, it accurately portrays their daily activities, annual life cycle, child-rearing practises, division of labor along lines of sex and age, and the general character of social relations in the community....The film makes quite explicit that the people of Mokil, like other atoll dwellers, consider land to be their most valuable possession....The film also deals with a set of problems that were current on Mokil twenty-five years ago and are now comon elsewhere in Micronesia.....the film's short, initial sequence on the prehistory of Oceania is dated [and in error], and the musical sequence is often overly dramatic and distracting. These flaws do not seriously impair the overall quality of the film...." (American Anthropologist, 1974: 715-716).

The Mokil paneyney is a patrilineal extended family and each family centers their activities in its canoe house. The women of the paneyney prepare the food and assist the men with reef fishing. Men are responsible for the heavy work of canoe and house building and deep sea fishing. There are two aspects of the Pacific environment which dominate the thoughts of the islanders, especially on small islands: the scarcity of land and the weather.

Mokil lies within the boundaries of the State of Pohnpei, which (along with the States of Yap, Chuuk, and Kosrae) constitute the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). The FSM land area is 271 square miles (with an estimated 1998 population of 110,822). "Economy: Industries: Tourism,constr., fish proc., handicrafts. Chief crops: black pepper, fruits & vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes. Natural resources: timber, fish, minerals. ....Labor force: two-thirds are government employees....The Federated States of Micronesia, formerly known as the Caroline Islands, was ruled successively by Spain, German, Japan, and the U.S.The nation gained independence under a compact of free association with the U.S. Nov. 1986 and was admitted to the UN Sept. 17, 1991." (The World Almanac And Book of Facts, 2007, page 800)


THESE WILL BE THE MAPS THAT WILL BE ON EXAM II ON FRIDAY NOVEMBER 9, 2007:

Source: http://www.pacificasiaobservatory.org/_pix/Melanesia.jpg

Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com/maps/images/maps/micronesia_map.gif

 


WEEK 11: BEGINNING MONDAY November 5, 2007

I. MICRONESIA AND WORLD WAR II AND REVIEW ON WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 7, 2007, AND EXAM II (30%) ON FRIDAY NOVEMBER 9, 2007.

"From the eighteenth-century accounts of Captain James Cook [1728-1779], the British navigator, to the writings of the American novelist James A. Michener [1907-1997, enraptured descriptions of the Pacific islands have identified the term 'South Seas' with visions of a blissful life in perpetual summer on white beaches shaded by swaying palm trees." Robert Trumbull, 1977, Tin Roofs and Palm Trees (Seattle: University of Washington Press), page 3.

II. READINGS TO DATE (SINCE EXAM I):

1. Oliver: 4} Planters, Labor Recruiters, and merchants: 1850-1914.

2. Oliver: 5} Miners and Administrators: 1914-1939; p/o 10} Sugar (pp. 154-173); p/o Ch. 11} Sea harvest (pp. 1940-203); and p/o Ch. 13} Mines (pp. 220-228).

3. Oliver: 6} The Dimensions of Change; p/o Ch #9} Souls (pp. 126-129).

4. Oliver: 7} Lives; p/o Ch #10} Coconuts (pp. 138-141)

5. This Guidebook: 1968 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Malinowski1968.html [Comments on Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942). For the Graduate Seminar (ANTH 507) taken at the University of Oregon in the Fall Quarter of 1968. The original paper was entitled "Notes" and was dated October 29, 1968 and was originally placed on the WWW on December 30,1998.

6. 1991 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Dec1991.html [Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.)

7. This Guidebook: 2005b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 1.]

8. This Guidebook: 1980 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1980PolynesianPaper.html [Women In The Pacific: Some Polynesian Examples. For the "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25.]

III. FILM NOTES for That Uncertain Paradise [to be on the Exam this Friday] (below).

IV. EXAM II (30%) will be on Friday November 9, 2007.


THAT UNCERTAIN PARADISE = The (dated) film deals with an area and "people spread over an area of the tropical [North] Pacific, slightly larger than the continental United States. The people who occupy about 100 of some 2,000 small islands, are virtually unknown to the American public, although annually more than 80 million American tax dollars are injected into the region. Places such as Truk [Chuuk], Eniwetok, Ulithi, which were household words in the United States during WWII, have returned to their former isolation."The question that gnaws at Micronesians today is whether to attempt to preserve their old ways or to propel themselves as fast as possible into the 20th Century. Automobiles and air-conditioned hotels are standard fixtures in the district centers. Thatched huts, bare-breasted women and dugout canoes are still part of outer island life."

FILM: "Recently a growing political awareness, influenced by the global trend away from colonialism, has brought about political unrest. No one knows what to do about it. Micronesia constitutes a model of the problems primitive [sic.] people face when confronted with the 20th Century." Film "visits all districts including some outer islands and observes the cultural, social, economic, and political conflicts. The old culture, represented by dances, ceremonies, island architecture, and family life in a typical village, is contrasted to the often tawdry facade of the district center, the gleaming luxury hotels, the jet liners, and the local variety of Life in the United States. The old South Seas [sic.] romance comes to life during a trip on a government ship to the outer islands. Appearing in the film are former Secretary of State Dean Rusk [1909-1994]; Ambassador Haydn Williams; Senator Petrus Tun and Representative John Rugulmar of the Congress of Micronesia; Chief Ngirakebou; Chief Tagachilbe; the people of Ngchesar on Babeldup Island [Palau]; Trust Territory officials; and Micronesians from all walks of life."(from Annals of Tourism Research, Oct/Dec'77:73-4). 

NOTE: "The two aspects of the Micronesian environment that seem to dominate Micronesian thought are the near-universal scarcity of land and the weather (depending on the location), either in the form of droughts or typhoons. Nearly all of the people of Micronesia have had to adapt to these harsh facts of the envioronment." (W.A. Alkire, The Peoples and Cultures of Micronesia, 1972: 5). ... "Micronesian political systems fall into the type generally called chiefdoms. All recognized distinctions of rank based largely on genealogical seniority in a system of ranked matriclans segmented into lineages or other subunits. ... Everywhere, chiefs had some authority over decision making about public labor and resources and control over some kinds of conduct. Chiefly clans generally received some kind of first fruits or other payment, most commonly in return for grants of land made generations ago to more recent immigrants." (James G. Peoples, 1993, "Political Evolution in Micronesia" in Ethnology, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 17, pp. 4-5). Major islands in Micronesia (from West to East): Northern Marianas, Guam, Belau (Palau), Federated States of Micronesia (Yap, Chuk [Truk], Ponape, and Kosrae), Marshall Islands, Kiribiti (formerly Gilbert Islands), Tuvalu (formerly Ellice Islands), and Nauru. 

"The sea dominates island life and is so ever-present that it permeates proverbs, sayings. and superstitions, and beliefs. Fish are very frequently used to illustrate a non-marine truth--'Don't chase after an escaped fish,' or don't cry over spilled milk." Gene Ashby [Compiler and Editor], 1985, Some Things of Value...Micronesian Customs and Beliefs (Rainy Day Press: Eugene, Oregon, and Kolonia, Pohnpei), page xviii)

TODAY = 2007 = Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands: population of 82,200. CoNM extends over a 300 mile archipelago and totals approximately 179 square miles. 

TODAY = 2007 = Guam: population of 156,974. It is an island of 210 square miles. 

TODAY = 2007 = Republic of Palau: population of 20,590. RoP includes 300 islets, totalling 177 square miles [458 square kilometers]. 

TODAY = 2007 = FSM = Federated States of Micronesia: population of 110,822. FSM includes 807 islands, totalling 271 square miles [702 square kilometers]: Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei [Mokil located in this area], Kosrae. 

TODAY = 2007 = Republic of the Marshall Islands: 61,271. RoMI totals approximately 70 square miles [181 square kilometers].


WEEK 12: BEGINNING WEDNESDAY November 14, 2007.

I. REMEMBER, THE UNIVERSITY IS CLOSED MONDAY NOVEMBER 12, 2007 AND TO HAWAI'I

"Whereas Sahlins saw Polynesian societies building upon an ecological foundation, Irving Goldman (1955 [Status rivalry and cultural evolution in Polynesia. American Anthropologist 57: 680-697], 1970) presented an opposite, though complementary perspective, that these societies were moulded by 'status rivalry' inherent in their aristocratic political structures....The ecological perspective of Sahlins and the structural orientation of Goldman together contribute elements for a more sophisticated and compelling theory of Polynesian evolution [stress added]." Patrick V. Kirch, The evolution of the Polynesian chiefdoms (Cambridge University Press), page 11.

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: 8} Land; 9} Souls; and p/o Ch 13} Mines (pp. 220-228).

B.Kane: Everything you haven't read to date and Kane, as well as Oliver and the Guidebook Essays, should be completed by the last week of classes in time for EXAM III (35% of your final grade).


WEEK 13: THANKSGIVING BREAK: MONDAY, NOVEMBER 19, 2007 - > FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 23, 2007!


WEEK 14: BEGINNING MONDAY November 26, 2007

I. POLYNESIA AND CHANGES

"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all of her work?] must consider the controversy surrounding its accuracy [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.

II. READINGS:

A. Oliver: Part of Ch. 10} Cocounts (pp. 141-154); 15} Losses & Gains; 16} WWII.

B.Kane: Everything you haven't read-to-date in Kane (as well as Oliver and the Guidebook Essays) should be completed by the last week of classes in time for EXAM III (35% of your final grade).

C. This Guidebook: 2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TahitiAndEuropeansFa2004.html [Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook to Gauguin. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 4.]

D. This Guidebook: 2005 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tahiti2005.html [Tahiti: From 1971 to 2004/2005. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, May 5.]

III. MARGARET MEAD AND DEREK FREEMAN AND SAMOA

IV. INCIDENTALLY, WHEN YOU READ THE 2005 "Tahiti" paper, you will read the following:

"The resident population of the United States, projected to May 5, 2005 at 7:09am [Pacific Standard Time] was 296,041,433 [http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/popclock]. This means there is one birth every 8 seconds, one death every 13 seconds, one international migrant (net) every 26 seconds, for a net gain of one person every 12 seconds. If you have come across this on the web, for some reason, what is the population figure for the United States of America when you are reading this page? What has been the increase since this was posted to the web on the morning of May 5, 2005?"

Compare this 2005 statement with the following 2007 information:

According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, the resident population of the United States (as this Guidebook was being prepared), projected to August 1, 2007 at 11:20am [Pacific Standard Time] was 302,494,451 [http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/popclock]. This means there is one birth every 7 seconds, one death every 13 seconds, one international migrant (net) every 27 seconds, for a net gain of one person every 10 seconds. WHAT IS THE NUMBER WHEN YOU ARE READING THIS PAGE: What has been the net increase since that date?


"Any account of Mead's work on Samoa [or perhaps all of her work?] must consider the controversy surrounding its accuracy. In 1983, several years after her death, Derek Freeman published his detailed refutation of her work. More recently, Freeman has continued his attack with attempts to prove that Mead built her description of adolescent sexuality on scanty information gleaned from a hoax perpetrated by her informants. He has also argued that she was young and credulous, that she had a poor grasp of the language, that she did not carry out her investigations properly, that Coming of Age in Samoa [1928] is littered with errors, that she twisted the facts to suit her (and Boas's and Benedict's) preconceptions, and that she was entirely wrong in her portrayal of Samoa [stress added]." Hilary Lapsley, 1999, Margaret Mead And Ruth Benedict: The Kinship of Women (Amherst: U Mass Press), pages 142-143.

PLEASE NOTE FROM Anthropology News May 2000 (Vol. 41, No. 5), by Derek Freeman [1916-2001], Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia:

"I write to inform members of the AAA [American Anthropological Association] of the discovery of direct evidence that brings to closure the controversy over Margaret Mead's Samoan fieldwork of 1925-26."

"This evidence is contained in a little known book, All True! The Record of Actual Adventures That Have Happened to Ten Women Today (1931). The adventure by 'Dr. Margaret Mead,' entitled, 'Life as a Samoan Girl.' begins with reference to the 'group of reverend scientists' who in 1925 sent her to study 'the problem of which phenomena of adolescence are culturally and which physiologically determined' among the adolescent girls of Samoa, with 'no very clear idea' of how she was 'to do this.' It ends with an account of her journey to the islands of Ofu and Olosega in March 1926 with the 'two Samoan girls,' as she calls Fa'apua'a and Fofoa. Mead continues, 'In all things I had behaved as a Samoan, for only so, only by losing my identity, as far as possible, had I been able to become acquainted with the Samoan girls, receive their whispered confidences and learn at the same time the answer to the scientists' questions.'"

"This account by Mead herself, is fully confirmed by sworn testimony of Fa'apua'a. It is definitive historical evidence that establishes that martin Orans is in outright error in asserting that it is 'demonstrably false that Mead was taken in by Fa'apua'a and Fofoa.' It is also evidence that establishes that Coming of Age in Samoa [1929], far from being a 'scientific classic' is a work of anthropological fiction."

"In Chapter 13 of Coming of Age in Samoa, Mead concluded unreservedly that the phenomena of adolescence are due not to physiology but to the 'social environment.' This extreme environmentalist conclusion was very much to the liking of Franz Boas [1858-1942]. In 1934, in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Boas asserted that 'the genetic elements which may determine personality,' are 'altogether irrelevant as sompared with the powerful influence of the cultural environment' (emphasis added). This is a succinct statement of the Boasian culturalism that from the late 1920s became, in the words of George Stocking, 'fundamental to all American Social Science.'"

"In Samoa, Mead had acted as Boas' agent and, having been given Boas' enthusiastic commendation, Coming of Age in Samoa became one of the most influential texts of the 20th century. We now know that the conclusion to which Mead came is based on evidence that is quite unacceptable scientifically. Furthermore, this also applies to Boasian culturalism, which at the beginning of the 21st century has beccome a scientifically unacceptable belief system."

"This liberating change in the Zeitgeist is evident in the fact that the intercollegiate Studies Institute, in listing the 50 worst and best books of the century, has adjudged Mead's Coming of Age in Samoa to be the 'very worst' book of the 20th century."

"Indeed, Margaret Mead has been criticized, most notably by the Australian anthropologist Derek Freeman [1916-2001], for minimizing the biological aspects of childrearing. According to Freeman, Mead was so eager to demonstrate the definitive role of culture in human society that she was insensitive to fundamental human drives and motives, while overly accepting accounts that suggested the singularity of a culture. From today's vantage point, we might conclude that Mead was attempting to demonstrate the importance of cultural factors to a biologically oriented social science community, while Freeman was reacting to a cultural concensis that Mead and her colleagues had succeeded in establishing at mid-century [stress added]." Howard Gardner, 2001, Introduction to the Perrenial Classics Edition. Growing Up in New Guinea, 1930 (by Margaret Mead), page xxi.

"Karl Popper (1902-1994) is recognized around the world as one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers of science and as one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. ... Popper used to tell his students that there is no such things as a scientific method other than the method of trial and error. This simple idea has initiated a revolutionary way of thnking in philosophy and science. Popper thought that we are ll in search of a better world. And hge taught that, instead of uncritically accepting our theories and beliefs on authority or trying to justify them with appeals to reason and experience, we should search for problems and inconsistncies in them and try to eliminate them as best we can. Instead of trying to prove that we are right, we should try to find the ways in which we are wrong. He summed up his entire philosophy with the words: 'I may be wrong and you may be right, and by an effort, we may get nearer to the truth' [stress added - italics in original]. Mark Notturno, 2003, from the "Preface" On Popper (Thomson/Wadsworth), n.p.

PLEASE NOTE THE WORDS OF DEREK FREEMAN (1916-2001): "My passion in life is that we will develop a genuine science of the human species; nothing is more important to humans than that we succeed in that task. Now, I have said that the question that Boas [1858-1942] gave Margaret Mead [1901-1978] to answer was a profoundly important anthropological question and I think that now in the late 1980s we have resolved that problem. It is apparent to all knowledgeable behavioral scientists that we must within operate within a framework in which we simultaneously take into account our evolutionary history and our cultures and it is only when these two things are combined within an interactionist paradigm that you have the imperative pre-condition for a genuine science of our species. Well, I have always been a heretic. I think being a heretic is the most beautiful thing because this comes from a Greek root meaning someone who chooses for himself. In other words, a heretic is someone who thinks for himself and doesn't run with the mob and I have always been a heretic and found great joy in it. But what you've got to be in science is a heretic who gets its right. It's no use in being a heretic who gets it wrong because then you are a dog in their eyes. But if you are a heretic who gets it right, you can't do better than that [stress added]." Derek Freeman, 1988, [from the video] Margaret Mead and Samoa (Evanston, Ill: United Learning) [Cinetal productions Ltd. in Association with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation].

"Karl Popper (1902-1994) is recognized around the world as one of the twentieth century's greatest philosophers of science and as one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. ... Popper used to tell his students that there is no such things as a scientific method other than the method of trial and error. This simple idea has initiated a revolutionary way of thnking in philosophy and science. Popper thought that we are all in search of a better world. And he taught that, instead of uncritically accepting our theories and beliefs on authority or trying to justify them with appeals to reason and experience, we should search for problems and inconsistncies in them and try to eliminate them as best we can. Instead of trying to prove that we are right, we should try to find the ways in which we are wrong. He summed up his entire philosophy with the words: 'I may be wrong and you may be right, and by an effort, we may get nearer to the truth' [stress added - italics in original]. Mark Notturno, 2003, from the "Preface" On Popper (Thomson/Wadsworth), n.p. 


WEEK 15: BEGINNING MONDAY December 3, 2007

I. TAHITI AND WORLD WAR II (AND PEARL HARBOR AFTER 57 YEARS)

"The name 'Tahiti'--or, as Bougainville [1729-1811] first wrote it in 1768, Taiti,' and Cook in 1769, 'Otaheiti'--was the name the natives gave to their island and which Europeans came to apply to the indigenes. If the Tahitians had a name specifically identifying themselves, it is not known. What is known is that all of those living in the Society Archipelago, including Tahiti, referred to themselves as 'Maohi.'" Edwin N. Ferdon, 1991, Tahiti. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume II Oceania (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co.), pages 305-307, page 305.

II. READING

A. Repeat in this Guidebook: 1991 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Dec1991.html [Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.)

B. Repeat in this Guidebook: 2005 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 1.]

V.REMEMBER:
A. EXAM III for ANTH 373-01 is on WEDNESDAY December 19, 2007 from 2 -> 3:50pm.
B.
EXAM III (35% of your final grade) will consist of Pacific Maps, Multiple-Choice, and True/False questions. It will cover Polynesia, Changes (including World War II), and major points stressed throughout the semester.


THIS COULD BE ONE OF THE MAPS THAT WILL BE ON EXAM III ON WEDNESDAY DECEMBER 19, 2007:


WEEK 16: BEGINNING MONDAY December 10, 2007

I. HAWAI'I, WORLD WAR II, THE PACIFIC TODAY, AND REVIEW!

"The degree to which Americans register shock and extraordinary shame about the Hiroshima bomb [on August 6, 1945] correlates closely with lack of information about the Pacific war." Paul Fussell, 1988, Thank God For the Atomic Bomb And Other Essays (NY: Summit Books), page 25.

II. READINGS TO DATE (SINCE EXAM II):

Oliver: Ch. 17} After the battles; 18} Epilogue. 

Kane: Everything you haven't read-to-date in Kane  

A "sample" self-paced exam should be available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH373FA2007TESTThree.htm by WEDNESDAY December 10, 2007, to assist you in the final examination on Wednesday December 19, 2007.


WEEK 17: BEGINNING DECEMBER 17, 2007: FINALS WEEK

THE FINAL EXAM FOR ANTH 373-01 is on WEDNESDAY December 19, 2007 from 2 -> 3:50pm in Butte 319.

"'When we try to pick out anything by itself,' wrote wilderness wanderer John Muir , 'we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.' Thus did Muir who founded the Sierra Club in 1892, become on of the first to define in 25 words or less what ecology is all about [and, perhaps, Urbanowicz adds: "what anthropology is really all about! Stress added]." John G. Mitchell, 1970, Ecotactics: The Sierra Club Handbook for Environmental Activitists, p. 23.


BRIEF DISCLAIMER ESSAY for those who read about the FALL 2007 Web-assisted courses taught by Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, California State University, Chico.

NOTE TO STUDENTS: This is actually a very brief "essay" about web-based instruction and web pages (which you are reading either "electronically" or in the required Guidebook form). The World Wide Web is an "electronic creation" of human beings, is constantly modified by human beings, and as human beings change, the WWW continues to "evolve" over time. Education will radically change by the time I fully retire and eventually die and (a) while I try to "keep up" with as much as possible for my students (and myself) I realize that (b) I am behind as soon as I begin! With that in mind, the reader (or viewer) of these pages (either "electronically" or in print") is reminded that this course is not a web-based course but is a "traditional" course, taught on the campus of California State university, Chico, to "traditional" (or perhaps a "semi-traditional" group of) students who are sitting in a classroom in for ~sixteen weeks. These web pages contain no frames, no Javascripts, no interactive exams, no streaming video, no Power Point Presentations, and no other "bells-and-whistles" which are current on the WWW but they do contain numerous "live" links which are appropriate for various weeks of the semester-long course. These WWW pages are not meant to be "downloaded" and printed out at home or in a computer laboratory but (a) they are meant to be read in the required printed form and (b) checked for the updates that will be added throughout the entire semester: it is in the updating this Guidebook that the WWW is "alive" (as well as this course and, indeed, all education) and evolving through time. Please note that the pages in this Guidebook do contain numerous links appropriate for various weeks of the semester-long course (and some links will eventually guide you to sample exams, streaming videos, and Power Point presentations!).

THE READER MAY WELL ASK: Why make these "printed pages" (gasp!) available on the WWW? Why did Urbanowicz go through all-of-the-trouble to place this on the WWW if it is not an interactive course? As The Wall Street Journal on July 20, 1998 pointed out: "It Isn't Entertainment That Makes The Web Shine: It's Dull Data" (Page 1 and page A8). Although I trust that you have not purchased a bound volume of "dull data" but a volume of ideas (with data) I also add that for more than a decade I have been providing my students (in varous lower-and-upper-division courses) with Guidebooks that have "video notes" and "lecture outlines" for the appropriate course that semester. Human beings are "visual creatures" and I use NUMEROUS films, slides, and Power Points (most of which are not included on these web pages) in my classes and since I am comfortable with the Guidebook format, I continue to place the Guidebook on "the web" (with numerous links) for students. I encourage all readers of these pages to "weigh" all of the information very carefully: contrast and compare what you know with what is being presented and please consider the following from The Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11):

"Who invented the telephone? Microsoft Corp's Encarta multimedia encyclopedia on CD-ROM has an answer to that simple question. Rather, two answers. Consult the U.S., U.K., or German editions of Encarta and you find the expected one: Alexander Graham Bell. But look at the Italian version and the story is strikingly different. Credit goes to Antonio Meucci, an impoverished Italian-American candlemaker who, as the Italian-language Encarta tells it, beat Bell to the punch by five years. Who's right? Depends on where you live. ... in the age of the Internet, the issue of adapting products to local markets is raising trickier problems. Technology and globalization are colliding head-on with another powerful force: history. Perhaps nowhere is this conflict more apparent than in information as with Microsoft's Encarta, which has nine different editions, including one in British English and one in American. It's Microsoft's peculiar accomplishment that it has so mastered the adaptation of its products to different markets that they reflect different, sometimes contradictory, understandings of the same historical events. 'You basically have to rewrite all of the content,' says Dominique Lempereur, who, from her Paris office, oversees the expansion of Microsoft's education-related products to foreign markets. 'The translation is almost an accessory.' ... Consistency is clearly not Encarta's goal, and that's something of a controversial strategy. Encyclopedia Britannica, for example, has a policy of investigating contradictions across its editions and deciding on a standard presentation. Where it can establish a fact that is internationally solid, 'we go with that, and present other interpretations as need be,' says Dale Holberg, Britannica's editor in Chicago. His staff has looked into the Meucci question. Their verdict: Bell still gets the credit, world-wide, for inventing and patenting the electric telephone. ... Microsoft, as a technology conglomerate, has an interest in not stirring up controversies that endanger the sale of its other products. But the universaility of the Web also frustrates efforts to localize content. And there remains the possibility that it will bring about pressure for one universally aplicable version of history. Perhaps one day Mr. Meucci will share space with Alexander Graham Bell in all of the Encartas [stress added]." Kevin J. Delaney, 1999, Microsoft's Encarta Has Different Facts For Different Folks. The Wall Street Journal, June 25, 1999, page 1 & A11. 

ALTHOUGH THE ELECTRONIC WORLD is changing very rapidly, and one might question the value of the "printed word" (considering the number of "electronic books" currently on "the web" such as the Bible or Darwin and 1000s of other available from sources such as the INCREDIBLE Books on Line and Project Gutenberg), there will always (I honestly believe as of this writing), a place for the "printed page" that you can hold in your hands, that YOU can read in bed, read outside when the electricity goes off, or read when you can't make an Internet connection to read the Web pages located in cyberspace! In short, while the ephemeral culture of the WWW is extremely important, the tangible culture of a physical object is just as important and I follow some of the thoughts in the Library of Congress: Litera scripta manet, or the written (or physically published) word endures! Incidentally, as with EVERYTHING, double-check the written (printed) word as well.

PLEASE: the reader of this Guidebook is strongly encouraged to process, question, read, search, and think about various issues and ideas throughout the semester and perhaps come to an understanding of how you relate to anthropology and how anthropology relates to you! As Clark Kerr stated: "The university is not engaged in making ideas safe for students. It is engaged in making students safe for ideas [stress added]." The University and the Internet and the World Wide Web and Cyberspace are changing the very environment "we" all interact in and the "web" should point to new sources to provide you with new thoughts. This is how I have personally envisioned this web-related web-related Guidebook (of ~78,796 words): it is a GUIDE to other resources to explore on your own to prepare for your individual futures. Please consider your own age, where you wish to go in the future, and please ponder the following:

"It's a cliche of the digital age: Parents wonder how children so helpless in the real world can navigate the virtual world with such skill. Using computers is second nature to most kids--and with good reason, according to many neurologists. Being exposed to the wired world at early ages is effectively wiring children's brains differently, giving them an ease and comfort with computers that adults may never match. Will the new millennium see the generation gap turn into the digital divide? ... The cognitive gap is likely to continue well into the future, even as today's cyberkids become tomorrow's parents. While kids are growing up with brains well suited to the digital world of today, as adults they are likely to face the difficult task of adapting to a future where technology evolves even more rapidly--and more profoundly--than it does today [stress added]." Yocki J. Dreazen & Rachel Emma Silverman, 2000, Raised In Cyberspace. January 1, 2000, The Wall Street Journal, page R47.

FINALLY, please think about these words and why I may have chosen them:

"Knowledge, we have to realize, is not fixed in stone. It is ephemeral and exists only so long as we pump it with meaning. It is merely part of the mad, vaporous wheel of existence, an ongoing cycle of discovering and forgetting, of lurching forward and then stumbling back and standing up again and taking everything we think we know and packing it into a little puffy snowball and hurling it at the head of the Future in the hopes that the Future will turn around and unbutton its liquid trench coat and show us something surprising. Or maybe just laugh and return fire. It's pretty much all we can do. How many thousands of species are as yet undiscovered in the world's oceans? How many tens of thousands of undiscovered plants and animals exist in the rain forest? What about the capacity of the human mind, the mystery of the dream state or the immensity of space, the knowledge that the tiny portion of our galaxy we've been able to see and measure, our entire solar system is merely the equivalent of a grain of sand on the edge of a beach stretching for roughly 1 billion miles. Are you exercising the muscle of wonder? Is this synapse firing in your head every damn day? Are you aware of how much you are not aware of and are you completely humbled and amused and made drunk and giddy and turned on by this fact? Because let me tell you, it is easy to forget [stress added]." Mark Morford, 2006, Awakening pinch from a mysterious new crustacean. The San Francisco Chronicle, March 17, 2006, pages E6+E8, page E8.

"If by some fiat I had to restrict all this writing to one sentence, this is the one I would choose: The summit of Mt. Everest is marine limestone." John McPhee, 1998, Annals of the Former World (NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux), page 124.

"Every individual matters. Every individual has a role to play. Every individual makes a difference."
Jane Goodall, 1999, 40 Years At Gombe, page 103.
 


ELEVEN SELECTED PACIFIC ESSAYS BY URBANOWICZ FOR ANTH 373, FALL 2007

The pages that follow in the printed version of this Fall 2007 Anthropology 373 Guidebook came from various web pages created over the years. (On the web, the essays may be accessed by clicking below.) The essays provides specific Pacific information from various papers and public lectures. I have been a member of the faculty at CSU, Chico, since August 1973. I received my Ph.D. in Anthropology in 1972 from the University of Oregon, based on 1970 and 1971 fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. In 1972-1973, prior to joining the faculty at CSU, Chico, I taught at the University of Minnesota.

Perhaps being born in Jersey City, New Jersey, in 1942, graduating from high school in 1960, commuting to New York City and New York University for 1960-61, flunking out of NYU in 1961, enlisting in the United States Air Force (1961-1965) and getting married in 1963 and ... is why I became an anthropologist! A lot of everything goes into who, what, and why each of us is what we are today and how we do what we do and when and where we do it! Incidentally, I retired after 32 years at CSU, Chico on May 31, 2005 and am participating in the FERP (Faculty Early Retirement Program) and am currently a Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, teaching the fall semester. I also like the words of the columnist/humorist Art Buchwald (1925-2007) who wrote the following in his 2006 book (shortly before he died):

"The thing that is very important, and why I'm writing this book, is that whether they like it or not, everyone is going to go. The big question we still have to ask is not where we're going, but what we were doing here in the first place." Art Buchwald, 2006, Too Soon To Say Goodbye (NY: Random House), page 30.

#1} 1993 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html [Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. For the Anthropology Forum on September 30, 1993, at California State University, Chico.]

#2} 2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html [Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin). For a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-31, 2004, at CSU, Chico.]  

#3} 1998 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pacific/Tasmania.html [Comments on Tasmanian Publications of 1884 and 1973/74].

#4} 1972 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1972TonganPaper.html [Tongan Social Structure: Data From An Ethnographic Reconstruction]. Originally presented on December 2, 1972, at the ASAO [Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania] Symposium that I organized for the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Toronto, Canada.

#5} 1976 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/John_Thomas.html [John Thomas, Tongans, and Tonga! The Tonga Chronicle (July 15, 1976), Nuku'alofa, Tonga, Vol. 13, No. 7: 7.]

#6} 1968 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Malinowski1968.html [Comments on Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942). For the Graduate Seminar (ANTH 507) taken at the University of Oregon in the Fall Quarter of 1968. The original paper was entitled "Notes" and was dated October 29, 1968 and was originally placed on the WWW on December 30,1998.

#7} 1991 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Dec1991.html [Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5.)

#8} 2005 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html [World War II Ends! For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 1.]

#9} 1980 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1980PolynesianPaper.html [Women In The Pacific: Some Polynesian Examples. For the "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25.]

#10} 2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TahitiAndEuropeansFa2004.html [Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook to Gauguin. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 4.]

#11} 2005 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tahiti2005.html [Tahiti: From 1971 to 2004/2005. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, May 5.]

PLEASE NOTE: There are other "Pacific Essays" that I have written and which are available on the web which might be of interest to some. A complete listing of all of my papers, publications, performances, and other professional activities is available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/ReverseChronOrder.html; and, again, various Pacific references are available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/PacificReferences.html.


PEOPLES & CULTURES OF THE PACIFIC:Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres.

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

5 September 1996 = Originally written & presented 30 September 1993(1)

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html]

© For a public presentation on September 30, 1993, for the "Anthropology Forum" at California State University, Chico. The WWW version has not been modified since that date, save for the creation of a few "links" for this WWW electronic version and the additional of a few extra printed references.

INTRODUCTION
PEOPLING AND PREHISTORY
THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE AREA
THE 20TH CENTURY AND CONCLUSIONS
SOME ADDITIONAL PACIFIC SPECIFICS: BOOKS & SIMPLY SOME ELECTRONIC LINKS!

INTRODUCTION

Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres.

The phrase, which is clearly based on Gaius Julius Caesar's [100-44B.C.] "Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres; quarum unam incolunt Belgae," is my personal rendition for creating the "traditional" anthropological division of the "Pacific" into three major culture areas: Polynesia (bounded by Hawai'i to the north of the Equator and Easter island and the islands of New Zealand south of the equator), Melanesia, and the area called Micronesia. Australia (but not southeast Asia) also briefly discussed.

PEOPLING AND PREHISTORY

Homo Sapiens migrated out of Southeast Asia thousands of years ago and we were in Australia ~40,000 years ago; one individual suggests human occupation in Australia as far back as 120,000 years ago, but "at present there is no solid evidence to prove the presence of humans in Australia much before 40,000 years ago" (Josephine Flood, 1990, The Riches of Australia: A Journey Into Prehistory, page 19). Homo Sapiens entered New Guinea ~25,000 years ago and we were in Tonga, and islands of Samoa ~1140 B.C. (and thence to rest of Polynesia). Tremendous distances covered with excellent technology of the day.

"To hail Europeans as discoverers of the Pacific Islands is ungracious as well as inaccurate. While they were still moving around in their small, landlocked Mediterranean Sea or hugging the Atlantic shores of Europe and Africa, Pacific Islanders were voyaging hundreds of open-sea miles in their canoes and populating most of the vast Pacific's far-flung islands" (Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands [Third Edition], page 19).

The term "peopling" also includes the Chinese, European (and eventually American explorers of the Pacific): various European voyagers (Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, and English). The most important explorer was Captain James Cook (1728-1779) of the British Royal Navy and his three major voyages of 1768-1771, 1772-1775, and 1776-1780.

THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE AREA

Anthropologists look at language, mythology and religion, as well as kinship, social organization and other aspects of the concept of "culture" to "create" the three designated culture areas. However, islands called "Polynesian outliers" (although physically located in Micronesia or Melanesia) have Polynesian cultural characteristics. Useful organizing principles come from 1970 publication by Irving Goldman entitled Ancient Polynesian Society: concepts of mana, toa, and tohunga; also see the 1958 work of Marshall Sahlins entitled Social Stratification in Polynesia.

THE 20TH CENTURY AND CONCLUSIONS

World War II was the greatest cultural phenomenon to strike this planet in our lifetime(s) and repercussions are still occurring, including culture change, nationalism, and tourism. Islanders are no longer isolated and anthropologists are analyzing much of the earlier research of certain individuals; see, for example, the publications of Biersask (1991), Foerstel & Gilliam (1992), Stanner (1989), and Weiner (1988).

Historians are also raising interesting questions about World War II in the Pacific, and two specific items are called to your attention: John J. Stephen's 1984 publication entitled Hawaii Under The Rising Sun: Japan's Plans For Conquest After Pearl Harbor and Robert K. Wilcox's 1985 item entitled Japan's Secret War. Future research should be directed to changes in Hawai'i and the call for "native sovereignty" by some native Hawai'ians, and items such as Michael Kioni Dudley and Keonia Kealoha Agard's 1990 publication entitled A Hawaiian Nation II: A Call For Sovereignty and Jocelyn Linnekin and Lin Poyer's 1990 edited publication entitled Cultural Identity And Ethnicity In The Pacific.

Regular reading of Pacific Islands Monthly (PIM), available Current Periodicals (and bound) in The Meriam Library is strongly encourage for information about Pacific Islanders. Some 1993 articles covered police brutality in American Samoa as well as housing problems in New Caledonia (July 1993), the future of the islands (August 1993) as well as economic problems in Saipan (September 1993). Other interesting publications about the Pacific include The Centre for South Pacific Studies Newsletter (Centre for South Pacific Studies, The University of New South Wales, Kensington NSW 2033, Australia) and Tok Blong SPPF: A Quarterly of News and Views on the Pacific Islands (415-620 View Street, Victoria B.C., Canada V8W 1J6). (2)

More people than I have termed the 21st Century the "Pacific Century" and this is certainly true!


[PLEASE NOTE: "SOME ADDITIONAL PACIFIC SPECIFICS: I} BOOKS & SIMPLY SOME ELECTRONIC LINKS!" have been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]

1© [All Rights Reserved] This handout was originally created on September 30, 1993, for a public presentation on that date at the "Anthropology Forum" at California State University, Chico. It has not been modified since that date, save for the creation of a few "links" for this WWW electronic version and the additional of a few extra printed references. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

(2) Please note: when this brief presentation was made in September 1993, the University still did subscribe to PIM (as well as other journals); as a result of budgetary constraints, the subscription was eliminated and only older bound issues of PIM are available in The Meriam Library at California State University, Chico. Hence, the September 4, 1996 addition of some electronic "links" to some specific Pacific locations (something which was not possible in 1993!); in addition to the electronic links, some additional post-1993 publications have also been listed below. To return to the final section of this paper ("Books & Electronic Links"), please click here.


MAPPING THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC: ISLANDERS AND OTHERS (INCLUDING COOK AND DARWIN).

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz/Professor of Anthropology

30 April 2004 [1]

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html]

(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the WWW on April 30, 2004, for a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-30, 2004, at CSU, Chico. My appreciation goes to Ms. Debra Besnard and Mr. Stan Griffith and their "Digital Asset Management Project" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico for the work they did for some of my slides used today. This presentation draws upon an earlier paper presented at The Anthropology Forum on November 6, 2003. That presentation (and some of the visuals) may be seen at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DestinationPolynesia.html.

ABSTRACT: The Pacific Ocean represents one-third of the globe and it was explored and colonized by indigenous inhabitants well before the Europeans "discovered" and mapped the islands for the entire world to "discover" and explore.

This presentation (with selected visuals) will touch upon some of the islands (and islanders) who lived and traveled through this part of the globe. Some of the latest discoveries (and controversies concerning anthropological research will also be discussed).

In writing about the Pacific (in addition to the indigenous inhabitants) one must be sure to mention the celebrated Captain James Cook, R.N. (1728-1779) as well as my favorite, Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882). Both of these Europeans, as well as numerous others, irrevocably changed the islands (and islanders) of the Pacific.

Visual Source: http://www.ck/people.htm; and see K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First Discovered And Settled The Pacific Islands? (University of Hawai'i Press), page 68.

 

ABSTRACT (Above)

I. INTRODUCTION
II. EUROPEANS AND "DIVISIONS" OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS
III. THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE AREA AND PREHISTORY
IV. PREHISTORY AND PEOPLE
V. CULTURE CHANGE IN THE PACIFIC
VI. DARWIN IN THE PACIFIC
VII. CONCLUSIONS
VIII. SOME VERY SELECTED STATISTICS
IX. ONLY SOME SPECIFIC VISUALS

I. INTRODUCTION

"As the Spanish proverb says, 'He [or she], who would bring home the wealth of the Indies, must carry the wealth of the Indies with him.' So it is in travelling; a man must carry the wealth of the Indies with him, if he would bring home knowledge.' BOSWELL. 'The proverb, I suppose, Sir, means he must carry a large stock with him to trade with.' JOHNSON. 'Yes Sir.'" James Boswell [1740-1795], 1791, The Life of Samuel Johnson (NY: [1968] Signet Classic), page 467.

I received my Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Oregon in 1972 and my own expertise in the Pacific developed as a result of graduate courses, combined with library research (California, Hawai'i, Australia, and New Zealand), and fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1970 and 1971) more than three decades ago! I have not returned to Tonga since 1971, but I have been to Hawai'i 26 times since 1970 and have been to Tahiti twice. Since 1970, and through 2003, I have also conducted some very modest research into various issues, including tourism, in the Pacific islands of Tasmania, New Zealand, Fiji, Western Samoa, and American Samoa. Additional research into tourism, as well as other issues, was conducted in China (Singapore), Taiwan, Malaysia, and Japan at various points in time in the 1980s. While my prose doesn't necessarily "flow" as it does with some authors, I truly enjoy the words and sentiment of James A. Michener (1907-1997):

"I wish I could tell you about the South Pacific. The way it actually was. The endless ocean. The infinite specks of coral we called islands. Coconut palms nodding gracefully toward the ocean. Reefs upon which waves broke into spray, and inner lagoons lovely beyond description [stress added]." James A. Michener, 1946, Tales of the South Pacific (Fawcett Crest Books), page 9.

II. EUROPEANS AND "DIVISIONS" OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres.

It might seem strange to begin a presentation with European explorers, but were it not for them, we would not be aware of the islanders at all and I shall return to the islanders below. The opening statement above comes from an Anthropology Forum on this campus in 1993 when I invoked the words of Gaius Julius Ceasar's (100-44B.C.] "Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres...." Many anthropologists divide the Pacific into three major culture areas, the first one being Polynesia (bounded by Hawai'i to the north of the Equator, Easter island, and the islands of New Zealand south of the Equator). One then has Melanesia (the islands just north and northeast of Australia) and then the area called Micronesia (or the islands just north of New Guinea and the Equator). This is a big hunk of this planet to so neatly encapsulate when one considers that the Pacific Ocean, so misnamed by Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521), is the largest geographical feature on the planet we call earth.

"On September 20, 1519, Magellan and a crew of 270 men set sail from Spain on their around-the-world voyage in five small vessels including his flagship Trinidad, Concepcion, San Antonio, Victoria, and Santiago. It took the fleet, or at least the three remaining ships in the fleet, 38 days to navigate the strait around South America that was to bear Magellan's name. During the last week of November, the fleet emerged into what Magellan described as a "beautiful, peaceful ocean." Thus, it was named the Pacific Ocean ("pacific" meaning "peaceful.") [stress added]." From: http://www.ocean.udel.edu/extreme2002/Mission/divelocation/pacific.html.

Magellan, born in Portugal in 1480 to a well-to-do-family, was well aware of the riches that would become available in new products could be brought back to Europe in an efficient manner and as Daniel pointed out in 1964:

"The fact is that Portugal had entered upon a period of greatly expanding wealth. With few exceptions, however, those who profited most were not those who did the heavy work or faced the greatest dangers. Almost every ship that returned from India or the even more distant lands, the Portuguese had reached was laden, at least in part, with spices, sandalwood, and other products of the east. Obtained at little cost in a region that was so open, so far as Europe was concerned, only to the Portuguese, such shipments were immensely valuable in the marketplaces of the west. And the Portuguese, profiting now as the Venetians had profited earlier, were accumulating wealth on a scale almost unimaginable a generation earlier [stress added]." Hawthorne Daniel, 1964, Ferdinand Magellan (NY: Doubleday & Co.), page 76.

More recently, Nichols has provided us with the following information:

"The first passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific had been discovered by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan, in 1520. He was looking, as was Columbus, as were they all, for that still elusive western route to the spice islands of the Indies. Columbus died in 1506, never knowing he had not found them. It was the Spaniard Vasco Núñez de Balboa [1475-1519] who, on September 26, 1513, scaled a hilltop on the isthmus of Darien, in what is now Panama, and first saw the South Sea stretching away in limitless distance beyond Columbus's mistaken Orient. This information expanded the known circumference of the world by more than a third. Seven years later, Magellan, seeking access to that South Sea, found a wide, navigable passage between the bottom of the Americas and, below that to the south, a bleak Terra Incognita [stress added]." Peter Nichols, 2003, Evolution's Captain: The Dark Fate of the Man Who Sailed Charles Darwin Around The World (NY: HarperCollins), page 4.

Nichols goes on with the words of Antonio Pigafetta, one who sailed with Magellan:

"We found by a miracle, a strait which we call the strait of the Eleven Thousand Virgins; this strait is a hundred and ten leagues long which are four hundred and forty miles, and almost as wide as less than half a league, and it issues into another sea which is called the peaceful Sea; it is surrounded by very great high mountains covered with snow. I think there is not in the world a more beautiful country, or a better strait than this one [stress added]." Peter Nichols, 2003, Evolution's Captain: The Dark Fate of the Man Who Sailed Charles Darwin Around The World (NY: HarperCollins), pages 4-5.

While Pigafetta was off in his calculations (Nichols points out that the strait is some 310 miles long), it still took Magellan weeks to sail the distance and "his small fleet probably sailed five times that distance" in the process (Peter Nichols, 2003, Evolution's Captain: The Dark Fate of the Man Who Sailed Charles Darwin Around The World (NY: HarperCollins), page 5). While in the Philippines Magellan was killed on the voyage but the trip was completed and the world of the Pacific Islanders (and the rest of the world!) began to change:

"On 6 September 1522, a ship named Vittoria sailed into one of the major ports of Spain, having completed the first-ever round trip of the globe. It was the single surviving vessel of the ill-fated fleet that had set out under Ferdinand Magellan [1480-1521] years earlier. On board were masses of valuable and mysterious products from far-away places. Nutmeg, cloves, and other valuable spices, precious stones, and also two stuffed birds, a present from the Rajah of Bachian (ruler of the island of Tidore in the Moluccas) to the King of Spain. This may seem a meagre gift even by sixteenth-century standards, but what birds they were! Nothing like them had ever been seen in Europe. The plumage was a dazzling palette of fiery red, bright chestnut yellow, deep green, and iridescent yellowish green, completed with two tufts of amazing yellow-and-fawn , long, springy feathers [stress added]." Menno Schilthuizen, 2001, Frogs, Flies, and Dandelions: Speciation--The Evolution of New Species (Oxford University Press), page 35.

In his most delightful and readable 2002 book, Tony Horwitz has the following to say about Pacific explorers:

"Pacific adventurers also showed an unfortunate tendency toward abbreviated careers. Vasco Núñez de Balboa [1475-1519], the first European to sight the ocean, in 1513, was beheaded for treason. Magellan set off in 1519 with five ships and 237 men; only one ship and eighteen men made it home three years later, and Magellan was not present, having been speared in the Philippines. Francis Drake [~1540-1596] the first English circumnavigator, died at sea of dysentery. Vitus Bering [1681-1741], sailng for the czar, perished from exposure after shipwrecking near the frigid sea now named for him; at the last, Bering lay half-buried in sand, to keep warm, while Arctic foxes gnawed at his sick and dying men. Other explorers simply vanished. Or went mad [stress added]." Tony Horwitz, 2002, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before (NY: Henry Holt And Company), page 14.

There were dangers for explorers (and islanders alike) but the Pacific was changed! Incidentally, it is to be noted that the name of "Magellan" still conjures up exploration in the 21st century:

"But to fulfill such dreams [of space exploration], the nation should revamp how it explores space--specifically, by bankrolling small, start-up space-exploration firms whose entrepreneurs will risk everything they have for a chance to become the Magellans of the 21st century....[stress added]." Keay Davidson, 2004, Imagination takes flight on wings of space visionaries. The San Francisco Chronicle, April 19, 2004, page A4.

Finally, this cursory overview of European explorers of the Pacific islands would not be complete without mentioning some other individuals and the islands that they "discovered" whilst in this "pacific" ocean: Alvaro de Saavedra (????-1529), discoverer of the Marshall Islands in 1527; Ruy Lopez de Villalobos (1500-1544), discoverer of the Caroline Islands in 1543; Alvaro de Mendaña (1541-1596), discoverer of the Ellice Islands and the Solomon Islands in 1567 and the Marquesan Islands in 1595. (Note: this is not a typographical error: they were discovered by de Mendaña 28 years apart when he was on another voyage.) There was also Pedro Fernandez de Quiros (1565-1615), discoverer of the Tuamotu Atolls and the New Hebrides in 1606; Cornelis Schouten (1580-1625) and Jakob LeMaire (1585-1616), discoverers of the Tongan Islands in 1616; Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603-1659), discoverer of Tasmania and New Zealand in 1642 and another part of the Tongan Islands and the Fiji Islands in 1643; Jacob Roggeveen (1645-1706), discoverer of Easter Island and the Samoan Islands in 1722; John Byron (1723-1786), another discoverer of Tuamotu in 1765; Samuel Wallis (1726-1795), discoverer of the islands of Tahiti, Moorea; and Wallis Island in 1767; and Philip Carteret (1733-1796) discoverer of Pitcairn Island in 1768. Clearly then, when other explorers followed (discussed below) they were building on an extensive information base which they clearly added to! An interesting and useful "jumping-off point for further information concerning "exploration" in the Pacific is available at http://www.win.tue.nl/cs/fm/engels/discovery/pacific.html [Discoverers Web: The Pacific & Australia]. 

III. THE CONCEPT OF CULTURE AREA AND PREHISTORY

"The barbarous heathen are nothing more strange to us than we are to them.... Human reason is a tincture in like weight and measure infused into all our opinions and customs, what form soever they be, infinite in matter, infinite in diversity [stress added]." Michel Eyquem de Montaigne [1533-1592], Essays, page 53 [1959 paperback publication of a translation from 1603].

Anthropologists look at numerous variables (such as language, mythology, religion, as well as kinship and social organization) to establish what have been termed "culture areas" in order to work with people. In the Pacific these have been designated as Polynesia, Melanesia, and Micronesia; but as the excellent 1989 South Pacific Handbook by David Stanley pointed out:

"The term Polynesia was coined by Charles de Brosses [1709-1777] in 1756 and applied to all the Pacific islands. The present restricted use was proposed by Dumont D'Urville [1790-1842] during a famous lecture at the Geographical Society of Paris in 1831. At the same time he also proposed the terms Melanesia and Micronesia for the regions which still bear those names [stress added]." David Stanley, 1989, South Pacific Handbook (Chico, CA: Moon Publications, Inc.), page 51.

These "divisions" should be used, however, with caution:

"The terms Polynesia, Melanesia and Micronesia should also be used carefully. This three-way division was first used by Dumont D'Urville [1790-1842] in the 1820s, and the terms came into currency after the mid-nineteenth century. These remain useful to designate broad geographic regions but they should not be seen, as they once were, as denoting cultural regions, since to do so is to continue with a range of nineteenth-century racial assumptions and classifications [stress added]." K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First Discovered And Settled The Pacific Islands? (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press), page 25.

One soon discovers that there are islands called "Polynesian outliers" (physically located in Micronesia or Melanesia) which have Polynesian cultural characteristics. Useful organizing principles for analyzing Polynesian data come from the 1958 work of Marshall Sahlins entitled Social Stratification in Polynesia wherein he looks at the environment as a key explanatory principle for interpreting Polynesian cultures; there is also the 1970 publication by Irving Goldman entitled Ancient Polynesian Society wherein Goldman discusses the concepts of mana, toa, and tohunga to explain Polynesian cultures. Patrick V. Kirch, an eminent scholar of the Pacific, neatly summarizes their points of view:

"Whereas Sahlins saw Polynesian societies building upon an ecological foundation, Irving Goldman (1955 [Status rivalry and cultural evolution in Polynesia. American Anthropologist 57: 680-697], 1970) presented an opposite, though complementary perspective, that these societies were moulded by 'status rivalry' inherent in their aristocratic political structures....The ecological perspective of Sahlins and the structural orientation of Goldman together contribute elements for a more sophisticated and compelling theory of Polynesian evolution [stress added]." Patrick V. Kirch, The evolution of the Polynesian chiefdoms (Cambridge University Press), page 11.

Discussions on the Pacific will go on for years and numerous researchers have worked in the Pacific and "Polynesia" has always been a fascinating topic and Sahlins and Goldman do complement one another and are well worth looking at.

The islands of Tonga were contacted and settled by Pacific islanders by ~1140 B.C., and then the islanders traversed the largest geographical feature on this planet. Pacific islanders reached the islands that we call New Zealand by ~1300 A .D., settled what we call Easter Island by ~300 A.D., and finally reached the islands called Hawai'i by ~400 A.D. Along the way, other islands were discovered and settled, including the islands of Tahiti (part of what is called "French Polynesia" today). In 1989, David Stannard pointed out the following and asked the intriguing question:

"Hawai'i was one of the last areas in Polynesia to have been settled by humans, and it is generally believed that there was little or no in-migration between the time of the first settlements and possible in-migration from Tahiti around the 12th century A.D. Since it is often assumed that the first settlers numbered, at most, in only the low to mid-hundreds, is it possible for a population of 800,000 or 1,000,000--or even more--to have been attained by 1778? [stress added]." David Stannard, 1989, Before The Horror: The Population of Hawai'i On The Eve of Western Contact (University of Hawai'i: Social Science Research Institute), page 32.

Stannard believes it was possible and massive population changes did come about in the Pacific and not only in Hawai'i! 

IV. PREHISTORY AND PEOPLE

"Travel teaches seven important lessons [according to Arthur Frommer, age 76, author of travel books].... 1. Travelers learn that all people in the world are basically alike. ... 2. Travelers discover that everyone regards himself or herself as wiser and better than other people in the world. ... 3. Travel makes us care about strangers. ... 4. Travel teaches that not everyone shares your beliefs. ... 5. Travelers learn that there is more than one solution to a problem. ... 6. Travel teaches you to be a minority. ... 7. Travel teaches humility." Larry Bleiberg, 2003, Among Travel's Seven Important Lessons is Humility. The Sacramento Bee, February 2, 2003, page M3.

Human beings migrated out of Southeast Asia thousands of years ago and were in Australia perhaps as far back as 62,000 years ago. An excellent recent 2003 publication by K.R. Howe has a nice summary statement on migration routes:

"Only homo sapiens left the Eurasian landmass. If we focus on the broad region of East and Southeast Asia, these modern people were there by 60,000 years ago, and probably earlier. ... The moderns crossed this waterway [out of Southeast Asia], possibly on bamboo rafts, and reached what is now northern Australia some 60,000 years ago. They reached the rest of what is now mainland Australia by 38,000 years ago, and Tasmania by 34,000 years ago. They were also in eastern regions of New Guinea early on, with settlement dates of at least 45,000 years ago. They demonstrated an amazing adaptability, and successfully colonised a range of environments from tropical highlands to sandy deserts to sub-antarctic climes. ... Evidence of their presence, from about 40,000 years ago, has been variously located in New Britain, New Ireland, Manus and as far south as Buka in the Solomon Islands [stress added]." K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First Discovered And Settled The Pacific Islands? (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press), pages 64-65.

Some have suggested that human occupation of Australia occurred far back as 176,000 years ago.

"The evidence itself is, however, constantly changing or being modified. As we go to press new claims are being made of a radically early chronology for the prehistory of Australia. From the site of Jinmium in the Kimberly of northwestern Australia have been reported fallen panels of rock art engravings dated at between 58,000 and 75,000 years ago, and stone artefacts at between 116,000 and 176,000 years ago [stress added]." Harry Lourandos, 1997, Continent of Hunter-Gatherers: New Perspectives in Australian Prehistory (Cambridge University Press), page xv.

We can trace the migration of humans out of Southeast Asia, through the islands of Melanesia, and eventually into Micronesia and Polynesia. As the map at the beginning of the paper indicates, the archaeological "dates" become more recent as one moves from West to East across the Pacific. Modern humans were in what we now call the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga by approximately ~1140 B.C. and for various reasons (population pressure or the desire to explore or whatever!) they continued on to rest of Polynesia. Tremendous distances were covered with the excellent technology of the day and regular contact occurred between various island groups well before Europeans "discovered" the islands:

"The Melanesian and Polynesian chiefdoms of on Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga also maintained regular contacts. Tonga, an archipelago of small but fertile islands, was a maritme chiefdom, in the process of becoming a maritime empire. Its rulers built kinship networks and exchanged prestige over long distances. This was the core of a web under construction in the fifteenth century. It was more political than commercial [stress added]." J.R. McNeill & William H. McNeill, 2003, The Human Web: A Bird's-Eye View of World History (NY: W.W. Norton & Co.), page 160.

The aforementioned Kirch has also pointed out some of the problems when we attempt to have "neat" divisions of the Pacific, such as Fiji (in "Melanesia") and Tonga/Samoa (in "Polynesia"):

"There is ample evidence--archaeological, linguistic, and cultural--that the peoples of Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Futuna, Lau, and other smaller islands in this part of the Central Pacific had regular exchanges (material, social, and genetic) throughout prehistory. Patrick Vinton Kirch, 2000, On The Road of the Winds: An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands before European Contact (Berkeley: University of California Press), page 156.

Much can be written about the Pacific Islanders of the past (and much more will be written in the future); and if you are interested in some excellent "handbooks" for the Pacific, one of which I used as an assigned textbook in my "Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific" class years ago, please see http://www.southpacific.org/pacific.html for a complete listing of "Moon Handbooks South Pacific." 

V. CULTURE CHANGE IN THE PACIFIC

"To hail Europeans as discoverers of the Pacific Islands is ungracious as well as inaccurate. While they were still moving around in their small, landlocked Mediterranean Sea or hugging the Atlantic shores of Europe and Africa, Pacific Islanders were voyaging hundreds of open-sea miles in their canoes and populating most of the vast Pacific's far-flung islands [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands [Third Edition], page 19.

The term "peopling" in this paper, as I use the term, includes not only the indigenous inhabitants who first discovered the various islands in the Pacific, but also the Asian, European, and eventually American explorers of the Pacific: there were numerous voyagers (Americans, Spanish, Chinese, Dutch, English, Portuguese, and Spanish, who explored the Pacific and made various "discoveries" as briefly mentioned above. Chinese exploration in the Pacific, and indeed, throughout the world (!) were recently brought to light in the (still controversial) 2002 publication of Gavin Menzies entitled 1421: The Year China Discovered America. The earliest European explorers were after new raw materials for the growing population of Europe and they also sought to find the mythical "southern continent" (needed to balance out the northern lands). It is generally recognized that the most important explorer for the Pacific was Captain James Cook (1728-1779) of the British Royal Navy. Cook's three voyages of 1768-1771, 1772-1775, and 1776-1780, firmly placed various "Pacific Islands" (and Pacific Islanders) onto the European map of the world. As Nicholas Thomas stated it in his interesting book 2003 Cook: The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook (NY: Walker & Co.):

"Cook found not only lands and islands unknown to Europeans, but also people who already knew this islands intimately, whose ancestors had lived and died on them. Cook was a master of techniques that enabled him to determine the orientation of a coast, the height of a mountain and the position of a reef--and to transcribe the whole to a chart [stress added]." Nicholas Thomas, 2003, Cook: The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook (NY: Walker & Co.), page xx.

Cook was an exploring genius and has been recognized as such by numerous individuals:

"Cook, by the time of this third [1775-1780] and, as it would turn out, final voyage, had acquired the reputation of being an immaculate navigator and seaman, and a brilliant manager of men. His far-ranging accounts of his voyages, moreover, revealed a remarkable respect for the foreign peoples he met, and a striking reluctance to condemn outright even those alien practices that his own culture held to be immoral [stress added]." Caroline Alexander, 2003, The Bounty: The True Story of the Mutiny on the Bounty (NY: Viking), pages 129-130.

As Horwitz points out, Cook's discoveries (or lack of same) were also very important:

"While Cook had failed to find the fabled southern continent, his circling of the globe, near its southernmost latitude, demolished forever the fantasy that a land of plenty girdled the bottom of the world [stress added]." Tony Horwitz, 2002, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before (NY: Henry Holt And Company), page 220.

The publication of the account of Cook's discoveries however, and his murder on the big island of Hawai'i on February 14, 1779, eventually contributed to the great "Evangelical Revival" which sent missionaries into the Pacific (the first being sent to the islands of Tahiti in 1797). The distinguished anthropologist Douglas Oliver pointed out in his 1989 publication entitled The Pacific Islands that "economic more than political events had their repercussions in Oceania" as Europeans sought natural resources throughout the area (page 100). Whalers, fur traders, and others who sought supplies from the islanders soon flocked into the Pacific and chief among them were the missionaries:

"...an entirely new influence was at work in Oceania--for better or for worse, depending upon the point of view. Protestant activity began in the islands with the arrival in Tahiti, in 1797, of the ship Duff carrying a band of London Missionary Society evangelists and craftsmen. Back of this enterprise was the proselytizing fervor of the English Evangelical revival and the tacit support of the Colonial ministry. The Duff pioneers first applied their persuasions and good works to the top of the Tahitian hierarchy, shrewdly recognizing that conversions would spread quicker downward. The strategy worked, and within twenty years one of the strongest chiefs and all his followers were gathered into the fold [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands, page 109.

In his interesting 1991 novel, David Lodge has an apt description of a 20th century person flying to Hawai'i that makes one think of the 18th century explorers and missionaries:

"Staring at the great blue bowl of the Pacific, held in the green, curving arms of Asia and the Americas, he realized that he knew very little at all about the history and geography of this side of the globe. His education, his work, his whole lie and outlook, had been imprinted with the shape of a much smaller and more populous sea, the Mediterranean. How far had the early growth of Christianity depended on the assumption of believers that they lived at the 'centre of the world? [stress added].'" David Lodge, 1991, Paradise News (NY: Viking), page 26.

Indigenous inhabitants also assisted in changing their own cultures as a result of missionary interactions and as I have written elsewhere, specifically concerning the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga::

"Much has been written about various Europeans and their influence in introducing Christianity to Tonga, but it should be pointed out that an incident took place on Tongatapu in April 1826 which might have been something which made the way easier for [the Wesleyan missionaries] Thomas and Hutchinson. In April 1826 two Tahitian teachers of the London Missionary Society stopped at Tongatapu en route to Fiji. The two Tahitians, Hape and Tafeta, were accompanied by a Fijian who had been converted to the LMS Christianity in Tahiti, and one Tongan who had also been converted in Tahiti. The Tongan also had his Tahitian wife with him. This small group of LMS [London Missionary Society] converts was persuaded to stay in Nuku'alofa by Aleamotu'a and, what is more important, they received his protection. Settled in the area, Hape and Tafeta began to teach the Tongans using a Tahitian translation of the Bible. The two Tahitians, with the assistance of the Tongans, constructed the first church in Tonga and opened the first school. One 20th Century Wesleyan Missionary to Tonga, the Reverend E. E. V. Collocott, once wrote that "these two Pacific Islanders, Hape and Tafeta, are the real founders of the Christian Church in Tonga." (In his unpublished manuscript entitled The Chalice of Life which is available in the Mitchell Library: B1450.) Islanders have always been important in the Christianization of the Pacific. ... The evidence is quite clear that if Tongans had not assisted the various European missionaries who landed in Tonga, the missions would never have been firmly established. This should be of interest to all who have an abiding interest in Tongan history and culture [stress added]." Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1976, The Tonga Chronicle [Nuku'alofa, Tonga], July 15, 1976, page 7; also available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/John_Thomas.html.

In placing things into perspective, when one writes about "People" of the Pacific, there is no way to avoid the impact of the aforementioned Captain James Cook (1728-1779) and what impact his Pacific exploration had on the islanders of the Pacific. One must also consider the impact his written reports had on Europeans of the day. Cook was the most important explorer of the Pacific. There were, however, other explorers who had their impact on the islanders (and our interpretation of the islanders), including Bougainville (1729-1811] of France and the American Captain Charles Wilkes (1798-1877). Cook provided us with the (almost) definitive map of the Pacific, Bougainville provided the "romance" of the islands, and Wilkes (in addition to providing specimens for the then fledgling Smithsonian institution) made a fantastic exploring expedition (1838-1842) across the Pacific to firmly give us a view of island life! But it was Cook who did the most amazing job!

Cook was murdered in Hawai'i in 1779 but other voyagers also contributed to our knowledge of the Pacific; consider, for example, Bougainville who voyaged around the world in 1767-1769 and visited Tahiti on the trip. The islands of Tahiti were first contacted by the British in 1767:

"The first recorded European to sight Me'etia (Maitea, Mehetia, etc.) ["the easternmost and geologically youngest island in the Society Archipelago"] was H.M.S. Dolphin, on June 17th 1767, during a voyage in search of new lands (including a fabled 'Southern Continent', which many Europeans believed to exist in the pacific between New Zealand and Cape Horn--a belief based partly on the theory that a large land mass in the southern Hemisphere was essential for the stability of the global Earth). Wallis [1728-1795], Dolphin's Commander, named Me'etia 'Osnaburg' Island, for the second son of George III [1738-1820], Frederick Augustus, who had been elected Bishop of Osnabrug (also Osnaburg) at the age of six months. Philip Carteret, whose sloop, Swallow, was to have accompanied Dolphin throughout the expedition but which went on alone after being separated from her in Magellan Straits, applied the name 'Osnaburg' to another island discovered by him. That was the Tuamotuan Island, Mururoa, of present-day nuclear-testing notoriety. In John Beaglehole's words: 'Cook's English predecessors were more notable for loyalty to the house of Hanover than for romance in their choice of names'. [J.C. Beaglehole, The Journals of Captain Cook on his Voyage of Discovery, 3 volumes] (1955: 72n). ... Following the Dolphin, Me'etia was sighted from Bougainville's ships in April 1968 [sic! 1768!] (and named by Bougainville 'Le Boudoir') and again from the Endeavour a year later.... [stress added]." Douglas Oliver, 1988, Return To Tahiti: Bligh's Second Breadfruit Voyage (Honolulu: university of Hawai'i Press), page 36.

Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) probably did more than any other voyager to create the image of the islands of love in the South Pacific.

"Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti Island in 1768. He stayed on the island for several months, bringing with him the first French influence. He named Tahiti "La Nouvelle Cythere", after the birthplace of the Greek goddess of love [Kythera, or Cerigo as it was once termed] [stress added]." [from: http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/t/te_ao_maohi.html]

"Over the years the romance of the legendary South Seas has been elaborated by a succession of famous writers who came in search of Bougainville's [1729-1811] 'Nouvelle Cythere' or Rousseau's [1712-1778] 'noble savage.' Brought to the stage or silver screen, their stories entered the popular imagination alongside Gauguin's [1848-1903] rich images [stress added]." David Stanley, 1989, South Pacific Handbook (Chico, CA: Moon Publications, Inc.), page 59. 

Another source tells us the following about Bougainville:

"Eighteenth Century French Sailor, Soldier, Statesman, Mathematician and leader of a Voyage around the world. The French Sailor, Soldier, Statesman and Mathematician, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville [1729-1811], was one of the most interesting characters of the Eighteenth Century. Born in Paris in 1729, he led a voyage around the world in the 1760s which had far-reaching repercussions in the way European Society perceived life in the Pacific. The notion of the "Noble savage" had some of its roots in the reports given by members of Bougainville's expedition of their short time on the island of Tahiti [stress added]." From: http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~boug1.html.

In his most informative 1960 publication entitled European Vision And the South Pacific 1768-1850: A Study In The History Of Art And Ideas, Bernard Smith writes the following about Bougainville:

"...the French navigator, Louis de Bougainville, who visited Tahiti in April 1768, a year before Cook, compared the Tahitians to Greek gods. 'I never saw men better made, and whose limbs were more proportionate: in order to paint Hercules or a Mars, one could nowhere find such beautiful models [stress added].'" Bernard Smith, 1960, European Vision And the South Pacific 1768-1850: A Study In The History Of Art And Ideas (Oxford University Press), page 25.

As Smith writes, "Bougainville had called Tahiti la Nouvelle Cythere, and the island became notorious throughout Europe in the popular mind as a land of free-love" (Bernard Smith, 1960, European Vision And the South Pacific 1768-1850: A Study In The History Of Art And Ideas (Oxford University Press), page 30). In writing about other voyagers to Tahiti, Smith has the following concerning Joseph Banks [1743-1820] who accompanied Cook on his first voyage over the years 1768-1771:

"Banks was just as enthusiastic; to him as to Bougainville, Tahiti was the Golden Age come again. The sexual freedoms of the people, filled him with admiration and delight, but in his English way, he was more circumspect about it than the Frenchman. His private opinions are nowhere better expressed than in the short paper which he wrote for Count Bentinck (while visiting Holland in 1773) in order to amuse the Princess of Orange. He called it Thoughts on the manners of Otaheite. Banks claimed that Tahitian women were the most elegant in the world. European ladies outvied them in complexion, but in all else the Tahitians were superior [stress added]. Bernard Smith, 1960, European Vision And the South Pacific 1768-1850: A Study In The History Of Art And Ideas (Oxford University Press), page 25.

It is clear from reading the primary journals of the explorers and the secondary publications written about them that the Europeans did create a vision of the South Pacific (that exists to the 21st century). Leaving the English and French aside, the American Smithsonian Institution is a wonderful establishment and the story of its creation in the 19th century is well-worth repeating:

"In 1829 English scientist James Smithson [1765-1829] left his fortune to the people of the United States to found an institution for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge." Smithson's impetus in providing for a research and educational institution in a new country on another continent remains a mystery. His bequest sparked widespread debate over what such a national institution might be. Once established, the Smithsonian Institution became part of the process of developing the U.S. national identity." [from: http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Smithson-to-Smithsonian/intro.html]

The "national identity" of the United States of America continues to change to this day, and so does the Smithsonian, as the following from October 2003 points out:

"He sought immortality for his name, but even a man as obsessed with social standing as James Smithson [1765-1829] would be staggered by what his cryptic bequest has wrought: the Smithsonian Institution, the biggest, richest, most powerful museum complex in the world, which helped put the fledgling USA on the world's cultural and scientific map. Not bad for a half-million bucks and some change, considering a lot of Americans at the time didn't want a dime from perfidious Britain. (The British had burned the White House and Capitol only a couple of decades earlier.) Plus, years went by while Congress argued about whether to accept the gift. So here we are, 157 years later, and the mighty Smithsonian--looking a little dated, a little shabby and still many say, chronically underfunded by Capitol Hill--is about to undergo some of the most important changes to its size, content and appearance in decades. ... 'The nation's attic,' as it is affectionately known, is about to expand, a long display of ever more goodies from its stash of 143.5 million objects. Two new museums are opening in the next year; two others will reopen in three years after multimillion-dollar renovations; and popular permanent exhibits will open soon after major updates. There is also talk that proposed national museums of African-American and Latino-American culture eventually will come under the aegis of the Smithsonian [stress added]." Maria Puente, 2003, Smithsonian Spruces Up. USA Today, October 20, 2003, pages D1 and D 2.

The aforementioned Wilkes certainly made his contribution to the creation of the Smithsonian in the 19th century:

"The United States Exploring Expedition of 1838-42 is a milestone in American science. Often referred to as the Wilkes Expedition, this expedition brought back to the United States a wealth of geological, botanical, zoological, anthropological and other materials which created a foundation upon which much of American science was formed. At least three of the scientists involved with the expedition gained international acclaim from their efforts [stress added]." [from: http://www.south-pole.com/p0000079.htm]

Although Captain Cook placed the Pacific islands (and islanders) on the maps of the world, perhaps it was the six-ship United States Exploring Expedition (1838-1842), under the command of Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, which firmly presented the material culture of the islanders to the world. Consider the following:

"No one had anticipated that one voyage could have possibly generated such a massive amount of material. The number of ethnographic objects alone was staggering: four thousand pieces, a third more than the total number of artifacts collected during all three of Cook's voyages. Indeed, the ethnographic collection of the U.S. Ex.Ex.--including war clubs from Fiji, feathered baskets from California, exquisitely carved rattles from the Northwest Coast, fishooks from Samoa, and flax baskets from New Zealand--is now thought to be, according to [Smithsonian] anthropologist Adrienne Kaeppler, the largest ever made by a single sailing expedition. Even larger than the ethnographic collection was the number of pressed plants accumulated by the botanist William Rich, the horticulturalist Charles Pickering: 50,000 specimens of 10,000 species. ... In addition to all the stuff brought back by the Expedition, there was an equally awe-inspiring amount of data [stress added]." Nathaniel Philbrick, 2003, Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 (NY: The Penguin Group), page 332-333.

Not only were the scientists and explorers important in providing us with a "vision" of the islands and islanders, there were other non-islanders who had their impact on Pacific Islanders and who have influenced our view of Pacific Islanders. Among the many non-islanders who have written about the South Pacific, authors who wrote about the islanders (and non-islanders) include W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), noted for The Moon and Sixpence (1919) and The Trembling of A Leaf (1921) from which we get the short story "Rain" (and Miss Sadie Thompson!), as well as Charles Nordhoff (1887-1947) and James Norman Hall (1887-1951) and their celebrated Bounty Trilogy (1934). We also have James Michener (1907-1997) and his 1948 Pulitzer Prize winner Tales of the South Pacific (published in 1946), which turned into a beautiful play entitled South Pacific (first produced by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II and which opened in New York City on April 7, 1949). The play was also turned into an exquisite movie of the same title. Although stationed in Melanesia, in what was once called The New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), it was the island of Ambae which inspired his Bali Ha'i (although the fictive island is often associated with Tahiti and French Polynesia):

"It is rumoured that James Michener based his mythical, idealized island, Bali Hai on Moorea. And it is easy to see why. Many people have described Moorea as the most beautiful place on earth. Here, you'll find the real South Seas' experience -- a casual, barefoot existence amidst white sand beaches and multi-hued lagoons surrounded by jagged mountains and volcanic spires that reach into the clouds, while below, valleys are blanketed with the colors that one only finds when tropical climates and rich, volcanic soils meet. Clearly visible from Tahiti, Moorea is located only nine miles away across the Sea of the Moon. For all the hustle and bustle of nearby Tahiti (125,000+ population compared to Moorea's 9,000), Moorea is the best-kept secret of the trio of famous French Polynesian islands. Bora Bora and Tahiti get the press, but Moorea is the real prize. Beyond the picture postcard lagoons and white sand beaches, the volcanic island -- twice as old as Tahiti -- is also famous for its six mountains, including Mt. Rotui, which offers spectacular views of Opunohu Bay and the island [stress added]." [from: http://moorea.com/]

Other gifted writers have provided us with their visions of the South Pacific, including Jack London (1876-1916) and his South Sea Tales (1911), Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), Rupert Brooke (1887-1915) and of course, Herman Melville (1819-1891) and what has been called the most famous American novel of all times, Moby Dick (1851). In the early 19th century, Melville had shipped out on the whaler Acushnet and in 1842 he deserted the ship when it was in the Marquesas; eventually he left the Marquesas on another whaler, went to Hawai'i and Tahiti and after four years returned to Cape Cod where he wrote and published Typee (1846) and Moby Dick (1851). There was a huge whale in the Pacific, called "Mocha Dick" because of a patch of white that it had on its body (A. B. C. Whipple, 1973, Yankee Whalers In The South Seas [Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co.], page 60).

"Melville worked for years on his mighty sea epic, which he always called, very literally, The Whale. ... In England, Melville's publisher, who had originally rejected The Whale as not good enough to be a children's book, finally offered it to the public as juvenile fiction. Harper and Brothers in New York felt differently, and having read a real-life newspaper account of a monumental chase at sea involving a mammoth white whale called Mocha Dick, suggested that Melville play up on the public's awareness of the news with a very subtle change of name. It didn't work--the book was one of the greatest publishing failures of its time--but who today has not heard of the might Moby-Dick? [stress added]." André Bernard, 1995, Now All We Need Is A Title: Famous Book Titles And How They Got That Way (NY: Barnes & Noble Books), pages 78-80.

If one is reluctant to read Melville's Moby Dick in the original, there is a delightful book by Maurice Sagoff (1970) which is called to your attention: Shrinklits: Seventy of the World's Towering Classics Cut Down To Size (New York: Workman Publishing) wherein the following appears on page 97:

"Whale chomped Ahab's leg in two.
'Hunt that beast!' he tells his crew.

First, a welter of whaling schmoose,
Then comes Moby and hell breaks loose.

Smashup! Ahab's drowned in brine,
Lashed to the whale by a harpoon line.

Good (symbolic) with Evil vies,
If you'd fathom it, you must rise."

With alternating lines being given by Sagoff as:
"Heave ho, blow the man down!" And "Early in the morning."

There were also numerous non-islanders who influenced the way we view the island world and perhaps from my anthropological perspective the major individuals were Margaret Mead (1901-1978) and Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002). The former because she was such a well-known individual when it came to anthropology (and her 1928 publication entitled Coming of Age in Samoa: A Psychological Study of Primitive Youth for Western Civilisation was read by million of individuals in the 20th century) and the latter because he was one of many to postulated the peopling of the Pacific Islands from South America (and had the courage of his convictions to test his theory). Heyerdahl's theory was an interesting one, but it did not hold up to the test of scientific evidence (as indicated above) and Mead's Pacific work (especially her work in Samoa) has recently come under heavy criticism (but they were still important individuals):

"Mead's 'Coming of Age in Samoa' Called Worst Nonfiction of Century: Debate renewed about whether author was duped. In 1925, a 23-year old New York City college student [from Columbia University] set sail for American Samoa to observe the transition from childhood to adulthood among members of a primitive [sic.!] culture. Margaret Mead hoped to test theories taking hold among Western social scientists about the inherent turbulence of adolescence. What she concluded after visiting the Manua'an Island, 2,300 miles south of Hawaii, was that teenage girls and boys there were free of the hang-ups of their Western counterparts and that sexual promiscuity was common. ... These conclusions long have been scoffed at by American Samoans. And now a conservative think tank has rekindled the debate by naming Mead's 1928 treatise the worst nonfiction book of the past 100 years. ... 'So amusing did the native find the white women's prurient questions that they told her the wildest tales--and she believed them!' [stress added]." Jean Christensen, February 2, 2000, Mead's 'Coming of Age in Samoa' Called Worst Nonfiction of Century, The San Francisco Chronicle, page A5.

Incidentally, one could not discuss European explorers in the Pacific without mentioning the (still) controversial theory advocated by Robert Langdon (1924-2003) who had Spanish explorers in certain Pacific islands well before any other European explorers!

"...he put forward the theory that they had come from the San Lesmes, wrecked on an atoll in the area [around Tahiti] in 1526, and whose crew of Spaniards survived and had intermarried, influencing Polynesian culture in important ways. He published his evidence in his book The Lost Caravel in 1975. It argued that the peopling of the Pacific might be far more complicated than traditional historians had hitherto thought. The book won him a two-year ANU research fellowship for further study. In 1983 he published, with Darrell Tryon, The Language of Easter Island: Its Development and Eastern Polynesian Relationships. That was followed in 1988 by his The Lost Caravel Re-explored. Meanwhile, he published many academic papers, covering several disciplines, drawing attention to other influences on the peopling of the Pacific. His latest book, which ties all these together, The Kon-Tiki Revisited, is being assessed for publication by an academic publisher. Some of the traditionalists among the professional academics have preferred to ignore his arguments, or to reply to them only selectively, but this last book might achieve what Langdon had been working so determinedly to bring about - the mounting of a serious and thorough academic debate on Polynesian origins. Since his work will most certainly live after him, such a debate will, predictably, be one of his legacies [stress added]." [from: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/10/31/1067566084557.html?from=storyrhs} November 1, 2003]

Undoubtedly Bob Langdon's work will survive and contribute to our developing interpretations of Pacific islanders. Finally, one could not leave "culture change" in the Pacific without brief mention of World War II:

"The Pacific war was waged with a barbarism, savageness and race hatred that is unparalleled in history. Each side regarded the other with seething contempt and saw the other as subhuman animals. Atrocities abounded, with no quarter being asked and none given. With the jungle for a battlefield and flamethrowers, suicide fighters and cannibalism almost routine, the conflict was often described by the participants as a descent into the deepest hell [stress added]." Paul D. Walker, 2003 , Truman's Dilemma: Invasion or The Bomb (Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing Co.), page 15.

As I wrote in 1993, "two specific items are called to your attention: John J. Stephen's 1984 publication entitled Hawaii Under The Rising Sun: Japan's Plans For Conquest After Pearl Harbor and Robert K. Wilcox's 1985 item entitled Japan's Secret War." Both make for fascinating reading and thinking about "what if" scenarios. (Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1993, Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres, for the Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, September 30, 1993, available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html). An elaboration of the impact of World War II is for another time and place but it did did leave changes throughout the Pacific. 

VI. DARWIN IN THE PACIFIC

"The fact is that Charles Darwin was in almost all respects a fairly standard example of the nineteenth century student, well off, active in field sports, working hard enough to avoid academic failure, but a long way from academic success." Peter Brent 1981, Charles Darwin: A Man Of Enlarged Curiosity (NY: Harper & Row), page 89.

Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) definitely proved many individuals wrong, and nothing is as clear as his monumental 1859 publication (and subsequent editions of 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872): On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life [Note: this is the on-line version of the 1859 edition]; Darwin himself was to write in his Autobiography that the Origin "is no doubt the chief work of my life [stress added]" (Nora Barlow, 1958, The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 1809-1882: With Original Omissions Restored Edited With An Appendix And Notes By His Grand-Daughter, page 122).

Darwin was a trained scientist, one of the most eminent naturalists of his time and as David Quammen wrote in his delightful 1996 publication entitled The Song Of the Dodo: Island Biogeography In An Age Of Extinctions (NY: Scribner), Charles R. Darwin "was an island biogeographer before he was a Darwinist" (page 18).

"Some of the other great pioneers of evolutionary biology--notably Alfred Russel Wallace [1823-1913] and Joseph Hooker [1817-1911]--also gathered their best insights from fieldwork on remote islands. Wallace spent eight years collecting specimens in the Malay Archipelago, the empire of islands (and therefore of biological diversity) that now goes by the name Indonesia. Hooker, like Darwin, was lucky and well connected enough to get a place on board one of Her majesty's ships. It was the Erebus, sent off (like Darwin's Beagle) on a round-the-world charting expedition, from which Hooker went ashore on Tasmania, New Zealand, and an interesting little nub called Kerguelen Island, halfway between Antarctica and nowhere. Decades later, Hooker was still publishing studies of the plants of New Zealand and his other island stops. The trend started by Darwin, Wallace, and Hooker has continued throughout this century.... [stress added]." David Quammen, 1996, The Song Of the Dodo: Island Biogeography In An Age Of Extinctions (NY: Scribner), pages 18-19.

A succinct statement on Charles Darwin is the following:

"He was an Englishman who went on a five-year voyage when he was young and then retired to a house in the country, not far from London [sixteen miles southeast]. He wrote an account of his voyage, and then he wrote a book setting down his theory of evolution, based on a process he called natural selection, a theory that provided the foundation for modern biology. He was often ill and never left England again." John P. Wiley, Jr., 1998, Expressions: The Visible Link. Smithsonian, June, pages 22-24, page 22.

There are numerous other islands in the Pacific and I can but only highlight a few and make some comments on their importance (to me at least!). The Galápagos Islands are at present one of the 21 provinces of the Republic of Ecuador. Spaniards first discovered the islands in 1535 but their fame really came about because of a three-week visit that the British scientist Charles Darwin made in 1835 while going around the world on the HMS Beagle. Darwin wrote that the "natural history of these islands is eminently curious, and well deserves attention. … Hence, both in space and time, we seem to be brought somewhat near to that great fact--that mystery of mysteries--the first appearance of new beings on this earth [stress added]." Charles Darwin, 1839 [1860], Charles Darwin: The Voyage of The Beagle. Walter Sullivan [Introduction to edition] (NY: Bantam Books), Chapter XVII, page 326. Darwin's ideas concerning the "mystery of mysteries" resulted in his publication of On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, the first edition of which appeared in 1859 (with subsequent greatly revised editions appearing in his lifetime in 1860, 1861, 1866, 1869, and 1872).

The HMS Beagle, with Charles Darwin aboard, set sail from England on December 27, 1831. After years of research in South America the tiny ship finally arrived at the Galápagos Islands (some 600 miles west of the South American nation of Ecuador) on the15th of September 1835. They cruised though the islands for a little more than a month and Darwin was eventually to write that "nothing could be less inviting than the first appearance" of these islands. Galápagos means "tortoise" in Spanish and there are more than two dozen islands in the entire cluster, with their combined landmass being approximately 2,800 square miles. The islands themselves are approximately 175 miles across and there are six major islands, with the largest one (Albemarle) some sixty miles in length. As a point of comparison, Butte County is some 1,646 square miles in area Tehama County, to the north is similar in size to the Galápagos (2,953 square miles) as is Santa Barbara County (2,748 square miles) in the southern part of this state. Perhaps one of the most vivid descriptions of the islands comes from the American Author Herman Melville (1819-1891), who stopped in the Galápagos on the whaler Acushnet, shortly after the visit of the HMS Beagle. Melville wrote:

"Take five-and-twenty heaps of cinders dumped here and there in an outside city lot--imagine some of them magnified into mountains, and the vacant lot the sea; and you will have a fit idea of the general aspect of the Encantadas, or Enchanted Isles. A group of rather extinct volcanoes than of isles; looking much as the world at large might, after a penal conflagration." Nigel Calder, 1973, The Life Game: Evolution And The New Biology, page 44.

Darwin and the crew gathered specimens of all sorts, including tortoises that weighed up to 500 pounds, iguanas that abounded on all of the islands, and a variety of small finch. Even though Charles R. Darwin was an exceptional naturalist at this point in time, it is quite clear that the facts of nature "do not speak for themselves" since someone has to do the interpreting. In a 1973 publication, Sir Nigel Calder wrote of an 1835 meeting that Darwin had in the Galápagos Islands with Mr. Lawson, the Englishman who was the Vice-Governor of the Galápagos Islands:

"When the Vice-Governor remarked that he could tell from which island any tortoise had been brought, Darwin pricked up his ears. he had been carelessly mixing up his specimens from different islands, never dreaming that the islands would have been 'differently tenanted'; he quickly mended his way [Calder continued]. He examined the mockingbirds collected by himself and his shipmates, and found to his astonishment that all the birds from one island belonged to one species and all from another to a different species. But he had hopelessly muddled most of his specimens of the finches that were to make the Galapagos and himself jointly famous [stress added].

Please re-read that part of the paragraph: "BUT HE HAD HOPELESSLY MUDDLED MOST OF HIS SPECIMENS OF THE FINCHES THAT WERE TO MAKE THE GALAPAGOS AND HIMSELF JOINTLY FAMOUS." What a mess, but who would have thought about the impact of the finches? Calder continued:

"Who can blame him? They are small birds, the males being black and the females brown. When you glimpse them flitting among the thirsty trees of the Galapagos it is hard to acknowledge the impact such modest birds had on the human mind and its religious beliefs." Nigel Calder, 1973, The Life Game: Evolution And The New Biology, pages 45-46.

HMS Beagle departed the Galápagos and headed across the Pacific Ocean to Australia, then across the Indian Ocean, and back to England, and the "mixed-up finches" were handed over to John Gould, an ornithologist. It was Gould who confirmed a "perfect gradation in the size of the beaks in the different species" since there were some birds with massive beaks, like nutcrackers, while there were other finches with beaks so delicate, they could be used as tweezers; and there were many forms of beaks which were intermediate. Darwin wrote in the first published account on the voyage of the HMS Beagle in 1839:

"Seeing this gradation and diversity of structure in one small intimately related group of birds, one might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends." Chapter XVII: The Galapagos Archipelago. Charles Darwin: The Voyage of The Beagle. Walter Sullivan [Introduction to edition] (NY: Bantam Books), page 328.

Towards the end of the voyage of the HMS Beagle, even while Darwin was still at sea, he began to question the fixity of species that was then prevalent in biological thought and he wrote:

"When I recollect the fact, that from the form of the body, shape of scale, and general size, the Spaniards can at once pronounce from which Island any tortoise may have been brought; when I see these Islands in sight of each other and possessed of but a scanty stock of animals, tenanted by these birds but slightly differing in structure and filling the same place in Nature, I must suspect they are only varieties. The only fact of a similar kind of which I am aware is the constant asserted difference between the wolf-like Fox of East and West Falkland Islands. If there is the slightest foundation for these remarks, the Zoology of Archipelagoes will be well worth examining; for such facts would undermine the stability of species [stress added]. Gavin De Beer, 1964, Charles Darwin: Evolution By Natural Selection, page 82.

The non-fixity of species and different tenanted islands continued to nag Darwin and within two years of his return to England in 1836, he began to take detailed and copious notes on the transmutation of species and the rest is history! It must also be pointed out (as John Kricher did in 2002, in Galápagos, that the islands did not suddenly solidify everything for the young Charles Darwin:

"Remarkably, however, Darwin wrote nothing in On the Origin of Species about the Galápagos finches, the very group that supposedly supplied the 'smoking gun' as evidence to bolster his case for evolution. Instead, he referred to the mockingbirds, which he called mocking-thrushes: 'In the Galápagos Archipelago, many even of the birds, though so well adapted for flying from island to island are distinct on each; thus there are three closely-allied species of mocking thrush, each confined to its own island.' It would seem that by that point he had at least set the stage for a finch discussion, but Darwin asserted nothing. What a surprise, given the superb model of evolution that the Galápagos finches seemingly represent. Rather than being the very keystone example of evolution, rather than being prominently discussed throughout On The Origin of Species, they are most conspicuous by their absence. And that's not all that is missing. There is no discussion of the giant tortoises, even though while on the islands Darwin became aware of how these large reptiles varied from one island to another. If the Galápagos, as is often stated in the popular literature, are a 'laboratory of evolution,' then why did Charles Darwin make so little use of the data from that laboratory when he assembled his case? What, exactly, was Charles Darwin's intellectual relationship with the Galápagos Islands? How much of the story of Darwin's conversion to evolution can be attributed to his experiences on the islands? Myths are part of our culture, and Darwin has certainly become part of a commonly promulgated myth [stress added]." John Kricher, 2002 in Galápagos (Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution), page 41.

Incidentally, Darwin was also aware of the changes that could be introduced into various islands when "new" creatures arrived upon the scene:

"We may infer from these facts, what havoc the introduction of any new beast of prey must cause in a country, before the instincts of the indigenous inhabitants have become adapted to the stranger's craft or power." Charles Darwin, 1839 [1860], Charles Darwin: The Voyage of The Beagle. Walter Sullivan [Introduction to edition] (NY: Bantam Books), Chapter XVII, page 328.

I have been to the Galápagos Islands and have seen first hand what the introduction of pigs and goats has done to the environment and read what Michael D'Orso has to say in his most perceptive 2002 Plundering Paradise: The Hand of Man on the Galápagos Islands wherein the author had in his preface the following: "This is a work of nonfiction. The events on these pages occurred as described. The people are real, as are their words. No names have been change to protect either the innocent of the guilty."

"The 'trouble' is the rampant introduction of life-forms--animals, plants--that don't belong among these islands, along with the wholesale slaughter of life-forms that do. These are the [Darwin] Foundation's top two concerns at the moment: 'Getting rid of what's there,' says [Darwin Foundation Johannah] Barry, 'and stopping what's coming in.' 'What's there' are nonindigenous animals (feral goats, rats, dogs, cats and pigs), insects (wasps, cockroaches, fir ants), and plants (mora, blackberry vines, lantana, quinine and guava trees) introduced over the years by unthinking or uncaring humans. Like toxic waste, these life forms have oozed out across the islands, wreaking havoc among the native wildlife that get in their way. The goat problem on Isabela [also known as Albemarle] alone has become an apocalyptic nightmare relatively overnight. Just seventeen years ago, scientists were alarmed by the appearance of a handful of goats left behind on the northern part of the island by local fisherman. Today, the feral goat population of Isabela Island numbers more than one hundred thousand. Hillsides that were once lush with green foliage now stand denuded, stripped bare by ravenous leaf-eating goats, and littered with the carcasses of dehydrated, malnourished tortoises [stress added]. D'Orso, 2002 Plundering Paradise: The Hand of Man on the Galápagos [NY: Harper Collins 2003 Perennial edition], pages 40-41.

This is not unique to the Galápagos Islands alone; consider New Zealand:

"New Zealand is also grappling with a serious exotic species problem. The annexation of New Zealand by Great Britain in 1840 triggered an influx of European immigration and the establishment of trade with Europe. This development, as well as the development of subsequent trade links with Australia and the Pacific Rim countries, introduced numerous exotic species to New Zealand's shores. Indeed, the governing bodies of both New Zealand and Australia encouraged so-called acclimatization societies, which fostered the introduction of familiar homeland species. Europeans opened the floodgates, brining not only plants and animals for agriculture, horticulture, and forestry but also weeds and ornamentals.... Together, the twin forces of habitat destruction and introduction of invasive species, in combination with other human actions, have led to the extinction of a stunning number of species over the past 800 years, including 32 percent of indigenous land and freshwater birds; 18 percent of sea birds; at least 12 invertebrates such as snails and insects; 1 species of fish; 1 species of bat; and 3 distinct species of frog. In addition, another 1,000 plant, animal, and fungi species across New Zealand have already vanished from places where they were once found, a pattern that typically precedes total species extinction [stress added]." Kevin Hillstrom and Laurie Collier Hillstrom, 2003, Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica: A Continental Overview of Environmental Issues (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC/CLIO), pages 34-35.

My favorite piece of information concerning non-native species introduced into a new environment came about in 1859, the same year that Darwin published his celebrated On The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life:

"In 1859 a consignment of twenty-four wild rabbits arrived from England at a property near Geelong in Victoria [Australia]. There had already been English rabbits elsewhere in Australia, but they had never spread like the Geelong tribe. Finding itself without natural enemies, and taking to bearing extra litters, the rabbit presently became one of Australia's horrors, multiplying so appallingly that in many areas it actually seemed to defeat the human settlers, and take over for itself. By the 1870s rabbits were all over Victoria. By the 1880s they infested New South Wales. By the 1890s they had stormed right through Queensland almost to the Gulf of Carpenteria, in the extreme north. They ate everything, up to the flowers outside the farmhouse doors. Fences hundreds of miles long were erected in hopeless efforts to check them….at the end of the century much of Australia was still ravaged or threatened by the rabbit, in a more nightmarish plague than ever the Egyptians invited [stress added]." James Morris,1968, Pax Britannica: The Climax of an Empire (NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.), pages 77-78.

Darwin was a very astute observer and a gifted writer and scientist. My own interest is Darwin is an on-going adventure. For more information about Darwin, and access to four videos (wherein I portray him in the first person), please go to http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FourDarwinVideosFeb2004.html (Four Darwin Videos From CSU, Chico} February 12, 2004). 

VII. CONCLUSIONS

"The H.M.S. Beagle, on which Darwin voyaged, did not stop in Hawai'i. If it had, he would have encountered evidence of evolution that surpassed in detail and scientific diversity even that of the Galápagos. Scientific studies have revealed that many species are endemic, or unique to Hawai'i, having evolved on these islands and not merely having reached here from somewhere else." Hampton L. Carson, 1998, Atlas of Hawai'i (Third Edition), Sonia P. Juvik and James O. Juvik [editors], Evolution, pages 107-110, page 107.  

Sometimes I wonder what course Darwin would have taken had he been exposed to the rich diversity of Hawai'i (and not just to the relative diversity of the Galápagos!) but that is for another time.

To begin summarizing, as Philbrick wrote concerning the Pacific:

"Balboa found it, Magellan named it, but for any young boy taken with tales of the South Seas--like the young Charles Wilkes--the central figure had to be James Cook." Nathaniel Philbrick, 2003, Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 (NY: The Penguin Group), page 3.

Cook, Bougainville, Darwin, Wilkes, and numerous individuals associated with World War II (not to forget World War I as well) irrevocably changed the islanders (and the islands) over time. New ideas and information were introduced to the indigenous inhabitants as well as new technologies: some were accepted readily and were useful and some resulted in new items resulted in major problems! Change came to the Pacific islands when they were first discovered. What the indigenous islanders of the Pacific have become is clearly a result of who, when,where,why and how they were first contacted by non-islanders! Much has changed and much will continue to change in this vast area of the globe!


VIII. SOME VERY SELECTED STATISTICS (Note: all taken from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ in October 2003) (NB: All population dates are given as ~ July 2003).

COUNTRY
AREA (Sq. Km)
(Comparable Area)
POPULATION
0 -> 14 Age Bracket
15 -> 64 Age Bracket
65+ Age Bracket
American Samoa
199 sq km [77 sq miles]
Slightly larger than Washington, D.C.
70,260
37.5%
57%
5.4%
Cook Islands
240 sq km [93 sq mi]
1.3 Washington D.C.
21,008
n/a
n/a
n/a
Fiji
18,270 [7,054 sq mi]
Slightly smaller than New Jersey
868,531
32%
64.1%
3.8%
French Polynesia
4,167 sq km [1,609 sq mi]
1/3rd Connecticut
262,125
29.3%
66.3%
5.4%
Marshall Islands
181.3 sq km [70 sq mi]
~ Washington, DC
56,429
39.1%
58.2%
2.7%
Micronesia, Federated States of
402 sq km [155 sq mi]
4 x Washington, D.C.
108,143
38.4%
58.5%
3.2%
New Caledonia
19,060 [7,359]
Slightly smaller than New Jersey
210,798
29.7%
64.2%
6.1%
New Zealand
268,680 sq km [103,738 sq mi]
About the size of Colorado
3,951,307
21.9%
66.5%
11.6%
Palau
458 [177 sq mi]
2.5 x Washington, D.C.
19,717
26.7%
68.7%
4.6%
Papua New Guinea
463,840 sq km [179,090] sq mi]
Slightly larger than California
5,295,816
38.4%
57.8%
3.8%
Pitcairn Island
47 sq km [18 sq mi]
.3 Washington, D.C.
47 Individuals
n/a
n/a
n/a
Tonga
748 sq km [289 sq mi]
4 x Washington, D.C.
108,141
38.2%
57.6%
4.1%
Vanuatu
12,200 [4,710 sq mi]
Slightly larger than Connecticut
199,414
34.8%
61.8%
3.4%
Western Samoa
2,944 [1,137 sq mi]
Slightly smaller than Rhode Island
178,173
29.4%
64.6%
6.1%


IX. ONLY SOME SPECIFIC VISUALS

Culture Areas of the Pacific (with Tonga, Tahiti, and Hawai'i as indicated).

K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First Discovered And Settled The Pacific Islands? (University of Hawai'i Press), page 68.

Source: http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/museum/cook/Maps/front2.jpg
 

2002 (NY: Henry Holt and Company).
2003 (NY: Walker and Company).

Source: http://www.aboutdarwin.com/voyage/Map_010.gif

Source: http://www.linkdirectory.com/airphoto/1018.jpg
Source: Great Outdoor Recreation Pages [http://gorp.com/igtoa/gif/map2a.jpg]
 

Source: Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawai'i (C.F. Urbanowicz).

Source: The American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York (C.F. Urbanowicz).

Originally published in 1792 by William Bligh (1754-1817); from a1962 Signet Classic (NY: New American Library)
Published in 1973.
Published in 1946 by James Michener (1907-1997) and awarded the 1948 Pulitzer Prize.

Published in 1983 (1996 edition).
Published in 1996.
Published in 1999.
 

United States of America Stamp Set.

U.S.S. Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, 'Oahu, Hawai'i. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2003]
U.S.S. Missouri, Pearl Harbor, 'Oahu, Hawai'i. [Photo by Charles F. Urbanowicz, 2003]

(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the WWW on April 30, 2004, for a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference, April 29-31, 2004, at CSU, Chico. My appreciation goes to Ms. Debra Besnard and Mr. Stan Griffith and their "Digital Asset Management Project" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico for the work they did for some of my slides used today. This presentation draws upon an earlier paper presented at The Anthropology Forum on November 6, 2003. That presentation (and some of the visuals) may be seen at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DestinationPolynesia.html. To return to the beginning of this page, please click here.


COMMENTS ON TASMANIAN PUBLICATIONS OF 1884 AND 1973/74

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

30 November 1998 (1)

[This page printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pacific/Tasmania.html]  

© [All Rights Reserved] This paper was placed on the World Wide Web on 30 November 1998. About this author: Charles F. Urbanowicz (born 1942) received the Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon (1972) based on 1970 and 1971 field work in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga, combined with archival research in Hawai'i, Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji. Reviews on Pacific topics have appeared in Ethnohistory (1975 and 1977), The Journal of the Polynesian Society (1978), Pacific Studies (1981), and the American Anthropologist (1989). Most recent Tongan publications include a chapter entitled "Tonga" for the Encyclopedia of World Cultures (1991), edited by D. Levinson as well as a Japanese translation of a chapter dealing with tourism in Tonga for the Japanese edition (1991) of the 2nd edition of Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (1989) edited by Valene Smith; this 1989 chapter was a modest revision of the chapter which appeared in the 1977 edition of the same title. Various articles on Tongan topics have been published in Ethnohistory (1973 and 1977), The Journal of the Polynesian Society (1977), Journal de la Société des Océanistes (1978), and Pacific Viewpoint (1979) and taking heed from the phrase Ab alio expectes quod alteri feceris ["You may look for the same treatment from others as you extend to others" or "Expect that as you do unto one, another will do unto you"], it is pointed out that identical chapters on Tonga were published in Psychological Anthropology (1975) edited by S. L. Seaton and J. M. Claessen as well as Political Anthropology: The State of the Art (1979) edited by T. R. Williams; similarities in certain presentations/papers also occur in some of my single-authored and joint-authored temecommunication papers/presentations of the late 1970s and 1980s. Much of my current research now focuses on "Charles Darwin" and/or the "gaming industry" and several of these papers obviously draw upon and build upon one another. For a complete résumé, with exact publications and titles, please go to the "home page" indicated below and continue from there. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.

 

INTRODUCTION
THE AUTHORS AND VOLUMES
THE COMPARISONS
WHAT IS GOING ON?
A SOLUTION? (A THIRD SOURCE?)
CONCLUSIONS!

INTRODUCTION

Two publications dealing with the aborigines of Tasmania are called to your attention: the first is the 1884 London publication of James Bonwick (1817-1906) entitled The Lost Tasmanian Race; the second is the 1973 London publication of David M. Davies (born in 1929) entitled The Last of the Tasmanians. In 1974 the Davies item was also published in the United States. The 1973 Davies item was "Copyrighted" by Dr. D. M. Davies and the following appears:

"All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Frederick Muller Limited."

No such statement appears in the 1974 United States publication. Aside from this, the two Davies items are identical, down to "Contents" and pagination and may be considered a "single" publication and will be referred to as such. The 1970 reprint of Bonwick has no identifying caveat as to copyright. 

THE AUTHORS AND VOLUMES

Bonwick's 1884 volume, The Lost Tasmanian Race, was originally published in London (Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington) and is available in a 1970 reprint from the Johnson Reprint Corporation (of New York City) and the Johnson Reprint Company, Ltd. (of London). The 1970 Bonwick reprint is part of the Landmarks in Anthropology series which are reprints in cultural anthropology under the General Editorship of Weston LaBarre. The 1970 Johnson Reprint of the 1884 Bonwick volume in the Meriam Library at California State University, Chico, has the Library of Congress classification of DU/473/B72/1884a. Davies' 1973 item, The Last of the Tasmanians, was first published in Great Britain (Frederick Muller Limited, London) and was also published in 1974 in the United States (by Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. of the Barnes & Noble Import Division). The two Davies publications in the Library at California State University, Chico, have the Library of Congress classifications of GN/667/T2/D38/1973 and GN/667/T2/D38/1974.

James Bonwick was a Fellow of the prestigious Royal Geographical Society and was also a Fellow of the Anthropological Institute; Bonwick was asked to do another edition of his 1870 publication of The Last of the Tasmanians; or, The Black War of Van Diemen's Land but chose, instead, to publish "in a simpler form, the leading facts of that sad tale of a Colonial Past" and this is the 1884 The Lost Tasmanian Race discussed in this web paper. Claudia Sagona's Annotated Bibliography of the Tasmanian Aborigines 1970-1987 lists several Bonwick items, including the reprint editions (#s 87-90) and she has the following about Davies (#248):

"A general and out-dated account of European contact with the Tasmanians, drawing largely from early accounts. The volume is useful more for its illustrations, maps and photographs of Tasmania and the Tasmanians, than content. Sources of reference are seldom documented. Chapters 13 and 14 are full of errors." Claudia Sagona, Annotated Bibliography of the Tasmanian Aborigines 1970-1987 (Plomley Foundation: Launceston, Tasmania), 1989, page 68.

Sagona concluded: "Compare J. Bonwick (1870) The Last of the Tasmanians, one of the main sources used." The point I shall attempt to argue is that the Bonwick publication of 1884 (The Lost Tasmanian Race ) may have been the only source used by Davies in 1973/74 (at least as far as I compared: explained below).

A check of scholarly journals provided two reviews of Davies' The Lost Tasmanian Race and neither addressed the issue in this current web-paper but both made interesting points. In 1975 a reviewer stated:

"Recommended to researchers on genocide, the work is no substitute for the classic ethnography, The aborigines of Tasmania by H. Long Roth (1899), or G.A. Robinson's ethnohistorical contribution Friendly missions, ed. by N. J. B. Plomley (1966). It does not even match the scholarship of the last attempt on the same topic, Black war by Clive Turnbull (1948). Indexed; incomplete bibliography; well illustrated." Anon., 1975, Choice, May, Vol. 12, No. 3: 427.

The anonymous reviewer also pointed out that Davies failed to address other points: "The Tasmanian survivors on Kangaroo Island, South Australia, until the 1890s are not mentioned."

In 1976 The American Historical Review reviewed three items: Aborigines and Colonists: Aborigines and Colonial Society in New South Wales in the 1830s and 1840s by R. H. W. Reece (1975), Discovering Monaro: A Study of Man's Impact on His Environment by W. K. Hancock (1972), and The Last of the Tasmanians by David Davies (1974). Describing Davies as a "Physical anthropologist," the following appeared:

"It is unfortunate that it [Davies 1974] is not well researched; there are no footnotes (though excessive use of long quotations), and the bibliography is inadequate. Neither organization nor treatment is nearly as good as Clive Turnbull's Black War (1948) or Robert Travis' The Tasmanians (1968), and Davies' chapter on the origins of the Tasmanians (ch. 14) does not compare with the brilliance of Geoffrey Blainey's third chapter in his latest book, Triumph of the Nomads (1975)." S.C. McCulloch, The American Historical Review, October 1976, Vol. 81, No. 4: 949.

McCulloch's review ended with the following: "The illustrations, photographs, and maps are superb. They brighten an otherwise disappointing book."

Davies is obviously known, from annotated bibliographies, reviews, and citations: Ryan's 1981 publication, for example, The Aboriginal Tasmanians (based on a 1975 doctorate from the School of History at Macquarie University) lists Davies under "Printed Works From 1900" and in her second edition (of the same title) published in 1996, Ryan cites the Davies item of 1973 (as well as only the Bonwick item of 1870 entitled The Last of the Tasmanians; or, The Black War of Van Diemen's Land . One can possibly ask, why this note considering that Davies and Bonwick are apparently well known to Tasmian researchers and reviewers of the literature? 

THE COMPARISONS

Comparing the "organization" of Bonwick with Davies we see the following:

The Lost Tasmanian Race (1884) by James Bonwick

Introduction
Earliest Notices of the Natives
The race Under British Rule
Sorrows of the Race
The War
The Line
Capture Parties
Robinson the Consiliator
Flinders Island Refuge

The Last of The Tasmanians (1973/74) by David Davies

Introduction
Part One: Prologue
1. The Earliest Records
2. The Tasmanians Under British Rule

Part Two: War
3. The Tragedy Within the Race
4. The Black War
5. The Mosquito Bites
6. The Line
7. Search Parties

Part Three: Conciliation
8. Mr. Robinson--The Bailiff
9. "That-Me-Country"
10. The Remnant Returns
11. White Contacts
12. Decline and Extinction

Part Four: Epilogue
13. The Physique and Culture of the Tasmanians
14. Origin of the Tasmanians

Appendix I
Appendix II
Bibliography
Index

It would appear that there are similarities in the organization of these two items, but considering they were published almost ninety years apart, perhaps one should read further. Your attention is drawn to the following:

BONWICK 1884: page 1

"And who were the Tasmanians? When Tasman, the Dutchman, in 1642, was sailing along the then unknown Southern Ocean, that restlessly surges between Australia and the South Pole, he came upon a rocky, wooded island. This he called Van Diemen's Land, since changed to Tasmania. The aboriginal Tasmanians believed themselves alone in the world."

DAVIES 1973/74: page 9

"When, in 1642, the Dutchman, Abel Tasman, was sailing along the then Southern Ocean that lies between Australia and the South Pole, he came across a rocky wooded island. This he called Van Diemen's Land, later to become known as Tasmania. The aboriginals who inhabited the islands, like the aboriginals of New Guinea, believed themselves alone in the world, and had numerous legends about their origins."

These statements should cause a pause: are there not some similarities? Perhaps the two statements are, however, merely an indication of how authors set the stage for a discussion on Tasmania, since one can read in The National Trust in Tasmania (published in 1980) the following:

"When, in 1642, Abel Tasman first sighted the island later to be named after him, it was populated by some thousands of Australian Aborigines who had drifted southward, reaching the island before the landbridge with mainland Australia had submerged. Tasman never saw them, but reported some signs of habitation." J.N.D. Harrison (Text) and Frank Bolt (Photographs), The National Trust in Tasmania (Cassell, Australia), 1980, page 11.

Although Harrison and Bolt sound familiar, they go to other topics; but the 19th Century Bonwick publication and the 20th Century Davies publications continue to sound familiar. Perhaps this is understandable, since both authors had similar goals (albeit, almost a century apart).

BONWICK 1884: p. 2

"To tell the tale of sorrows flowing from this arrival, and how the war between the weak and the strong brought all-prevailing power to one, but dire extinction to the other, is the object of this present book."

DAVIES 1973/4: p. 10

To tell the tale of sorrows flowing from this arrival, how the war between weak and strong brought all-prevailing power to one, but eventual extinction to the other, is the object of this present book."

Similarities aside, Davies must know what he is doing since the flyleaf in 1973 and 1974 the following appeared:

"Dr. David Davies' first expedition was to Lapland in 1949, while he was still an undergraduate at Cambridge. Since then he has visited over thirty different countries, from South America to Indonesia, making a special study of deficiency diseases among primitive people. He has an M.A. from Cambridge in Anthropology and a Ph.D. from London University in medical sciences. For two years he was Professor of Anthropology at the University of Bangkok." David M. Davies, 1973/74: n.p.

These are impressive credentials yet one cannot but consider those similarities in the "Introductions" of Bonwick and Davies. The 1973/74 description for Davies continued:

"For a time he worked at University College, London, under Professor J.Z. Young, and he has also been a member of University College Hospital Medical School and the Royal College of Surgeons. He is at present on the staff of the International Institute of Human Nutrition, Oxford. He was a Churchill Fellow for 1971, and used the award to take an expedition to South America. His other books include A Dictionary of Anthropology [1972] and The Rice Bowl of Asia which has just been re-issued in a Muller edition [1973]." David M. Davies, 1973/74: n.p.

The 1973 and 1974 editions of The Last of the Tasmanians pointed out that Davies had also authored A Journey Into The Stone Age (1969) as well as The Influence of Teeth, Diet, and Habits on the Human Race (1972). Davies has also published The Centenarians of the Andes (1975). Even with such credentials, one should still, however, make comparisons, such as Bonwick on "Earliest Notices of the Natives" with Davies' Chapter 1: "The Earliest Records."

BONWICK 1884, page 3

"The discoverer of the island, Abel Jansen Tasman, never saw the original inhabitants. He detected notches in trees by which they ascended after birds' nests, as he supposed, after opossums, as we know. He did observe smoke, and heard the noise of a trumpet. Satisfied with hoisting the Dutch flag, he passed on to the discovery of New Zealand. A Frenchman, Captain Marion, held the first intercourse with the wild men of the woods. This was in 1772, being 140 years after Tasman's call. Rienzi, the historian, speaks of the kind reception of his countrymen by the Natives, whose children and women were present to greet the strangers. But bloodshed followed the greeting. This is the account:--'About an hour after the French landed, Captain Marion landed.'"

DAVIES 1973/4: p. 13

"The discoverer of Van Diemen's Land, Abel Jansen Tasman, never saw the original inhabitants. However, he detected the notches put in tree trunks by which they climbed the trees looking for, he thought, birds' nests, though later evidence showed that it was for opossums. He often saw smoke, and heard a noise like a trumpet (the blowing of the conch shell). Tasman was satisfied with hoisting the Dutch flag, and then he sailed on to discover New Zealand, much more welcome to an explorer. A Frenchman, Captain Marion, made the first contact with the wild men of Van Diemen's Land, in 1772, 140 years after Tasman's landing. Rienzi, the historian speaks of the kind reception the natives gave his countrymen. Women and children were present to greet the strangers, which indicated that they did not have war on their minds. But a little later there was bloodshed: 'About an hour after the French fleet had landed, Captain Marion landed.'"

Even the casual reader must begin to wonder: we have "notches" and "opossums" and "birds' nests" in both items, but Davies has a bit more and has told us it was a "conch shell" that was used. Although Bonwick wrote of the "children and women present to greet the strangers" Davies states that this indicated "that they did not have war on their minds." Incidentally, it should be noted that in his 1870 publication ofThe Last of the Tasmanians; or, The Black War of Van Diemen's Land, Bonwick pointed out that Domény de Rienzi was a French historian (1870: 7). It is quite obvious that Bonwick drew very heavily on his 1870 volume to create his 1884 publication.

One needs to ask the following: is the 20th Century Davies item an original work or an explication de texte of the 1884 Bonwick publication? Davies is certainly the 20th Century author, with impressive credentials, and the 1973/4 volume does have two Appendices. Bonwick had no bibliography and Davies has an impressive 64 item bibliography, from an earliest publication of 1642 (Abel Jansen Tasman's Journal van de Reis naar et Onbekende Zuiland in den Jone) to a 1968 published item (C.M.H. Clark's A History of Australia, Vol. 2, New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, 1822-38), but Sagona's point is well taken: "Sources of reference are seldom documented" (Claudia Sagona, 1989, Loc. cit.). Davies' Bibliography does include Bonwick's 1870 The Daily Life of the Tasmanians, but Davies does not list the 1884 Bonwick publication under discussion. It is, indeed, interesting to "compare" Davies to Bonwick, as Sagona suggested. One must think that Davies based this 1973/4 item on his bibliographic research since the information on the book jacket states:

"In this book David Davies recounts the tortuous history of the Tasmanians' extermination and examines the physique, morals and social structure of the race itself. The text is illustrated with rare etchings and unique, hitherto unpublished photographs of the last few survivors." David M. Davies, 1973/74: n.p.

The description, however, does not refer to any relationship to Bonwick's The Lost Tasmanian Race of 1884.

WHAT IS GOING ON?

By now, the reader should have noticed something. Reading Bonwick on "Sealers and Native Women" and Davies on "White Contact," one compares the following sentences:

BONWICK 1884: p. 191

"The rough sealers of the stormy Bass's Straits would form an interesting chapter in the early history of the colonies, apart from their association with the Aborigines of Van Diemen's Land, and the part they took in the Black War."

DAVIES 1973/4: p. 216

"The rough sealers of the stormy Bass Straits would form an interesting chapter in the early history of the colonies, even without their association with the aborigines of Tasmania and the part that they played in the Black War."

Davies of 1973/74 is a virtual match with Bonwick from 1884. Choosing two statements of "Decline and Extinction" albeit, one from 1884 and one from 1973/74, one reads:

BONWICK 1884: p. 210

"In taking up this painful subject--the Decline of the Tasmanians--it would be impossible to separate that fact from the advent of the Europeans. The Indian Cacique spoke of his people as melting like snow before the sun, when the palefaces came."

DAVIES 1973/4: p. 231

"It is impossible to separate he decline of the Tasmanians from the advent of the Europeans. The Red Indian spoke of his people as melting like the snow before the sun when the palefaces came."

 

Continuing with the above, there are some differences:

BONWICK 1884: p. 210

"Our Aborigines have not been suffered simply to pass off and onward before colonization, but have been hurried in their departure; and this, not by the gifts from Egyptian impatience, but by the poison of contact, and the sword of destruction. Not able to amalgamate with the European Colonists, the other unfortunate condition followed--they perished. The Puritans of America were not alone in the belief that the Aborigines were a sort of Canaanitish people, who were doomed to be exterminated by the peculiar people."

DAVIES 1973/4: p. 231

"The Tasmanians were hurried and harried from the face of this earth by the poison of European contact and the sword of destruction. Unable to merge with the European colonists, unable to withstand them, they perished. As early as 1830, the Secretary of State in England wrote to Lieutenant-Governor Arthur and mentioned that, due to despatches received, it appeared obvious that the Tasmanians would soon become extinct. The Puritans of America were not alone in the belief that aborigines, wherever they were found, were a kind of Canaanitish people, who were doomed to be exterminated by the chosen people as the scourge of God."

There are some differences, but the incredible similarities are simply incredible!

In 1884, Bonwick cited poems from the Hobart Town Magazine of 1834 and Davies did the same in 1973/74; but where Bonwick has no interpretive statement, Davies states that "Implicit in the first poem is the understanding that the Tasmanian aborigines were on their last legs" (see J. Bonwick, 1884: 150-152 as well as D.M. Davies, 1973/74: 173-174). Immediately after this Davies has that "Colonel Arthur, the Lieutenant-Governor, pleased them with his courtesy and kindness" and one can read in Bonwick that "Colonel Arthur pleased them with his courtesy." Davies does have those black and white photographs, as well as two chapters on the Tasmanians, and it is interesting to read about the photographs:

BONWICK 1884: p. 151

"It was on this occasion that portraits were taken of the Aborigines by Mr. Duterrau. My late esteemed friend, Mr. Thomas Napier, J.P., of Essendon, Victoria, then took sketches of some of the people, and copies of which paintings I have secured by the brush of the late Mr. Thomas Clark, the Melbourne artist. A few days afterwards a vessel was prepared, and the Natives were induced to go on board, in order to reach splendid hunting-grounds, where no soldiers and parties were to be found, and where they would never be molested."

DAVIES 1973/4: p. 175

"It was at this time that portraits of the Tasmanians, copies of which appear in this book as plates A27-A28, were painted by Mr. Duterrau. But a few days later came the rub, for a vessel was prepared and he natives were induced to go on board, in order to go to the splendid hunting grounds that Mr. Robinson and so many others had told them about: a place, they were told, where their sadly reduced numbers would be safe; a place where no soldiers and no capture parties were to be found, and where they would never be molested."

Perhaps one understands how Sagona wrote of comparing J. Bonwick with D. Davies in her Annotated Bibliography of the Tasmanian Aborigines 1970- 1987 (Plomley Foundation: Launceston, Tasmania), 1989 . 

A SOLUTION? (A THIRD SOURCE?)

Given all of the above, is there the possibility that Bonwick and Davies wrote their items based on research from an earlier source? Returning to the beginning of Bonwick and Davies, when the French Captain Marion landed in 1772, we read the following:

BONWICK 1884: Page 3

"This is the account:--'About an hour after the French landed, Captain Marion landed. Advancing in front of him, one of the Aborigines offered him a lighted firebrand, that he might set light to a heap of wood heaped up on the flat shore. Marion took it, believing that it was a formality intended to give confidence to the savages; but hardly had the little pile of wood been enflamed, when the Aborigines retired in mass toward a little height, from which they threw afterwards a volley of stones which wounded the two captains.'"

DAVIES 1973/4: Page 13

"But a little later there was bloodshed: 'About an hour after the French fleet had landed, Captain Marion landed. Advancing in front of him, one of the aborigines offered him a lighted firebrand, indicating that he should set alight a heap of wood heaped up just above the waterline. Marion took it, believing it to be a formality that would go on to give friendship between the parties; but hardly had the pile of wood been lighted, when the aborigines retired en masse towards a little height on the foreshore, from which vantage point they threw a volley of stones, which wounded the two Captains on the beach below.'"

Even though both begin with "About an hour after the French," alas, the descriptions of the same 1772 event are different (even though both authors a century apart had their opening statements in quotation marks). Looking at other major sources and quotations used both by Bonwick in 1884 and Davies in 1973/1974 we read the following:

BONWICK 1884: Page 6

"But the most important narratives are those in the works of the French naturalists Labillardière and Péron. The former was with Admiral D'Entrecasteaux, in 1792; the latter with Admiral Baudin, in 1802. The first interview is thus described:--'We got ready a few cartridges as fast as we could, and set out towards the place where we had seen the Natives. It was now only nine o'clock. We had gone only a few steps before we met them. The men and youths were ranged in front, nearly in a semicircle; the women, children, and girls were a few paces behind.'"

DAVIES 1973/4: Page 16

"The most important contemporary accounts of Tasmania are those of the famous French naturalist Labillardiere and Péron. The former was a companion of Admiral d'Entrecasteaux on his visit in 1792; and the latter went with Admiral Baudin in 1802. Here is an extract of what Labillardiere had to say about his experiences on the island: 'We got ready a few cartridges as fast as we could, and set out towards the place where we had seen the aborigines. It was now only nine o'clock. We had gone only a few steps before we met them. The men and the youths were ranged in front, nearly in a semi-circle; the women, the children and then the older girls, were a few paces behind.'"

Interesting differences and similarities. One can read in Bonwick that "the hero of the hour was George August Robinson. He was of no high lineage. He was no worshipper of chivalry. He inherited no special enthusiasm. He had no direct training for a Mission" (J. Bonwick, 1884: 133) and read in Davies a century later:

"The man of the moment was George Augustus Robinson. He was of no high lineage and no worshipper of chivalry, nor did he inherit any special enthusiasm for the aborigines or have any direct training for a mission" (D.M. Davies, 1973/74: 157).

Reading about the final days of George Augustus Robinson's career and life, we have the following:

BONWICK 1884: Page 158

"A new sphere opened for him. Tasmanian settlers had crossed the Straits with their flocks, and the plains of Port Phillip were dotted with homesteads. The Native difficulty had arisen there. Cruelties on the one side, and outrages on the other, had indicated the beginning of another Black War. The Home Government, anxious to prevent a further depopulation of original inhabitants, sought by wise measures the conciliation of the dark tribes, and the safety of the colonists. Mr. Robinson received an offer of 500£ a year to be Protector of the Aborigines of Port Phillip. In 1838, he became a citizen of that colony. It is not within the scope of the present work to criticize the performance of his duties there. In 1853, he retired to enjoy his ease in England. Advancing age subdued the fire of his character, and in peaceful quietude he spent his declining days. He died at Prahran, Bath, on the 18th of October, 1866."

DAVIES 1973/4: Page 180-1

"Instead, a new sphere opened for him. The Tasmanian settlers had, with their flocks, crossed the Bass Straits into Victoria, Australia, and the plains of Port Phillip were becoming dotted with their homesteads. Hardly a surprising 'native difficulty' had arisen there. Cruelties were the order of the day on one side and 'outrages' on the other. All the indications seemed to point to the imminent outbreak of another 'Black War'. Mr. Robinson received an offer of £500 a year to be 'protector' of the aborigines of Port Phillip, and. by 1838, he had become a citizen of Victoria. It is not within the scope of this book to criticize the performance of his duties there. However, it can be said that in 1853 he sailed away to England. Advancing age subdued his former fire and vehemence, and he died in Bath in 1866."

Bonwick, almost a century before Davies, provides the reader with the exact date of Robinson's demise, and Bonwick also has the interesting point mentioned above that "The Home Government, anxious to prevent a further depopulation of original inhabitants, sought by wise measures the conciliation of the dark tribes, and the safety of the colonists," something Davies fails to mention.

We can read in Bonwick of "the removal of the Aborigines from the main island to one of the islands in Bass's Straits was contemplated even before the appointment of the Capture Parties" ( J. Bonwick, 1884: 158) and compare this with Davies and "the removal of the aborigines from the main island to one in Bass Straits was being discussed even before the making up of the capture parties" (D.M. Davies, 1973/74: 183). Bonwick wrote that "the terrible mortality of the Natives on Flinders Island excited the sympathy of their friends in Hobart Town" (J. Bonwick, 1884: 177) and Davies has "the terrible mortality of the Tasmanians on Flinders Island excited the sympathy of their friends in Hobart" ( D.M. Davies, 1973/74: 204). 

CONCLUSIONS!

To read Bonwick of 1884 and Davies of 1973/74 side-by-side is truly an overwhelming experience! I am sorry for the reader who happens upon one publication without being aware of the other. The fact is granted that there are differences in the 1884 publication and 1973/74 items, but the similarities are almost too incredible to be believed! I am also curious about the state of 20th Century scholarship: earlier (and virtually identical) versions of this paper were submitted in the 1990s to the American Anthropologist, Ethnohistory, Journal of Pacific History, University Journal (California State University, Chico), Science, as well as The Times Literary Supplement and were rejected by all. Two submissions (over a year apart) were also sent to the Tasmanian Historical Research Association (Sandy Bay, Tasmania), but the editor was not interested. Needless to say, I still think the topic is appropriate for scholarly consideration and given the World Wide Web and the fact that I discuss Bonwick/Davies in my various classes at California State University, Chico, hence this paper.

Since Davies did provide the reader with an "Index," one may read a set of statements dealing with the first (of thirteen) specific reference of Bonwick that are made by Davies in 1973/74, although (once again) Davies does not have the 1884 Bonwick publication in his bibliography, he does have the 1870 Bonwick.

Please consider Bonwick of 1884 and Davies of 1973/74, followed by Bonwick of 1870:

BONWICK 1884: Page 25

"I regret to say that, though I have been much favoured in my researches among the old records of Tasmania, especially by the late Mr. Bicheno, Colonial Secretary, under Governor Franklin, and afterwards by the Premier, Sir Richard Dry, I was so unfortunate as to discover no papers relative to the first six years of the settlement. The story goes, that upon the sudden decease of the first governor, Captain Collins being found dead in his chair, two of the leading officers of the Government placed a marine outside the door, so that they might be undisturbed, and then proceeded to burn every document in the office!!! Although I subsequently knew one of these gentlemen, it was not likely I should learn from himself the correctness of the report, any more than the motive for such vandalism. But I take this opportunity of acknowledging my gratitude to Mr. Hull, Clerk of the Tasmanian Council, and son of my old and esteemed neighbour, Mr. Commissary Hull, through whose kindness I got access to the only remaining document, and for the disentombment of which record he is to be credited. This was the Muster Book of 1810, &c., kept at the barrack, &c., kept at the barracks, in which the commanding officer entered the countersign of the day, and in which, also, occasional notices of the days proceedings were written. To the previous Muster Books, doubtless conveyed for safety to the Governor's office, have all disappeared; they probably added to the conflagration on that one dark night of destruction."

DAVIES 1973/74: Page 38

"There seemed to be no government or official record for the first six years after the settlement at Hobart. The explanation of this seems to lie in the story that, upon the sudden death of the first Governor, Captain Collins, who was found dead in his chair, two of the leading officers of the government placed a marine outside the door so that they would not be disturbed, and proceeded to burn every document in the office. James Bonwick who wrote at the time when the aborigines had just disappeared states: 'I must acknowledge my gratitude to Mr. Hull, Clerk of the Tasmanian Council, and son of my old and esteemed neighbour, Mr. Commissary Hull, through whose kindness I obtained access to the last remaining document, and for its preservation he is to be credited. This is the Muster Book of 1810, that was kept at the barracks, in which the commanding officer entered the countersign of the day, and in which, also, occasional notices of the day's happenings were written. The previous Muster Books, which for safety had been conveyed to the Governor's Office, all disappeared in the fire as mentioned above on that one dark night of destruction.'"

Bonwick used his own 1870 publication of The Last of the Tasmanians; or, The Black War of Van Diemen's Land as the basis of his 1884 volume entitled The Lost Tasmanian Race; and in his earlier 1870 voluem Bonwick wrote

"I regret to say that, though I have been much favoured in my researches among the old records of Tasmania, especially by the late Mr. Bicheno, Colonial Secretary under Governor Franklin, and by the present Premier there, Sir Richard Dry, I was so unfortunate as to discover no papers relative to the first six years of the settlement. The story goes, that upon the sudden decease of the first governor, Captain Collins found dead in his chair, two of the leading officers of the Government placed a marine outside the door, so that they might be undisturbed, and then proceeded to burn every document in the office!!! Although I subsequently knew one of these gentlemen, it was not likely I should learn from himself the correctness of the report, any more than the motive for such vandalism. A similar mysterious disappearance of papers I observed at Sydney; the lapse taking place about the time of the celebrated rebellion against Governor Bligh."

"But I take this opportunity of acknowledging my gratitude to Mr. Hull, Clerk of the Tasmanian Council, and his son of my old and esteemed neighbour, Mr. Commissary Hull, through whose kindness I got access to the only remaining early document, and for the disentombment of which record he is to be credited. This was the Muster Book of 1810, &c, kept at the barracks, in which the commanding officer entered the countersign of the day, and in which, also, occasional notices of the day's proceedings were written. The previous Muster Books, doubtless conveyed for safety to the Governor's office, have all disappeared; they probably added to the conflagration on that one dark night of destruction" (James Bonwick, 1870, The Last of the Tasmanians; or, The Black War of Van Diemen's Land, page 39).

While there are similarities between the Bonwick of 1870 and Bonwick of 1884, the Davies of 1973/74 is not a perfect match with either Bonwick of 1870 or 1884 and I leave it to true Tasmanian experts to make a thorough line-by-line comparison and analysis of all of the Bonwick publications (1870 and 1884) with Davies of 1973/74. The final Bonwick-Davies comparison which follows is perhaps even more poignant when one considers the parallel readings:

BONWICK 1884: Page 38

"Who could adequately picture the story of the wrongs of the Tasmanians? We are indignant at the destruction of the Guanches of the Canary Isles by the Spaniards; we are horrified at the exterminating policy of the Napoleon of South African Zulus; we are awestruck at the total disappearance of whole nations of antiquity; and should we have no feeling of regret at causes which led to the annihilation of the tribes of Tasmania? They melted not away as the snow of the Alps beneath the soft breath of the Fön from the South, but were stricken down in their might, as the dark firs of the forest by the ruthless avalanche. It was not a contest between rival nations of civilization. No senator uttered a 'Carthage must be destroyed' to incite the faltering energies of a struggling people. No Thermopylae, which witnessed the expiring effort of its sons of freedom, remains in Tasmania's mountain fastnesses. No bard has chronicled the deeds of heroism, no Ossian told of chiefs and daughters fair. A long series of cruelties and misfortune gradually wrought the destruction of these primitive inhabitants."

DAVIES 1973/74: Page 57

"Who can give a true picture of the terrible wrongs done to the Tasmanian aborigines? We are horrified at the attempts by various races at the extermination of Jews, the extermination by the Spaniards of in [sic] Incas and the caribs, and more recently the Indians of the Amazon Forests. Should we not equally regret the causes that led to the annihilation of the tribes of Tasmania? It was not the result either of a contest between rival nations or civilizations. No senator uttered a 'Carthage must be destroyed', to incite the faltering energies of a struggling people. No Thermopylae, which witnessed the expiring efforts of its Greek sons of freedom, remains in Tasmania's mountain fastness. No Welsh bard has sung the deeds of heroism. But it was a long series of misfortunes and cruelties that gradually wrought the destruction of these primitive inhabitants of Tasmania."

Please note the reference to "Spaniards" and "Carthage" and "Thermopylae" almost a century apart.

There are numerous other interesting comparisons in Bonwick of 1884 and Davies of 1973/74, but there is insufficient space to document them in this brief web paper and my argument should have been established by now. You will recall that Sagona pointed wrote that "Chapters 13 and 14 in Davies are full of errors" so I make no comparisons with any publications on Davies' words on "The Physique and Culture of the Tasmanians" (Chapter 13) and "Origins of the Tasmanians" (Chapter 14). It will be interesting for someone else to comment on these chapters of Davies.

Once again, I invite anyone to compare Bonwick and Davies side-by-side and draw their own conclusions on the relationship between the The Lost Tasmanian Race published by James Bonwick in 1884 and the 1973 and 1974 David Davies' items entitled The Last of the Tasmanians. I have reached my conclusions: et tu?


(1) © [All Rights Reserved] This paper was placed on the World Wide Web on 30 November 1998. About this author: Charles F. Urbanowicz (born 1942) received the Ph.D. in Anthropology from the University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon (1972) based on 1970 and 1971 field work in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga, combined with archival research in Hawai'i, Australia, New Zealand, and Fiji. Reviews on Pacific topics have appeared in Ethnohistory (1975 and 1977), The Journal of the Polynesian Society (1978), Pacific Studies (1981), and the American Anthropologist (1989). Most recent Tongan publications include a chapter entitled "Tonga" for the Encyclopedia of World Cultures (1991), edited by D. Levinson as well as a Japanese translation of a chapter dealing with tourism in Tonga for the Japanese edition (1991) of the 2nd edition of Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism (1989) edited by Valene Smith; this 1989 chapter was a modest revision of the chapter which appeared in the 1977 edition of the same title. Various articles on Tongan topics have been published in Ethnohistory (1973 and 1977), The Journal of the Polynesian Society (1977), Journal de la Société des Océanistes (1978), and Pacific Viewpoint (1979) and taking heed from the phrase Ab alio expectes quod alteri feceris ["You may look for the same treatment from others as you extend to others" or "Expect that as you do unto one, another will do unto you"], it is pointed out that identical chapters on Tonga were published in Psychological Anthropology (1975) edited by S. L. Seaton and J. M. Claessen as well as Political Anthropology: The State of the Art (1979) edited by T. R. Williams; similarities in certain presentations/papers also occur in some of my single-authored and joint-authored temecommunication papers/presentations of the late 1970s and 1980s. Much of my current research now focuses on "Charles Darwin" and/or the "gaming industry" and several of these papers obviously draw upon and build upon one another. For a complete résumé, with exact publications and titles, please go to the "home page" indicated below and continue from there. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.


TONGAN SOCIAL STRUCTURE: DATA FROM AN ETHNOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTION.

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

[This Page is printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1972TonganPaper.html]

15 August 2003 [1]

© [All Rights Reserved.] This paper was originally presented on December 2, 1972, at the ASAO [Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania] Symposium that I organized for the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Toronto, Canada. It was placed on the WWW on August 15, 2003 as an "example" of ideas and writing of 1972. The text below is essentially unchanged from the original 1972 paper (with additions being indicated in [ ]'s below). In placing this paper on the WWW some 31 years after it was written I attempt to demonstrate to my students that life is, in fact, cumulative and ideas develop out of previous ideas; I also follow the 1963 words of Sir Karl Popper [1902-1994]: "we can learn from our mistakes [stress added]" (Conjectures And Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 1963, page vii). Several of my earlier papers have already been placed on the WWW for student use, such as Urbanowicz 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970a , 1970b, 1971, 1973, 1976a, 1976b, 1977, 1980 and1983 (all refeferenced below); in placing them on the WWW, I was often reminded of the words of stanza 51 from the 1859 (first) edition translation of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám of Naishápúr by Edward Fitzgerald (1809-1883)

"The Moving Finger writes; and having Writ,
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it."

Please note the following: "The first Edition of the translation of Omar Khayyám, which appeared in 1859, differs so much from those which followed, that it has thought better to print it in full, instead of attempting to record the differences." W. Aldis Wright, n.d. [1932?], The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám And the Salámán And Absál of Jámí Rendered Into English Verse by Edward Fitzgerald (NY: A.L. Burt Company), page 119.

Please see the footnote below for the original March 24, 1972 Symposium submission. This 1972 paper dealt with my Ph.D. fieldwork concerning the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and several publications resulted from that 1970-1971 fieldwork, also referenced below. I was last in Tonga in 1971.

Historical footnote: Born in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1942, I graduated high school in 1960 and after attending New York University in 1960-1961, I enlisted in the United States Air Force (1961-1965), was Honorably Discharged, and eventually received the B.A. in Sociology/Anthropology in 1967 from Western Washington State College (now Western Washington University). I began Graduate Work in Anthropology at the University of Oregon in September 1967 and received the M.A. in Anthropology in 1969. In July 1970 I went (with my wife) to do fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and was awarded the Ph.D. in 1972. For a complete résumé, please see http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/resume.html). I taught in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota for 1972-1973 and joined the faculty of California State University, Chico, in August 1973 and have been happily here ever since! This December 1972 paper was written during my first-year of full-time teaching at the University of Minnesota when I was thirty years of age; incidentally, at this 1972 American Anthropological Association Meeting in Toronto, Canada, I was interviewed for the position at California State University, Chico!

INTRODUCTION
ABORIGINAL CULTURE, DISCREPANCIES, AND MODEL
INDIGENOUS-INDUCED
SUMMATION

[ORIGINAL 1972] REFERENCES CITED
[APPENDIX I: SELECTED WEB PAGES PERTAINING TO THE PACIFIC AND THE POLYNESIAN KINGDOM OF TONGA]
[APPENDIX II: SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ PUBLICATIONS DEALING WITH TONGA (in reverse chronological order: 1972 -> 1994)]
[APPENDIX III: OTHER SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ HISTORICAL WEB PAGES (in reverse chronological order]: 1965 -> 1983]

[PLEASE NOTE: APPENDIX I, APPENDIX II, AND APPENDIX III removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 496 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]

INTRODUCTION

Two concepts need explicit definitions for this paper: by "social structure" I am referring to a model which the ethnographer constructs from basic data. This, of course, is after Lévi-Strauss (1953), although I am not entering into a discussion of either mechanical-statistical or conscious-unconscious models. The model is a synchronic description of specific events of Tongan culture. Following Scriven (1989: 90), the term model is used since a model can deal with "an indefinite number of facts." The model I am presenting is not a theory, but a descriptive device developed at this time to deal with discrepancies in (a) factual and (b) theoretical statements about Tongan ethnographic data which are found in the literature.

By "ethnographic reconstruction" I am referring to an historical ethnography of aboriginal Tongan culture. The ethnographic reconstruction is an attempt at establishing a "base line" of Tongan culture in the past. Since the reconstruction is based on documents left by European observers in the past (vide Sturtevant 1966: 7; Fenton 1962: 2), an ethnographic reconstruction is more likely to be a description of cultural processes and one must make inferences from known descriptions to the unknown aboriginal (pre-European) past.

The validity and "truth" of an ethnographic reconstruction of any aboriginal culture "rests on an appeal to the evidence" which is contained within the documents of the past (Dark 1957: 232). The various descriptions recorded by European observers of early-contacted Tongan must be extracted from their accounts, compared with known ethnographic data, and only accepted as evidence after logical and critical analysis. My ethnohistorical research culminated in ethnohistorical facts of the past, and such ethnohistorical facts can be used as ethnographic facts of the past in constructing the reconstruction. (See Urbanowicz 1972 for a detailed explication of the documentary research.) The documents from which ethnohistorical facts of Tonga were culled were primarily unpublished manuscript materials of the Wesleyan Methodist missionaries who had arrived in Tonga from 1822 onwards. Ethnohistorical facts of aboriginal (and changing) Tongan culture were extracted from missionary Journals, Diaries, personal and business letters, and notes which the missionaries left behind. The Wesleyan documents (and appropriate published accounts) for the period 1822-1875 were read and examined for their ethnographic content.

Ethnohistorical research involves working from the present into the past and into the present once again. I did fieldwork in Tonga from July through October of 1970 and then proceeded to Australia where the archival research was conducted (primarily at the Mitchell Library). In Australia I extracted the ethnohistorical facts from the documents and then compared and discussed these once again in Tonga from August through October of 1971. Hence, some comparable data of contemporary and early-contacted Tonga were gathered over a period of sixteen months.

Ethnohistory is thus the combination of the anthropologist's ethnographic-ethnological knowledge and historical method. Ethnohistory is the application of historical method to a specific corpus of documents specifically chosen for a problem. The ethnohistorian focuses on the "ethno-" in the term, in presenting an ethnography of the past for a specific group of people; the "history" refers not to the writing of history, but to the applications of historical method to gather the verifiable ethnographic facts of the past. Ethnohistory is not a study of change per se, although it eventually contributes to studies of change when comparable data are gathered from a particular span of time (or when inferences are made from a known description or model to an unknown). The term ethnohistory as used by ethnographers is not synonymous with "culture history," as the distinguished Pacific historian H. E. Maude has written (1971: 21), although the process of change can be extracted from the product of ethnohistorical research. 

ABORIGINAL CULTURE, DISCREPANCIES, AND MODEL

It must be stressed that in this paper I am explicitly referring to aboriginal (or early-contacted) Tongan culture, that is to say, a time when the total population of the archipelago of 256 square miles was approximately between fifteen and twenty-thousand indigenous inhabitants. A numerical "guestimate" for the year 1800, Goldman's "terminal date" for aboriginal Polynesian society (1970: xxviii), would probably fall within this fifteen to twenty thousand range. The most frequently cited figure for early 19th century Tonga is that of 18,500 recorded by Wilkes in 1840 from data provided by the local Wesleyan missionaries (Wilkes 1845 III: 29), but as McArthur accurately points out, this is grossly at odds with a Wesleyan "guestimate" of 50,000 for 1847 (McArthur 1967: 73; vide Lawry 1850: 245).

I stress the approximate figure of 15,000 (or less) inhabitants for aboriginal Tonga, since this is one of the reasons that I believe there have been discrepancies in interpreting aboriginal Tongan culture: I believe that various researchers have erroneously projected from the behavior, attitudes, and interaction patterns of 20th century Tongans to what they (the researchers) believe to have been the behavior, attitudes, and interaction patterns of aboriginal Tongans. Quite simply, there are more Tongans today than in the past, with an estimated Tongan population on 31 December 1970 at 86,055 (Tapa: 1971: 4).

I believe that this erroneous projection into the past to be inherent in some parts of Gifford's massive work (1929), as well as in Aoyagi (1966) and Kaeppler (1971). This is especially true when 20th century authors write of the Tongan concept of the ha'a. Gifford, who did his fieldwork in Tonga for nine months in 1920-1921, wrote of the ha'a as a "named lineage" (1929: 29), and Firth (1936; 1957) has discussed the ha'a in the context of ramage. Kaeppler, who worked in Tonga for eighteen months from 1964 through 1967, wrote of the ha'a as a group of individuals associated with a title holder (1971: 180), and stated that "Ha'a are societal divisions comprised of individuals associated with ranked titles" (1971: 188).

What causes the discrepancies in the Tongan analyses are the projections into aboriginal culture that 20th century writers make, for the ethnohistorical data suggest that the ha'a were more than lineages, or ramages, or societal divisions--the ha'a were not only a basic factor in aboriginal culture, but every individual knew of his of her ha'a affiliation. Thus I believe Kaeppler only to be partially correct when she writes:

"Most Tongans today (and probably traditionally) do not know the relative ranking or origin of the various ha'a, because these are the affairs of the chiefs and do not concern them. (Kaeppler 1971: 188)

Kaeppler is only partially correct because some 20th century Tongans do have difficulty in tracing their own ha'a affiliation--my criticism comes from her inclusion of "traditional" (i.e. aboriginal?) Tonga into the statement.

The model which I am suggesting for an analysis of the ha'a in aboriginal Tonga (i.e. traditional) takes its impetus not only from Lévi-Strauss, but also from Silverman's "blood and mud" hypothesis (Silverman 1971: 72). In this instance, for Tonga, "mud" stands for the aboriginal land system and related title system associated with the land, and "blood" stands for an individual's title and personal rank based on genealogical position. Mud and blood interaction culminated in the activities of the ha'a in aboriginal Tonga. I am here defining the ha'a in aboriginal Tonga as being a corporate descent group, existing at any one point in time (on the land with titles) and through time (through the titles and rank of the individual).

In speaking of the ha'a as a corporate descent group, I am following Fortes who writes:

"Reduced to its bare essentials, therefore, corporateness, where it exists as a jural category, considered from within, means the perpetuation of an aggregate by exclusive recruitment to restricted membership that carries actual or potential equality of status and mutuality of interests and obligations in its internal affairs. For the corporation sole, it reduces to perpetuation by preordained rules of succession. Considered from without, however, the critical feature is the capacity allocated to corporate group or office, primarily in the politico-jural domain, to exercise specified rights and fulfill specified duties and responsibilities, either through representatives, or collectively, as a juristic person." (Fortes 1969: 306)

In aboriginal Tonga, with a reduced population, it is my contention that every person (1) had a ha'a affiliation and consequently (2) knew of the ha'a and were able to rank them.(A reflection of this rank ordering of the various ha'a is indicated in aboriginal seating arrangements of the kava ceremonies and in the 20th century taumafa, or King's, kava ceremony.) It is also my contention that in aboriginal Tonga, as contrasted to 20th century Tonga, kinship affiliation was an important part of ha'a affiliation for an individual. Thus I believe Kaeppler to be in error when she writes the following, and wishes to project it back to aboriginal Tonga:

"A chief's 'people' need not be related to him by blood, but rather are associated with him by virtue of living on the land (tofi'a) which goes with the title." (Kaeppler 1971: 188)

Kaeppler is writing of 20th century Tonga and this is apparently the case as Morton also point out (1972: 52), but it is not an accurate representation of aboriginal Tonga. I believe Kaeppler has placed undue emphasis, as Mead has pointed out for Fiji-Tonga-Samoa work in general (1969: 220), on "the tendency to look to territoriality as the basis of the kind of complex social organization which underlies the development of the state." The ha'a was not only a concept of land, in that every ha'a had a specific area of land on an island and this land was known to belong to a specific ha's, but the ha'a in aboriginal Tonga was settled by kinsmen of the title holder (who was the spokesman of the ha'a). Part of the problem of discussing the ha'a, if not the major problem, was that Gifford merely wrote of 13 "recognized" ha'a (1929: 33) in 1920-1921 and in aboriginal Tonga there were numerous others. 

INDIGENOUS-INDUCED

In aboriginal Tonga the three major title were those of the Tu'i Tonga, Tu'i Ha'a Takalaua, and Tu'i Kanokopolu. From these three title all the ha'a eventually developed. When the various missionaries arrived in the archipelago, some realized part of the Tongan system of ranking. The Wesleyan missionary Lawry recorded in his Diary for September 13, 1823, that

"the following is the order in which the present Chiefs of the Friendly Islands, rank, viz:-- 1. Tooitonga [Tu'i Tonga] 2. Tooihatacalaow [Tu'i Ha'a Takalaua] 3. Tooicanacabooloo [Tu'i Kanokupolu]."

Another Wesleyan missionary, John Thomas (in the archipelago from 1826 to 1850 and again from 1855 to 1859) wrote in one of his manuscript accounts:

"Formerly there were three ranks of nobles in Tonga to which the term 'Eiki or Lord applied, of these the Tuitonga stood first, then the Tamaha, and next the Hau or civil ruler." (J. Thomas, MS. No. 5: 1)

The Tamaha was the title given to the child which Thomas said could have been male or female (J. Thomas, MS. No 4: 30), of the sister of the Tu'i Tonga, who herself had the title of Tu'i Tonga Fefine. The different ranking of Lawry and Thomas result from the fact that there were Tamaha before there were hau. Included in the hau at various points in time were the titled individuals Tu'i Ha'a Takalaua and Tu'i Kanokupolu.

The Tu'i Tonga was the embodiment of the sacred and the secular in aboriginal Tonga and the nominal leader of all Tongans. In approximately the 15th century, however, a division was made between the sacred and the secular and the Tu'i Tonga Kau'ulufonua delegated his secular authorities to a brother and the Ha'a Takalaua was begun and Mo'ungamotu'a was the first Tu'i Ha'a Takalaua. A description from a manuscript account, ostensibly "written by [the last] Tamaha Amelia, and begun in the 27th. day of the year 1844" (Collocott, MS. No. II: 19) provides some basic ethnohistoric information. The Tamaha, who was described as "the living oracle of the Tongans" (Thomas, MS. No. 6: 59), probably dictated the account since she was well over sixty years of age in the 1840s. The Tamaha spoke of the Tu'i Tonga Kau'ulufonua and how "he portioned out to each of his brothers an island to be king over" and how Kau'ulufonua:

"appointed Mougamotua Tui Haatakalaua, and he was to reside at Fonuamotu as he was to be protector of the Tuitonga (as the Tuitongas were apt to be assassinated), and the Tuitonga was safe because his younger brother kept guard over him." (Collocott, MS. No. II: 21)

In approximately the 17th century a Tu'i Ha'a Takalaua, Mo'ungatonga, delegated some of his secular responsibilities to a son and the Ha'a Ngata Motu'a was begun, with the son Ngata becoming the first Tu'i Kanokopolu and also receiving the "royal estates at the West end of Tonga[tapu] called Hihifo" (Thomas, MS. No. 5: 1). The Ha'a Ngata Motu'a, for example, was thus composed of the individual Ngata and all of his sons and their kinsmen. The sons of Ngata all received titles and specific areas of land in Hihifo. When Lawry was in Tonga in 1823 this specific area of land was still intact and Lawry wrote in his Diary for the expansion of the mission that "The next District proper for a Mission Station is that of Heefo" (W. Lawry, Diary entry of 28 April 1823); Anderson, who was with Cook in 1777 when he visited Tonga, wrote of the district "Hee'heefo" and that Tongatapu Island:

"is divided into many districts of which we have been able to procure the names of above thirty each of which has a chief who may be considered as Lords or barons." (In Beaglehole, 1967: 951).

The point I am trying to stress is that (1) the Ha'a Ngata Motu'a existed as a corporate descent group in a specific area of land; and (2), although it requires elaborate genealogical work which I do not show at this time, the Ha'a Ngata Motu'a was a working entity (recognized from within and without) as a result of kinship links. Mud and blood were combined together to form the ha'a.

There are numerous examples from the manuscript accounts, describing the 19th century warfare, where the ties of kinship between the ha'a went between island group and island group. The need for manpower for the 1837 and 1840 wars on Tongatapu Island had men going from Ha'apai and Vava'u to Tongatapu. Early in 1837, the Wesleyan missionary Thomas wrote in his Journal at Vava'u that he had attended "the Fono this morning" and learned that the Tongan King George "has sent for as many men to go [to Tongatapu] as wish to fight, [and] upwards of 130 stood up as being ready to go" (Thomas, Journal entry of January 17, 1837). During the 1840 war, the Wesleyan Missionary Rabone wrote from Tongatapu:

"This morning it was announced that a canoe was in sight. We went to the shore and it proved to be Kelebi Havea (Tuihateiho) from Tugua [in the Ha'apai group] & upwards of 100 men on board." (S. Rabone, Journal entry of February 14, 1840.)

If one overemphasizes territoriality to the detriment of kinship ties in aboriginal Tongan culture, one has difficulty in "explaining" why the Tongan chiefs were able to call in support for specific battles from various parts of the archipelago.

The "induced" in the section heading of this part of the paper refers to the fact that as a result of Western influence, the numerous ha'a in Tonga were eventually consolidated; the ha'a were already in the process of being consolidated by 1800, but I believe the process was accelerated as a result of the missionary influence on the islands. "Induced" changes in Tonga truly came with the Constitution of 1875--a landmark for any studies on Tongan culture. With the Constitution, a great deal of the inherent consensus and flexibility of Tongan culture was removed: where before a Tongan chief was a chief because of the consent of the ha'a, now a chief was a chief because of the law. A rigid system of patrilineal inheritance was introduced, which cannot be elaborated upon at this point.

In aboriginal Tongan culture, in many respects politics was kinship writ large. When a chief sent an individual to look after/rule a specific village, district, or island, the individual thus sent was more often than not a kinsmen of the chief. Thomas wrote in one of his manuscript accounts:

"It may be noticed that all the principal offices of the government, were filled by members of the Hau family as the Governors of Islands at a distance as well as those near at hand, Chiefs of Districts, and heads of Towns and villages, they were the relations and the professed friends of the King, whom they appeared to wish to live to serve, and to know." (J. Thomas, MS. No. 5: 5)

The Wesleyan missionary P. Turner provides corroborating evidence in his Journal entry of August 24, 1851: "The King has sent his eldest son to be the head ruler here [at Vava'u] and may be called a king under him."

Thus the Tongan system of titles connected the "mud and blood" of the ha'a.

One further induced change must be mentioned, even if in passing: in aboriginal Tongan the "personal rank" of a man was more important that his "title rank." With European contact, this has been reversed and "title rank" is more important than "personal/blood/genealogical rank." This is too lengthy to be expanded on at this time (but see Urbanowicz n.d.). 

SUMMATION

The most important thing to stress is that aboriginal Tonga is definitely not 20th century Tonga; and numerous projections made from faulty 20th century data and interpretations as to what aboriginal Tonga was like can be misleading. Ethnohistorical research, when there is a sizeable corpus of documents, can provide us with some basic ethnographic facts of the past. The obvious limitations to ethnohistorical research is the fact that if the data (or descriptions) were not recorded in the first place, no amount of reading will ever produce them. But this limitation is one of ethnohistory's greatest strength: if one calls documents "informants" then those "informants" never die--they are available for future researchers to check on. Not only can future researchers evaluate my ethnographic facts of the past (and my brief model of "mud-blood-ha'a"), but the identical "informants" will still be available for certain hypotheses of the future.

Finally, this paper must be considered a "working paper" prepared for the Toronto ASAO Symposium and circulated prior to the meeting to all participants to facilitate discussion. The paper simply cannot be considered a final statement on Tongan culture--if indeed a final statement is ever plausible or desirable.


[ORIGINAL 1972] REFERENCES CITED

Machiko Kitahari Aoyagi, 1966, Kinship organization and behavious in a contemporary Tongan village. The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 75: 141-176.

John Cawte Beagblehole, 1967, The Voyage of the resolution and Discovery 1776-1789 (Volume III Part Two) (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society).

E. E. V. Collocott, n.d., Papers on Tonga, 1845-19??, I-V (Sydney: Mitchell Library ML MSS. 207).

Phillip Dark, 1957, Methods of synthesis in ethnohistory. Ethnohistory, 4: 231-278.

WIlliam N. Fenton, 1962, Ethnohistory and its problems. Ethnohistory, 9: 1-23.

Raymond Firth, 1936, We the Tikopia (London: Allen & Unwin, Ltd.).

Raymond Firth, 1957, A note on descent groups in Polynesia. Man, 57: 4-8.

Meyer Fortes, 1969, Kinship and the Social Order: The Legacy of Lewis Henry Morgan (Chicago: Aldine).

Edward Winslow Gifford, 1929, Tongan Society (Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin No. 16, Honolulu).

Irving Goldman, 1970, Ancient Polynesian Society (University of Chicago Press).

Adrienne Kaeppler, 1971, Rank. in Tonga. Ethnology , 10, No. 2: 174-193.

Walter Lawry, n.d., Diary (February 1818 - February 1825) (Sydney: Mitchell Library A1973 [copy also under M.O.M. No. 134]).

Walter Lawry, 1850, Friendly and Feejee Islands: A Missionary Visit....Edited by Rev. Elijah Hoole (London: Gilfin).

Claude Lévi-Strauss, 1953, Social Structure. Anthropology Today (Chaired by A.L. Kroeber), pp. 524-553 (Chicago: University Press).

Henry Evans Maude, 1971, Pacific history--Past, present and future. Journal of Pacific History, 6: 3-24.

Norma McArthur, 1967, Island Populations of the Pacific (Canberra: Australian National University Press).

Margaret Mead, 1969 (2nd edition), Social Organization of Manu'a (Reprint of First Edition of 1930) (Honolulu: Benrice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 76).

Keith L. Morton, 1972, Kinship, Economics, and Exchange in a Tongan Village (Eugene: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon).

Stephen Rabone, n.d., Journals (1835-1849) (Sydney: Mitchell Library ML MSS. 47).

Michael Scrivem 1968, The philosophy of science. International Encyclopedia of the Social Science Volume 14, pp. 83-92 (NY: MacMillan).

Martin G. Silverman, 1971, Disconcerting Issues: Meaning and Struggle in a Resettled Pacific Community (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press).

William C. Sturtevant, 1966, Anthropology, history, and ethnohistory. Ethnohistory, 13: 1-51.

Sione Tapa, 1971, Report of the Minister of Health for the Year 1970 (Nuku'alofa: Government printing Office).

John Thomas, n.d., Journal 6 (October 1834 - March 1838) (Sydney: Mitchell Library Microfilm FM4/1434 reel 43, original in London).

John Thomas, n.d., MS. No. 4, History (Sydney: Mitchell Library Microfilm FM4/1439 reel 48, original in London).

John Thomas, n.d., MS. No. 5, Ranks of Chiefs (Sydney: Mitchell Library Microfilm, FM4/1439 reel 48, original in London).

John Thomas, n.d., MS. No. 6, Names of Islands (Sydney: Mitchell Library Microfilm, FM4/1439 reel 48 (original in London).

Peter Turner, n.d., Journal (June 1, 1851 - July 8, 1853) (Sydney: Mitchell Libary B310).

Charles F. Urbanowicz, 1972, Tongan Culture: The Methodology of an Ethnographic Reconstruction (Eugene: Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon).

Charles F. Urbanowicz, n.d., Change in rank and status in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Submitted for consideration for publication for the IXth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (Psychological Anthropology Volume/Session), Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, September 1-8, 1973. [AUGUST 2003 Note. This paper was eventually published, twice: see 1975a and 1979a below.]

Charles Wilkes, 1845, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition...1838-1842, Volume III. (Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard).


[PLEASE NOTE: "APPENDIX I, APPENDIX II, AND APPENDIX III" have been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]


(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] [Original 1972 footnote:] To be presented December 2, 1972, at the ASAO [Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania] Symposium "Recent Work in Samoa and Tonga: Methodological Situations and the Data" at the 71st Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Toronto, Canada. The paper draws upon my own dissertation research, which should be consulted (1972) for full an further particulars. As stated in the final paragraph, this is a "working paper" and hence, may not be quoted or reproduced without the permission of the author. [Note from August 2003: On March 24, 1972, the following Symposum description was submited to the organizers of the 71st American Anthropological Association Meetings (and it was obviously accepted for inclusion in the program.] The Symposium will have papers presented by individuals who have completed recent research on problems involving data from Samoa and Tonga. Methological and substantive issues of the research are handled in the course of the papers and discussion. Individual papers deal with the expectations of the original research design with eventual accomplishments. Anthrolpologists who have worked in Oceania will be asked to comment on the similarities-differences of the current research compared to their own achievements.] [In addition to my paper that day, presentations were made by Shulamit Decktor-Korn, Keith Morton, and Frank Young. Discussants for the Symposium were Lowell Holmes, Margaret Mead, and Bob Tonkinson.] [To return to the top of the paper, please click here.]


JOHN THOMAS, TONGANS, AND TONGA!

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

2 February 1998 [1]

[NOTE: This page was printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Pub_Papers/John_Thomas.html]

© This paper was originally was originally published on July 15, 1976 in The Tonga Chronicle (Nuku'alofa, Tonga, page 7) and was placed on the WWW in 1998 without any changes from the original.)

"The spot on which we are about to live is called Amelica, for America."

With these words, the Reverend John Thomas established his mission station on Tongatapu on 27 July 1826. I have been researching "things Tongan" since 1970, and late in that year I discovered these intriguiging words in a microfilm copy of the Journal of John Thomas, located in the Mitchell Library in Sydney, Australia.

The Reverend John Thomas set sail from England on April 27, 1825 and after sailing to Australia, he and his small (but determined party) eventually sailed to Tonga. The missionaries on the Elizabeth, the Reverend John Thomas and John Hutchinson and their families, sighted the islands of 'Eua and 'Eueiki on June 23, 1826. After eventually landing at Nuku'alofa and meeting with Aleamotu'a, Thomas and Hutchinson decided to establish their mission station in Hihifo, under Ata.

Much has been written about various Europeans and their influence in introducing Christianity to Tonga, but it should be pointed out that an incident took place on Tongatapu in April 1826 which might have been something which made the way easier for Thomas and Hutchinson. In April 1826 two Tahitian teachers of the London Missionary Society stopped at Tongatapu en route to Fiji. The two Tahitians, Hape and Tafeta, were accompanied by a Fijian who had been converted to the LMS Christianity in Tahiti, and one Tongan who had also been converted in Tahiti. The Tongan also had his Tahitian wife with him.

This small group of LMS converts was persuaded to stay in Nuku'alofa by Aleamotu'a and, what is more important, they received his protection. Settled in the area, Hape and Tafeta began to teach the Tongans using a Tahitian translation of the Bible. The two Tahitians, with the assistance of the Tongans, constructed the first church in Tonga and opened the first school. One 20th Century Wesleyan Missionary to Tonga, the Reverend E. E. V. Collocott, once wrote that "these two Pacific Islanders, Hape and Tafeta, are the real founders of the Christian Church in Tonga." (In his unpublished manuscript entitled The Chalice of Life which is available in the Mitchell Library: B1450.)

Islanders have always been important in the Christianization of the Pacific. After the Reverend Walter Lawry arrived on Tongatapu in 1822 he sent two Tongans back to Sydney on the St. Michael. The Tongans served as representatives of Tonga and when the St. Michael made its return trip to Tonga in 1823, the prestigious Sydney Gazette reported in its issue of April 24, 1823, that "Tahtah and Footahcava, the two natives of Tonga, had returned by the St. Michael. These fine men had gone home laden with presents from some of the most distinguished personages in the colony."

When the Reverend Lawry left Tongatapu in 1823 he took two others Tongans away with him: one stayed in Sydney and one, Watson Nau, went on with him to England. Watson Nau, or Tammy Now, as John Thomas wrote of him, was of tremendous importance to the missionaries--on the lengthy voyage from England to Tongatapu, Tammy Now helped John Thomas to learn the Tongan language. When they arrived at Tongatapu, Tammy Now helped the missionaries get established.

The evidence is quite clear that if Tongans had not assisted the various European missionaries who landed in Tonga, the missions would never have been firmly established. This should be of interest to all who have an abiding interest in Tongan history and culture.


[1] © [All Rights Reserved.] This document was created by Urbanowicz on 2 February 1998; for a 1993 item dealing with "Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific" (including various links) please click here. "Traditional" Urbanowicz publications dealing with Tonga which might be of interest to readers include:

[PLEASE NOTE: various references have been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]


COMMENTS ON BRONISLAW MALINOWSKI (1884-1942) FOR ANTH 296 (HISTORY & THEORY) AT CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, CHICO

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

29 October 1968 (1)

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Malinowski1968.html]

© [All Rights Reserved.] This brief item is based on a Graduate Seminar (ANTH 507) taken at the University of Oregon in the Fall Quarter of 1968. The original paper was entitled "Notes" and was dated October 29, 1968 and was originally placed on the WWW on December 30, 1998; slight cosmetic changes were made in April and July 2001.

As an historical footnote: I was born in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1942, graduated high school in 1960, and after attending New York University in 1960-1961, I enlisted for four years in the United States Air Force (1961-1965), was Honorably Discharged, and eventually received the B.A. in Sociology/Anthropology in 1967 from Western Washington State College (now Western Washington University). I began Graduate Work in Anthropology at the University of Oregon in September 1967 and received the M.A. in Anthropology in 1969 and in July 1970 I went (with my wife) to do fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and received the Ph.D. in 1972: for a complete résumé, please see http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/resume.html). I taught in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota in 1972-1973 and joined the faculty of California State University, Chico, in August 1973 and have been happily here ever since!

This October 1968 Graduate Seminar paper (written in my second year of graduate school when I was twenty-six years of age) still, I believe, survives the test of time. The text is unchanged from the original 1968 Graduate Seminar presentation except for the the specific additions at the end for the ANTH 296 class at CSU, Chico, as well as the various WWW sites incorporated throughout and/or included at the end of this paper.

There are some points concerning Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942) and Marcel Mauss (1872-1950) which should be brought to your attention.

In 1922 (Argonauts of the Western Pacific) Malinowski wrote of the kula operating in the region of the Trobriand Islands. He called it a "novel type" of ethnological fact, a form of exchange which was half-commercial and half-ceremonial (page 510). The exchange of the kula valuables, the vaygua (mwali and souvali), took place between established male partners on an inter-tribal basis. This kula partnership established mutual duties and obligations between the men, which varied "with the distance between their villages and their reciprocal status" (page 91). Only a limited number of men in a district could carry on this exchange and Malinowski does not give explicit facts as to why this was so and who the men were. However, it is important to note that the exchange of the kula variables was not restricted to any one group of people: chiefs and commoners could partake of the kula transactions and Malinowski does point out that "The number of partners a man has varies with his rank and importance" (page 91). Wearing of the kula variables was not restricted to men and women and children on occasion could wear the mwali and souvali (pages 87-88). In 1922 Malinowski did not give an elaborate theoretical assessment of the "meaning" of the kula, merely providing a descriptive summary of kula activities. He points out in 1935 (Coral Gardens And Their Magic, Vol. I: 456) that were he to evaluate the integral function of the kula, he would attempt to show that for the Trobriand Islands (at least) the kula as a cultural activity "is to a large extent a surrogate and substitute for head-hunting and war."

In writing of "gifts" in the Trobriand Islands in 1922, Malinowski sought to establish a seven-fold classification of Trobriand gifts, payments, and commercial transactions. Although Malinowski was the proponent of grasping and presenting the point of view of the native it is surprising to read Malinowski on "pure gifts" (page 178): "The natives undoubtedly would not think of free gifts as forming one class, as being all of the same nature."

In 1925, Mauss [Essai sur le Don] criticized Malinowski for his inadequate presentation of the theory behind the kula activities and for his views on gifts in the Trobriand Islands. The mapula was the specific payment that Mauss criticized Malinowski about.

In 1926 (Crime And Custom In Savage Society) Malinowski admitted his earlier mistakes as presented in Argonauts, and said that he tore the "pure gifts" out of context! (page 40). Malinowski acknowledged his "distinguished friend M. Mauss" and his criticism of pure gifts, but states that he had realized his mistakes before readings Mauss' strictures. In 1932 in his "Introduction" to Reo Fortune's Sorcerers of Dobu, Malinowski again points out his own theoretical inadequacy concerning Trobriand gifts presented in Argonauts and again accepts Mauss' 1925 criticism unreservedly.

Added for ANTH 296:

"The ability to understand very different kinds of people is often related to an innate lack of set values and standards. It is no accident that a great novelist like Balzac [1799-1850], who could penetrate and portray with impartial accuracy the character of bankers, prostitutes, and artists, was a relativist of psychopathic proportions. It is also no accident that the most successful field worker in the history of anthropology, Bronislaw Malinowski, was the most eccentric and controversial figure ever to enter the field of anthropology [stress added]" (Abraham Kardiner and Edward Preble, 1961, They Studied Man, page 140).

"Functionalism in anthropology is generally divided into two schools of thought, each associated with a key personality. Psychological functionalism is linked to Bronislaw Malinowski (1884-1942). ... The second school, structural functionalism, is associated with A.R. Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955). ... Bronislaw Malinowski was trained in the physical sciences and received a Ph.D. in physics and mathematics. Despite this training, Malinowski was captivated by Sir James Frazer's [1854-1941] book The Golden Bough, and in 1910 he enrolled in the London School of Economics (LSE), where he studied anthropology." (R. Jon McGee and Richard L. Warms, 1996, Anthropological Theory: An Introductory History, page 154).

"Bronislaw Malinowski inspired strong reactions from people, and it is clear he wanted it that way. There are no tepid accounts of Malinowski; they are either hot or cold. Anthropologists tend to evaluate Malinowski on three grounds--as a fieldworker, as a theoretician, or as a personality. As a fieldworker there is near unanimity: Malinowski set new standards for ethnographic research, influencing an entire generation of anthropologists. As a theoretician, opinions of Malinowski diverge. … Malinowski the man was either loved or hated. One supporter said, 'He had a really creative mind, an international outlook and and approach and the imagination of an artist'…. In contrast, the anthropologist Clyde Kluckhohn called him 'a pretentious Messiah of the credulous' - and this in an obituary in the Journal of American Folklore (1943:208). Who was this man who inspired such different reactions? … perhaps his most lasting theoretical observation is his most basic one: cultures are not collections of isolated traits, but are interconnected wholes." (Jerry D. Moore, 1997, Visions Of Culture: An Introduction to Anthropological Theories and Theorists, pages 128-129 and page 138).

[PLEASE NOTE: When this paper was initially placed on the World Wide Web in 1998, a separate section was added entitled "Additional World Wide Web Sites Which Might Prove of Value in the 1990s" and this has been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]


1. © [All Rights Reserved.] As stated at the beginning, this brief item is based on a Graduate Seminar (ANTH 507) that I took at the University of Oregon in the Fall Quarter of 1968. The original paper was entitled "Notes" and was dated October 29, 1968. This paper is being placed on the WWW on December 30, 1998 as an "example" of my early writing and ideas of the time; the text is unchanged from the original 1968 Graduate Seminar presentation except for the the specific additions at the end for the ANTH 296 class at CSU, Chico, as well as the various WWW sites. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.


OPERATION HAWAI'I: PRELUDE TO PEARL HARBOR

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz/Professor of Anthropology

5 December 1991 [1]

[This page printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Forum/Dec1991.html]

© [All Rights Reserved.] This presentation was for the "Anthropology Forum" on 5 December 1991, California State University, Chico (accompanied by numerous slides and transparencies). This was placed on the WWW in April 2001.

 

INTRODUCTION
JAPANESE EXPANSION AND PLANNING
INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES
OPERATION HAWAI'I
CONCLUSIONS

INTRODUCTION

Although fifty years since the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the paper goes back to 1904-05 and the Japanese-Russian War, when Japanese battle techniques were being perfected and to 1921, the year the Japanese government was expending 48 percent of its national budget on military activities. The presentation also cover the years between 1931 (when hostilities commenced between China and Japan) and 1941.

When Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor on the 7th of December 1941, destroying American planes and sinking or damaging 19 vessels (1,077 men killed on the USS Arizona), Americans were shocked. A total of 2,335 American servicemen and 68 civilians died and the United States entered World War II: "boys became men and men became heroes in an hour." As a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor the United States eventually awarded fourteen Medals of Honor as well as fifty-three Navy Crosses, four Silver Stars, and four Navy and Marine Corps medals to individuals who were in the Territory of Hawai'i that day (A.J. Barker, 1969, Pearl Harbor, page 125). World War II meant different things to different people:

"To over fifty million men, women, and children, it meant death. To hundreds of millions more in the occupied areas and theaters of combat, the war meant hell on earth: suffering and greed, often with little if any awareness of a cause or reason beyond the terrifying events of the moment. To nations everywhere, World War Two meant technological innovation, bureaucratic expansion, and an extraordinary mobilization of human resources and ideological fervor" (John W. Dower, 1986, War Without Mercy: Race & Power In The Pacific War, page 3)

JAPANESE EXPANSION AND PLANNING

Japan developed into a formidable world power by the end of the 19th Century and continued to consolidate its position as the 20th Century developed. Beasley wrote that "the most distinctive feature of Japanese imperialism is that it originated within the structure of informal empire which the West established in East Asia during the nineteenth century" (W.G. Beasley, 1987, Japanese Imperialism 1894-1945, page 14).

INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES

In 1931 Herbert O. Yardley, an ex-poker-playing cypher expert, published The American Black Chamber, dealing with American espionage activities during and after World War I. Because of this book, Yardley was credited by some for causing World War II! In 1990 William Honan, published Visions of Infamy, attributing the attack on Pearl Harbor to a journalist named Bywater. If anyone can be considered a "prophet" of a war in the Pacific it could be Homer Lea, 1909 author of The Valor of Ignorance, where he described a future war between the United States and Japan.

A 1991 publication entitled Betrayal At Pearl Harbor: How Churchill Lured Roosevelt Into WWII by James Rusbridger and Eric Nave state:

"On the evidence presented in the book, we show that Churchill was aware that a task force had sailed from northern Japan in late November 1941, and that one of its likely targets was Pearl Harbor. Churchill deliberately kept this vital information from Roosevelt, because he realized an attack of this nature, whether on the U.S. Pacific Fleet or the Philippines, was a means of fulfilling his publicly proclaimed desire to get America into the War at any costs" (James Rusbridger and Eric Nave, 1991, Betrayal At Pearl Harbor: How Churchill Lured Roosevelt Into WWII, page 177).

OPERATION HAWAI'I

With 20-20 hindsight the 1941-1945 war now seems inevitable and one has to wonder why some didn't see it as such. It is clear that some individuals in the United States were not doing something properly: they were not appreciating the results of good old-fashioned research, scholarship, and military intelligence! "Operation Hawai'i" (or Operation Z), the code name given by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto for the attack on the Hawai'ian islands, was a success in exactly these areas.

"The requirements of success for 'Operation Hawaii,' as it was called, were many: secrecy; first-rate intelligence; superb coordination; high technical skills; many technological innovations, including development of new aerial torpedoes and new techniques for refueling at sea; absolute devotion to the cause at hand; and the cooperation of the weather and the waves" (Daniel Yergin, 1991, The Prize: The Epic Quest For Oil, Money, and Power, page 316).

CONCLUSIONS

The war in the Pacific was amazing for its actual and planned brutality: Williams and Wallace have written about Japan's infamous Unit 731 and biological warfare plans of that Unit. There is evidence that Japanese militarists were working on the development of an atomic bomb to be used against American invasion forces (Robert K. Wilcox, 1985, Japan's Secret War). Numerous deaths, atomic warfare, as well as United States Executive Order 9066 (signed on February 12, 1942 and resulting in the internment of over 110,000 Japanese-American citizens in various camps) came about as a result of Pearl Harbor. World War II was brutal!


[1] © [All Rights Reserved.] For the "Anthropology Forum" on 5 December 1991, California State University, Chico (accompanied by numerous slides and trasparencies). To return to the beginning of this page, please click here.


WORLD WAR II ENDS!

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor Emeritus of Anthropology

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/WorldWarIIEnds2005.html] [1]

1 September 2005

(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on 1 September 2005, for a presentation (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on September 1, 2005. My thanks to Ms. Debra Besnard and Mr. Stan Griffith and their "Digital Asset Management Project" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico and the work they did which allowed me to incorporate some historical visuals into the PowerPoint presentation this day. Please remember that "today" it is Thursday September 1, 2005, in the United States of America but across the Pacific Ocean and the International Dateline "today" is "tomorrow" and it is September 2, 2005: the 60th anniversary of the signing of the instrument of surrender on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945, which meant that World War II Ends!

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
PRELUDE TO WORLD WAR II IN THE PACIFIC
AIR, SEA, & LAND BATTLES IN THE PACIFIC AND SOME ILLUSTRATIVE QUOTES
THE ENDING
CONCLUSIONS
EPILOGUE NUMBER ONE, 1945
EPILOGUE NUMBER TWO, 2005
REFERENCES CITED
SELECTED VISUALS  

ABSTRACT

I was a "Destination Lecturer" on the Pacific Princess in May and June of 2005 as we cruised through selected World War II islands of the Pacific Theatre of Operations. On September 2, 1945, in Tokyo Bay, Japan, Japanese officials signed the instrument of surrender on the United States Battleship Missouri and United States President Harry S Truman (1884-1972) declared September 2 to be V-J Day. The war in Europe had ended on May 5, 1945 with V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) being celebrated on May 8, 1945.   

INTRODUCTION

"We dedicate this book to all those who died in the Pacific War on both sides of the ocean and to all historians who seek the truth." Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon [Editors], 1993, The Pearl Harbor Papers: Inside the Japanese Plans (Dulles, CA: Brassey's), page x. 

In May and June of 2005 I was a lecturer on Pacific Princess cruise K515 (Islands of the Pacific Theater). I was one of several content experts that Princess Cruise Line provides for their passengers in their "Scholarship@Sea Program" and for this particular cruise we were at sea for 25 days. Departing Honolulu on Sunday May 29, we cruised through Micronesia and Melanesia en route to Nagasaki, Japan (please see Figure #1 below). My wife Sadie and I left the ship in Xingang, China, as did many other passengers. As an anthropologist who did his fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga in 1970 and 1971, I have always had an abiding interest in World War II and the impact on the people of the Pacific. At an Anthropology Forum in 1991 I made a presentation entitled Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i, dealing with the process and events that led up to December 7, 1941. The chance to provide lectures to interested individuals and for me to learn more, as we cruised through some of the major battle areas of the Pacific, was too good to pass up. Midway, the Marshall Islands, Guadalcanal, Guam, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa all evoke memories for surviving Pacific veterans and family members. A published refrain, but one that was heard on board (and there were many military veterans on the cruise) was "This was many years ago, but it seems like yesterday."(William W. Donner, "Far Away and "Close Up: World War II and Sikiana Perceptions of Their Place in the World." In Geoffrey M. White and Lamont Lindstrom, 1989, The Pacific Theater: Island Representations of World War II (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), pages 149-163, page 163.)

The Pacific Princess carried approximately 650 passengers and we estimated that close to 100 individuals were veterans of World War II or spouses of veterans. Most were veterans from the Pacific Theater of Operations but some veterans in the European Theatre of Operations during World War II. A map of the itinerary was prepared and distributed at my first lecture on June 1. I also distributed a list of selected historical dates coinciding with the calendar dates of the cruise, from May 29 through June 24, 2005. Incidentally, for twenty days (through December 2004 and January 2005) I was a "Destination Lecturer" in the same "Scholarship@Sea Program" of Princess Cruise Lines on the Tahitian Princess as we cruised through numerous islands of French Polynesia (as well as the independent Cook Islands). That was a most enjoyable and rewarding experience and I decided to provide similar lectures on the Pacific Princess. (Incidentally, on April 26, 2006, the Pacific Princess will begin the K612 cruise, a 21-day "Islands of the Pacific Theater: Sydney to Osaka" journey. The cruise will stop at Brisbane, Guadalcanal, Raubaul, Chuuk (once known as Truk), Guam, Saipan, cruise by Iwo Jima, and stop at Okinawa and Hiroshima. The cruise terminates in Osaka.)

Two other lecturers on the Pacific Princess cruise from Honolulu to China were extremely interesting: one was Anderson Giles, a Professor of Art at the University of Maine, Preque Isle, and Admiral Edwin Wilson (Retired). Andy has been interested in World War II events in the Pacific for decades and made a film in 1996 entitled The Thunder From Tinian. Admiral Wilson was a young pilot in the Pacific during World War II and he celebrated his 87th birthday on June 8th on the Pacific Princess cruise. Admiral Wilson spoke of his days as a young warrior and I learned and listened to my two fellow lecturers and thought about the war and how it came to be and how it eventually ended. The end of World War II in the Pacific did not take place immediately on September 2, 1945: in May 2005 an article appeared in newspapers reporting that two Japanese soldiers might still be alive and hiding in the Philippine Islands! World War II was long and horrific!

On September 2, 1945, on the United States battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay, American General Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964), the Supreme Commander for all the Allied Forces in the Pacific, signed the instrument of surrender as the representative for the following nations: Australia, Canada, China, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom, and the United States. At that same ceremony, the United States Fleet Admiral, Chester W. Nimitz (1885-1966), accepted the formal surrender of Japan on behalf of the United States of America. The War in the Pacific had ended. It has been calculated that there were 1,364 days between the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan) and the instrument of surrender signing on September 2, 1945. Over those 1,364 days, 902,596 Imperial Japanese Army and Navy personnel were killed: Japanese military personnel died at the rate of 662 per day! It is reported that 105,563 American military personnel were killed over the same period of time: individuals from the United States Army, Navy (and Marine Corps) died at the rate of 77 per day in the Pacific Theatre of Operations. The only word which truly describes the War in the Pacific is horrific. The agony, pain, and suffering on all sides (by military personnel and civilians at their home locations) was tremendous and the repercussions are still being felt to this day! (See Anne Sharp Wells, 1999, Historical Dictionary of World War II: The War Against Japan [Lanham, MD & London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.], Appendix 2: pages 309-316.) 

PRELUDE TO WORLD WAR II IN THE PACIFIC

"To the overwhelming majority of Europeans the term the Second World War immediately conjures up memories or impressions of the conflict against Hitler's Germany. Perceptions of this war vary greatly from nation to nation.... That Europeans should be Eurocentric in their view of events is natural." H. P. Willmott, 1982, Empires in the Balance: Japanese and Allied Pacific Strategies to April 1942 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Insitute Press), page 1.

In order to understand the War in the Pacific, from my perspective, one must go back to 19th Century Japan and the year 1868: that is when the young Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) under the influence of various warlords, relocated his capital from Kyoto to Tokyo and began the "modernization" of Japan. In the Pacific Ocean, the Kingdom of the Ryukus (350 miles south of Japan) was abolished by Emperor Meiji in 1872 and in 1879 the Ryukus (perhaps most famous in World War II for the location of the island of Okinawa) was established as a Japanese Prefecture, governed from Tokyo. In 1894-1895 part of the Chinese Navy had been defeated by the Japanese and China sought peace, signing a treaty with Japan on April 17, 1895. Over the years 1904-1905, Japan defeated Russia, a "European" power, on land and on the sea. The Treaty of Portsmouth, New Hampshire (USA) between Japan and Russia was signed on September 5, 1905 and Japan received the southern half of Sakhalin Island, as well as territory on the Asian mainland. Japan was being viewed as a major power in the world and was in need of land and natural resources for its growing population. The 1905 Peace Treaty was negotiated by the American President Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) and Roosevelt eventually received the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for that effort. It must be pointed out that when the terms of the treaty were made public in Japan not everyone was happy about it: "there was an immediate outburst of popular indignation" as a result of the American involvement (Richard Story, 1960, A History of Modern Japan, page 142). Perhaps the Japan-Russian war of 1904-1905 gave an indication of not only World War I, which would begin to engulf Europe in 1914, but it also gave an indication of World War II in the Pacific. In 1904 Russian-controlled Port Arthur, in China, was besieged by the Japanese for five months and when it was surrendered to the Japanese on December 31, 1904, it was estimated that almost 58,000 Japanese had lost their lives and 28,000 Russians had died. That war began on February 9, 1904, when the Japanese made a surprise attack on the Russian fleet at Port Arthur and some have suggested that this attack gave inspiration to the "sneak attack" on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.

"The ultimate effect of this [1904] surprise attack before the declaration of war was well-appreciated by subsequent generations of Japanese staff officers. In this sense Port Arthur can be regarded as a dress rehearsal for Pearl Harbor." John N. Westwood, 1973, The Illustrated History of the Russo-Japanese War (Chicago: Henry Regnery Company), page 19.

In her fascinating 1958 book entitled The Zimmerman Telegram, dealing with the entrance of the United States of America into World War I, Barbara Tuchman writes of an event which occurred in 1908:

"...the American Minister in Guatemala advised Washington of a rumor that Japan, by secret treaty, had acquired lease of a naval base at Magdalena Bay, the largest and most secure of Mexico's Pacific Coast, the same place that the [German] Kaiser once coveted. Washington's worried queries were met by official denials, but the reports persisted over the next years, usually accompanied by the story of disguised Japanese soldiers...ready to swarm across the Rio Grande, or, alternatively, seize the Panama Canal [stress added]." Barbara Tuchman, 1958, The Zimmerman Telegram (NY: The MacMillan Company), page 34.

Tuchman added that although there is no archival evidence that the treaty between Japan and Mexico ever existed, in 1908 "Japan was making common cause with the Mexicans, who had not forgiven the loss of Texas" after the United States had a war with Mexico in the 19th Century (Barbara Tuchman, 1958, The Zimmerman Telegram [NY: The MacMillan Company], page 34).

When World War I began on the European continent in 1914 Japan, as an ally of Great Britain, was given the German territories in the Pacific in what is called (by non-islanders) Micronesia. In October 1914 the islands of Jaluit, Kusaie, Ponape, Truk, Yap, Palau, and Saipan were placed under the control of the Japanese (please see Figure #2 below). When war with the United States of America appeared imminent, the Japanese began to fortify these islands and many of these islands were locations of horrific World War II battles. At the conclusion of World War I (1914-1918), Japan continued its modernization and plans for expansion and development into a formidable world power. Just as 19th Century Europeans and Americans saw tremendous opportunities in China, so did the Japanese. After World War I Japan was definitely part of the world-wide economy and there was a need for land and oil.

Although many Americans may date the beginning of World War II with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Europeans see the beginning of the Second World War on September 1, 1939, with German aggression against Poland. Individuals in Asia, on the other hand, view World War II as beginning on September 18, 1931, when the Kwantung Army, a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army, seized the city of Mukden, Manchuria. On February 18, 1932, Manchuria (consisting of three provinces in Northeast China) ceased to exist when the Japanese established the "independent" Republic of Manchukuo in its place. The Chinese complained to the League of Nations but the Japanese refused to withdraw their forces from Manchukuo and, instead, withdrew from the League of Nations!

The powers of the world were gradually moving towards a war in the Pacific and my opinion, a major mistake of the Japanese aggressors in the Pacific Theatre of Operations was their inability to grasp the immense nature of the Pacific Ocean, one-third of planet Earth. (The Pacific Ocean is some 64,186,300 square miles, compared to 33,420,000 square miles in the Atlantic Ocean, and 28,350,500 square miles in the Indian Ocean.) It was difficult, if not impossible, for various Imperial Japanese forces to lend mutual support to one another. The Japanese forces in the Pacific also suffered from a long-standing, and bitter, rivalry that existed between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Imperial Combined Fleet. This rivalry contributed to major problems in strategy and tactics throughout the war in the Pacific. The war in the Pacific Theatre of Operations was a totally different war than was fought in Europe and the various environments of the Pacific were truly different from the European Theatre of Operations. One can analyze warfare in the Pacific Theater of Operations as encompassing the following variables on air, sea, and land battles (described by Sir Winston Churchill [1874-1965], as triphibious): AIR (carrier planes as well as land-based planes, including bombers and fighter planes), SEA (submarines, surface ships, and aircraft carrier planes), and LAND (large islands as well as small islands, including continental, volcanic, and coral islands). In considering the war waged by all nations, one must also keep in mind the following "M" variables: the Allied powers that fought Japan (and Germany) clearly had an advantage when it came to men (meaning women and men), materials, and money. The population of the United States of America in 1940 was 132,164,569 whereas the Japanese Empire had a population of 97,697,555. Numbers, and eventually science and technology, were on the side of the United States of America.  

AIR, SEA, & LAND BATTLES IN THE PACIFIC AND SOME ILLUSTRATIVE QUOTES

"The Pacific War began with the invasion of China in 1931. Widely condemned by the League of Nations and many other countries as a violation of the Kellog-Brand Non-Aggression Pact and the Nine Power Treaty on China, the attack made Japan more isolated and desperate and ultimately led to war with America and England [stress added]." Saburo Ienaga, 1968 [1978 translation], The Pacific War, 1931-1945: A Critical Perspective on Japan's Role in World War II (NY: Random House), page 3.

The United States of America was attacked by forces of the nation of Japan on December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan): the attack at Pearl Harbor, 'Oahu, Territory of Hawai'i, is perhaps the most memorable from our perspective but Japanese forces also made coordinated strikes at other American bases, as well as British bases, in the Pacific. On December 9, 1941, Japanese forces landed at Tarawa and Makin, in what were then called the Gilbert Islands, in Micronesia. In addition to the attack on Pearl Harbor, American forces on Wake Island (1,994 nautical miles west of Pearl Harbor) was also attacked by the Japanese on December 7/8. Wake Island was successfully defended until it was captured on December 23, 1941.Perhaps the brutality of the future war in the Pacific is suggested by the following words, dealing with the Japanese capture of Wake Island in December 1941:

"By midafternoon the Japanese had all their prisoners, more than sixteen hundred, herded onto the runway at the airfield [on Wake Island]…. The [Imperial Japanese] army officer was more than ready to kill them all. The [Imperial Japanese] admiral was not. He had the rank and he prevailed [stress added]." Gavan Daws, 1994, Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific (NY: William Morrow), pages 44-45. 

The cruise of the Pacific Princess departed Honolulu on May 27, 2005 and ended in Xingang, China, on June 24, 2005. We went to various locations (please see Figure 1): Midway Island, Majuro (Micronesia), Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands, Melanesia), Rabaul (New Britain, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia), Guam, Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa, as well as Japan itself (Nagasaki). I am a firm believer in the following statement by Paul Fussell:

"The degree to which Americans register shock and extraordinary shame about the Hiroshima bomb [on August 6, 1945] correlates closely with lack of information about the Pacific war." Paul Fussell, 1988, Thank God For the Atomic Bomb And Other Essays (NY: Summit Books), page 25.

Numerous authors and individuals have their own interpretations of World War II: those who were active in combat have different views than those who did not go overseas; historians born long after the fact have a different view from those who participated in the war. Americans have a different perspective than the Japanese and many individuals tend to view their country as the most important country in the world. My own perspective comes from my thinking as an anthropologist, my background and training, and my year of birth (1942) in the United States of America. I have no recollection of any of the battles of World War II but I argue in all of my classes that World War II was the greatest cultural phenomenon to strike us to date and we are still living with the effects of World War II. I appreciate the following words of the author Clive Cussler in his fictional 1999 Atlantis Found: "To anyone born after 1980, World War Two must seem as distant as the Civil War was to our parents." (Atlantis Found, 1999, [2001 Berkley paperback], page 503.)

Political systems varied around the world and the environment that World War II battles were fought in were different (Pacific islands were certainly different from European landscapes), and technology came into play in all parts of the world. The triphibous actions in the air, on (and under the) sea, and on land were combined to defeat the Japanese. The Allies were successfully able to deal with the battles which took place over one-third of the globe. The "M" variables of men (meaning women and men), materials, and money were mentioned. These three variables should be combined with an additional set of variables that came into play by both Japanese and American forces (but the Americans and their allies were obviously more successful). Looking at the following helps me to interpret and understand World War II in the Pacific Theatre of Operations: Intelligence, attrition, production, and propaganda. Intelligence meant espionage and the Americans cracked the Japanese code for the Battle of Midway (June 1942), resulting in a major victory for the United States which was a turning point six months after Pearl Harbor. There were also numerous other successful military actions which were based on intercepted messages. Attrition included deaths: the Japanese were losing troops (especially skilled pilots) at an extremely high rate while the Allies (primarily the Americans) were increasing their number of troops. Production meant exactly what the word entails. America was able to obtain the raw materials to turn into an "Arsenal for Democracy" and had the logistic skills necessary to transport the vital supplies across the globe: first to the European Theatre of Operations and then simultaneously to Europe and the Pacific. Finally, propaganda played an important role for all combatants: the Japanese people were deceived by their leaders and deception was a part of the war on all fronts during World War II. It was a complex war but it can, to some extent, be understood.

"At Midway, the scoring punch of the Japanese Navy had been blunted [during the Battle of Midway, June 3-6, 1942]: four carriers and one cruiser were sunk, 5,000 Japanese had lost their lives, and 322 planes were lost. Worse, the pilots who were lost--many of whom had a thousand hours in combat experience over the skies of China, not to mention experience gained since then--were irreplaceable. American losses comprised ninety-nine carried-based aircraft, thirty-eight Midway-based planes, and the [Aircraft Carrier] Yorktown [stress added]." William A. Renzi and Mark D. Roehrs, 1991, Never Look Back: A History of World War II In The Pacific, page 76. 

"The road to Tokyo began on an island in the Pacific that few Americans had ever heard of and none of the military planners knew much about. But on Guadalcanal, one of the Solomon [Islands, Melanesia], the Japanese were building an air base from which to strike at American convoys to Australia. The island had to be taken, and quickly. The landing was America's first big amphibious assault. On August 7, 1942, some 10,000 Marines went ashore almost unopposed [stress added]." C.L. Sulzberger, 1966, The American Heritage History of World War II (NY: Simon & Schuster), page 232.

"And when he gets to Heaven,
To Saint Peter he will tell:
One more marine reporting, sir--
I've served my time in Hell.
(from a United States Marine's grave marker on Guadalcanal in C.L. Sulzberger, 1966, The American Heritage History of World War II (NY: Simon & Schuster), page 400.

"The distinction of being the first Japanese territory to be taken by the U.S. forces in the Pacific, or anywhere else, fell to Majuro Atoll, lying approximately seven degrees north of the Equator in the Micronesia group known as the Marshall Islands. Its capture constituted only a single phase, and a not-very-spectacular one, on an important and somewhat complicated operation [stress added]." Frank O. Hough, 1947, The Island War: the United States Marine Corps In The Pacific (J.B. Lippincott Company), page 184.

"Declared secure on November 27, 1944, Peleliu [Palau Islands, Micronesia] went down in history as one of the worst, and most needless, battles of the war. It got scant press in the United States during the first five weeks, for the dramatic advances in the European theater overshadowed events in the pacific. But the devastation in terms of human loses eventually drew attention to Peleliu, as did its dubious worth. Life magazine artist Tom Lea's haunting paintings dramatized the terror. Total marine and army casualties numbered 9,615 for Peleliu, Angaur and Ngesebus, including 1,656 dead. The Japanese lost 10,900, almost all killed (of some 202 prisoners taken, all but 19 were laborers). For each defender killed, the Americans used 1,589 rounds of ammunition [stress added]." Thomas W. Zeiler, 2004, Unconditional Defeat: Japan, America, And The End of World War II (Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, Inc.), page 105.

[Saipan was] "...captured by U.S. forces, June 15-July 9, 1944, after which the Japanese government of Hideki Tojo [1884-1948]... fell. Saipan, the first of the Mariana Islands targets by the offensive of the Central Pacific Area (CENPAC)..., had been administered as a mandate... since World War I by Japan, which considered it Japanese home territory.... The invasion of Saipan began on June 15 under the overall direction of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance's... Fifth Fleet.... An amphibious invasion of the nearby island of Tinian...was launched from Saipan on July 24. Bombing raids originating in Saipan formed an important part of the strategic air campaign...against Japan [stress added]." Anne Sharp Well, 1999, Historical Dictionary of World War II: The War Against Japan (Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.), pages 236-237..

"Of the 21,000 Japanese defending the island [of Iwo Jima in 1945], only 216 were taken prisoner. If this was the cost of taking an island of only eight square miles and which had been Japanese only since 1891, what would be the cost of the conquest of Japan?" E. Bauer, 1979, The History of World War II (NY: The Military Press), page 639.

"The casualties [on Okinawa] were the heaviest that any single island had cost the American forces. About 7,400 American died outright on the island, but the navy had lost perhaps 5,000 more men who were killed while offshore, mostly from Kamikazes. Japanese losses can only be estimated. About 107,000 were killed outright, while an additional 20,000 were sealed in caves to die of starvation, suffocation, or cremation if gasoline had been poured in after them. About 4,000 Japanese planes were lost, while the number of U.S. naval aircraft lost was 763, with no fewer than 458 falling in combat with Japanese aircraft [stress added]. William A. Renzi and Mark D. Roehrs, 1991, Never Look Back: A History of World War II In The Pacific, page 174. 

THE ENDING 

"In Volume III of this series, The Rising Sun in the Pacific, we traced the process by which the [Imperial] Japanese Army obtained control of the government, dictated foreign policy, and maneuvered the country into war against the advice of wiser minds, including high-ranking officers of the Imperial navy. Once that irrevocable step was taken, national pride refused to admit any other end to the war than victory. The Japanese people were never told that their country was losing the war; even our capture of such key points as Saipan, Manila and Okinawa was explained as a strategic retirement [stress added]." Samuel Eliot Morison, 1960, Victory in the Pacific 1945 (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, Volume XIV) (Boston: Little, Brown and Company), page 336.

The war was getting closer-and-closer to Japan and the results were, and would continue to be, horrific! On Iwo Jima in 1945, 17,232 United States Marines were wounded and 5,931 died. The war in the Pacific was beginning to "wind down" and instead of "island hopping" through the Pacific Ocean, it was more an "island isolation" campaign: some islands were invaded and captured and some islands were by-passed, leaving Japanese troops isolated (and with dwindling supplies) as the Allied forces moved closer to Japan. Okinawa was only 350 miles south of the Japanese island of Kyushu and the invasion of Okinawa (and the main Japanese Islands themselves) were being planned (and anticipated). The recapturing of the Philippine Islands by Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific had been decided upon after a meeting at Pearl Harbor over the days of July 26-28, 1944: the American President Franklin D. Roosevelr (1882-1945) was there, along with Admirals Leahy (1875-1959) and Nimitz (1885-1966). In fall 1944, the Joint Chiefs of Staff authorized the invasion of the Philippine Islands and eventually the dates for the invasion of Japan was decided upon: in November 1945, the island of Kyushu would be attacked by more than 800,000 United States Army, Navy, and Marine personnel. In March 1946 the island of Honshu, location of the capital of Tokyo, would be invaded by an even larger force. (And see http://www.ww2pacific.com/downfall.html.)

The Normandy invasion in Europe, which began on June 6, 1944, resulted in some 42,000 Americans dying in the first days. It was estimated that there would be some 230,000 casualties in the November 1, 1945 invasion of the Japanese islands! The war in Europe had been successfully concluded by the Allied forces in May 1945 and the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt had died on April 12, 1945. His Vice President, Harry S Truman was quickly sworn in as the 33rd President of the United States of America and the war in Europe eventually came to a halt, with Germany surrendering on May 5, 1945 and "Victory in Europe" Day, or V-E day being celebrated on May 8, 1945: President Truman's 61st birthday. Plans were then implemented to move American troops to the Pacific Theatre of Operations:

"No sooner had the ink dried on the unconditional surrender document at Reims [Germany] in May 1945 than thirty American divisions, along with air corps and naval units, began rushing from Europe to join in Operation Downfall, the looming invasion of Japan. Douglas MacArthur [1880-1964] planned a two-step assault, the largest amphibious and airborn invasion that history had known. Downfall would begin with Operation Olympic--a frontal assault on Kyushu, the southernmost island, by nearly eight hundred thousand men--on November 1, 1945. The second phase, Operation Coronet--the landing by two million more troops on the largest island, Honshu--would follow on March 1, 1946 [stress added]." William B. Breuer, 1995, Feuding Allies: The Private Wars of the High Comman (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), page 302.

By August 1945 the war in the Pacific was winding down, but it was not yet over. Yes the Japanese were being defeated, but their eventual defeat would be tremendously expensive in terms of Allied and Japanese lives lost, both military and civilian. Millions would have died because the Japanese people were prepared to fight to the bitter end: kamikazee planes, suicide boats, 2,350,000 military personnel, 250,000 garrison troops, and 32,000,000 men and women in the militia were "pledged, even eager, to die for the emperor" (William B. Breuer, 1995, Feuding Allies: The Private Wars of the High Comman [John Wiley & Sons, Inc.], page 304.) Yes, the bomb had to be used:

"You think of the lives which would have been lost in an invasion of Japan's home islands--a staggering number of American lives but millions more of Japanese--and you thank God for the atomic bomb." William Manchester, 1979, Goodbye Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War (Little, Brown and Company), page 210.

William Manchester served in the Pacific Theatre of Operations and almost every individual who attended the lectures by Giles, Urbanowicz, and Wilson on the Pacific Princess in May and June of 2005 would agree with this statement! I will also argue that every World War II veteran who who attended the lectures on the Pacific Princess cruise would also agree with William Manchester's statement!

"On 1 June [1945] the President's Interim Committee, composed of high officials and top atomic scientists, recommended that the new bomb be used again Japan as soon as possible, without warning, and against a target that would reveal its 'devastating strength.' A well-considered alternative, to drop one bomb on a relatively uninhabited part of Japan, after due warning, in order to demonstrated the uselessness of further struggle, was rejected. It was feared that Japan would move in Allied P.O.W.s as 'guinea pigs'; and nobody could predict whether or not the bomb would work. If, after a warning, it proved a dud, the United States would be placed in a ridiculous position. And anyone who has followed our account of the senseless destruction and suffering inflicted by the kamikazes around Okinawa will appreciate the fact that compassion for Japan formed no factor in this decision [stress added]." Samuel Eliot Morison, 1960, Victory in the Pacific: 1945 (Boston: Little, Brown and Company), pages 339-340.

Barbaric acts in the war, by both Japanese and American combatants, were horrific. Japanese troops subjected American (and British and other) Prisoners of War to inhumane acts, including forced labor, imprisonment, decapitation, and the infamous "Bataan Death March" in April 1942 after the Japanese captured Luzon, Philippine Islands. On the other hand, after the American victory on Guadalcanal, Japanese graves were opened and skulls (and other items) were taken as souvenirs: Gavan Daws pointed this out in his authoritative 1994 Prisoners of the Japanese, writing about a picture in Life magazine:

"Arizona war worker writes her Navy boyfriend a thank-you note for the Jap skull he sent her. To the Japanese, who were scrupulous about the bones of their dead, that was the ultimate barbarism." Gavan Daws, 1994, Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II In The Pacific [NY: William Morrow], page 277.

From Banzai suicide charges across various Pacific locations (from the islands of Alaska to Guadalcanal and Okinawa) to the dropping of the "Little Boy" Uranium atomc bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and the the dropping of the "Fat Man" plutonium atomc bomb on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, the war was brutal and horrific! Consider the words of President Harry S Truman (1884-1972) after the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima:

"Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped one bomb on Hiroshima, an important Japanese Army base. That bomb had more power than 20,000 tons of T.N.T....The Japanese began the war from the air at Pearl Harbor. They have been repaid many fold. And the end is not yet. With this bomb we have now added a new and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing power of our armed forces. In their present forms these bombs are now in production and even more powerful forms are in development....Both science and industry worked under the direction of the United States Army, which achieved a unique success in managing so diverse a problem in the advancement of knowledge in an amazingly short time. It is doubtful is such another combination could be got together in the world. What has been done is the greatest achievement of organized science in history. It was done under high pressure and without failure [stress added]." White House Press Release on Hirsoshima, August 6, 1945 as quoted in David C. Cassidy, 2005, J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American Century (NY: Pi Press), page 251. Cassidy is providing the quote from Robert C. Williams and Philip L. Cantelon [editors], 1984, The American Atom: A Documentary History of Nuclear Policies from The Discovery of Fission to the Present, 1939-1984. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press), pages 68-69.

On August 15, 1945, the people of Japan heard Emperor Hirohito's voice, via a recording, for the first time:

"To our good and loyal subjects....But now the war has lasted nearly four years. Despite the best that has been done by everyone...the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage, while the general trends of the world have all turned against her interest....Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is indeed incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives. Should we continue to fight, it would not only result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but would also lead to the total extinction of human civilization. Such being the case, how are we to save the millions of our subjects, or to atone ourselves before the hallowed spirits of our Imperial Ancestors? This is the reason why we have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers. ...We cannot but express the deepest sense of regret to our Allied nations of East Asia, who have consistently cooperated with the Empire towards the emancipation of East Asia [stress added]." As it appears in William Craig, 1967, The Fall of Japan, NY: Dial Press, pages 210-211. (And see: http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/hirohito.htm for the translation and transcript of the recording made by the Federal Communications Commission, 14 August 1945.)

The Second World War was finally over and jubilation prevailed but there were celebrations that turned ugly. In 1967 William Craig published The Fall of Japan and one can read the following about Washington, D.C. and San Francisco, California:

"In the nation's capital, crowds milled around the White House and waited for [President Harry S] Truman to appear. He did so, and made a short speech to the masses lining the railings. They cheered his every sentence, then applauded him as he moved back inside to call his mother in Independence, Missouri. The exicited throngs spread to the downtown area and proceeded to lose their inhibitions. Soldiers jumped into passing cars to kiss unprotesting women. In front of the Washington Post newspaper bullding, a soldier and a girl got out of a taxi and started to take off their clothes, to the encouragement of an enthusiastic group of well-wishers shouting, 'Take it off!' 'All the way!' 'Atta girl!' The couple stripped completely, then dressed in each others clothes; the girl put on shorts, pants and shirt while the soldier struggled into bra, panties, slip and dress, to the applause of bystanders. Then the two exhibitionists jumped into the cab and were swallowed up in the dark.

Though few cities could claim such ardent demonstrations of joy, the pattern of behavior was similar in many places. That night the G. I. was king and he knew it. The police in most places tried to be as inconspicuous as possible. Their orders were to maintain some semblance of peace but to avoid excessive controls.

In San Francisco, more control was a desperately needed. In this city, surrounded by Navy installations, the news of surrender had come just before four o'clock in the afternoon. The navy immediately took over. Sailors got drunk and civilians joined them. By evening the celebration was out of hand.

Car after car was stolen and driven by crazed men who tore recklessly through the busy streets. Several people were struck down and killed while the motorists drove on, oblivious to the horror behind them. Young women found that being out among celebrating countrymen could be disastrous. People stood by horrified as at least six girls were forcibly thrown to the sidewalks, held down and repeatedly raped. No one moved to their aid. Policemen watching the assaults looked the other way, afraid to confront the liquor-sodden servicemen. Windows were smashed in the downtown shopping area, liquor stores were looted clean. A pedestrian walking down a side street was hit on the head by a basketful of bottles loosed from an upper-story window, and died of a fractured skull. Well into the morning hours, San Francisco continued in the grip of rioters who knew no authority. During the nightlong celebration of peace in that city, twelve people died [stress added]." William Craig, 1967, The Fall of Japan (NY: The Dial Press), pages 204-205.

Sixty years after Americans heard of Emperor Hirohito's broadcast in 1945 and thirty-eight years after William Craig published his book in 1967, on August 15, 2005, the San Francisco Chronicle published an article entitled "The dark side of V-J Day" which dealt with August 1945 events: "a victory riot that left 11 dead, 1,000 injured and the city's reputation besmirched" (Carl Nolte, 2005, August 15, pages B1 + B6, page B1). As James W. Loewen pointed out in his 1999 publication entitled What Our Historic Sites get Wrong: Lies Across America (NY: The New Press), pages 18 and 22), "All across America, the landscape suffers from amnesia, not about everything, but about many crucial events and issues of our past. ... If we cannot face our history honestly, we cannot learn from the past [stress added]." We can easily "forget" the past, unless we work at remembering it! I am an anthropologist and I truly believe that ideas of anthropology are important. I also believe that history is important: we need an understanding of where we came from to help us deal with the present as we move into the future. One cannot "predict" the future, only "invent" it but we desperately need a sense of history to understand where we might be going. As mentioned above, there were two other lecturers on the May-June 2005 Pacific Princess cruise, Professor Andy Giles and Admiral Edwin Wilson: at one lecture Admiral Wilson spoke of his youthful days in the Pacific Theatre of Operations and he made a statement similar to the published refrain of Andy Rooney (born in 1919 and who earned a Bronze Star for his actions in the European Theatre of Operations during World War II): "They were all my age. I think of the good life I have lived and they never had a chance to live. They didn't give their lives. Their lives were taken." Andy Rooney, 1995, 2000, My War (NY: Public Affairs), page xiii; and see page 311.) 

CONCLUSIONS

"This book [and presentation and web paper] is dedicated to the memory of all the people of Japan who were killed by the firebombings, and to all the Americans who were killed in killing them. Both sides were victims of the same malady: Man's inability to refrain from the mass murder called war. If this book [or web paper and presentation] has any lasting value, it will be to remind its readers [and those in attendance at California State University, Chico on 1 September 2005] of the horrors that war in the twentieth-century wreaks on civilian populations [stress added]." Hotio Edoin, 1987, The Night Tokyo Burned (NY: St. Martin's Press), n.p.

On November 1, 1945, Operation Olympic, the invasion of the island of Kyushu was to begin. Several hundred thousand United States military personnel would have been involved and the casualties on both sides would have been horrific! Because of the two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the planned invasion of the main islands of the Japanese Empire did not occur. In California, today is Thursday September 1, 2005 but it is "already tomorrow" September 2, 2005 across the International Dateline and it is, therefore, the 60th anniversary of the signing of the instrument-of-surrender on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay! In an interesting twist-of-fate (which would have implications decades later), on September 2, 1945 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was established by Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) and for another important September 1 date: on September 1, 1972 Charles F. Urbanowicz was offically awarded "the degree of Doctor of Philosophy with a major in Anthropology" from the University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon!

"The official ceremony of Japan's surrender took place on board the American battleship, Missouri, on Sunday, 2 September [1945] - henceforth decreed by President Truman as VJ Day. ... The American flag flown by Commodore Perry when he entered Tokyo Bay in 1853 had been brought from a naval museum and now hung from a bulkhead overlooking the scene [stress added]." Tatsuichiro Akizuki, 1981, Nagasaki: The First full-length eyewitness account of the atomic bomb attack on Nagasaki [translated by Keiichi Nagata and Edited and with an introduction by Gordon Honeycombe) London: Quarter Books), page 130. And See http://www.law.ou.edu/hist/japsurr.html [The University of Oklahoma Law Center} The Japanese Surrender Documents of World War II].  

"At 7:30 A.M., the Japanese [delegation] boarded the destroyer [Lansdowne], which headed out to the enormous bay for the sixteen-mile run to the Missouri. On every side they could see the truly awesome might of the American Navy, which had converged from all parts of the Pacific and now crowded Tokyo Bay. Attention centered on Admiral William Halsey's flagship. The choice of the Missouri as the surrender site had its origins in Washington and reflected the intense rivalry between Army and Navy. Though [Secretary of the Navy] James Forrestal had wanted Nimitz to conduct the ceremony, MacArthur as Supreme Commander got that assignment. The Navy Secretary then badgered [Secretary of State] James Byrnes into at least making a naval ship the setting for the drama. As an added lure, he suggested the one named for President Truman's home state. Thanks to this political horse trade back in America, Bull Halsey [1882-1959] was to be host to the ceremony. Whatever the reason, no more fitting choice could have been made [stress added]." William Craig, 1967, The Fall of Japan (NY: The Dial Press), page 300.

President Truman made the following announcement:

"As President of the United States, I proclaim Sunday, September 2, 1945, to be V-J Day, the day of the formal surrender of Japan. It is not yet the day for the formal proclamation of the end of the war nor of the cessation of hostilities, but it is a day of retribution as we remember that other day, the day of infamy [stress added]. [See: http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/diglibrary/prezspeeches/truman/hst_1945_0901.html]

The War in the Pacific, and indeed, the war from 1931 through 1945, changed the world. The atomic age was upon us and on August 9, 2005 (the 60th Anniversary of the second atomic bomb being dropped on the inhabitants of Nagasaki), the San Francisco Chronicle had the following words from Pope John Paul II (1920-2005):

"A sculpture in the Hiroshima Peace museum carried a quote from Pope John Paul II that encapsulated the spirit of the city this month. 'To remember Hiroshima is to abhor nuclear war,' the pontiff said in Hiroshima in 1981. 'To remember Hiroshima is to commit oneself to peace [stress added].'" Kathleen E. McLaughlin, 2005, Survivors of bombings telling their stories now. San Francisco Chronicle, August 9, 2005, page A9.

On December 5, 1991, I made an Anthropology Forum presentation entitled Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i, dealing with the events that led up to December 7, 1941. With today's presentation on September 1, 2005, I have completed a project which began fourteen years ago. The Second World War lasted for many days and a single word that came to mind, when working on this paper (and lectures for the Pacific Princess) was horrific (or "causing horror"). May there never be a Third World War, or any war or act of terrorism, which would use nuclear weapons. 

EPILOGUE NUMBER ONE, 1945

"Shortly after World War II had ended, American intelligence in the Pacific received a shocking report: The Japanese, just prior to their surrender, had developed and successfully test-fired an atomic bomb. The project had been housed in or near Konan (Japanese name for Hungnam), Korea, in the peninsula's North. The war had ended before the weapon could be used, and the plant where it had been made was now in Russian hands [stress added]." Robert K. Wilcox, 1985, Japan's Secret War (NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc.), page 15.  

EPILOGUE NUMBER TWO, 2005

"Still stinging with anger and sorrow, Asians on Sunday [August 14, 2005] marked the 60th anniversary of Japan's World War II surrender by honoring their dead, burning [Japan's] Rising Sun flags and demanding compensation over Japanese atrocities.... Japan invaded China in 1931. Its troops massacred as many as 300,000 people after taking the city of Nanjing in December 1937, and Japanese scientists performed germ warfare experiments on Chinese prisoners [stress added]." Hans Greimel, 2005, Asians remember Japan's surrender. The Sacramento Bee, August 15, 2005, page A6.

"Japan's leader apologized for Tokyo's wartime colonization and invasion today, a day after other Asian nations marked the 60th anniversary of the Japanese World War II surrender by honoring their dead and demanding compensation for their losses.... Protesters in Hong Kong Sunday [August 14, 2005] burned Japan's flag and marched on Tokyo's consulate chanting 'Down with Japanese imperialism.' In the Philippines, elderly women once forced to act as sex slaves for Japanese soldiers renewed demands for compensation and apologies. Former Australian prisoners of war returned to the Thai jungles where they laboured under brutal conditions to build the notorious Death Railway. China exhorted its citizens to remember Tokyo's surrender on Aug. 15, 1945, with 'a fresh wave of patriotism,' as state-run media whipped up memories of Japanese atrocities. The outpouring of emotion revealed the unhealed wounds six decades after Japan's Emperor Hirohito conceded defeat in a radio broadcast just days after the United States incinerated the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki with atomic bombs.... Bitterness runs especially deep in China. Riots erupted earlier this year over Japanese Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's visits to the Yasakuni war shrine--which deifies Japan's war dead, including convicted war criminals--and over Tokyo's approval of history textbooks that critics say gloss over wartime atrocities [stress added]." Anon., 2005, New tensions, old memories haunt Asia on 60th anniversary of World War II surrender. The Chico Enterprise-Record, August 15, 2005, page 4B.

REFERENCES CITED (in addition to the items referred to above, please see):

Charles F. Urbanowicz

in progress http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificReferences.html [Various Pacific References, including print and web-information. In addition to the references cited in this current paper, please consult this on-going item for numerous additional sources.]

2005a http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificPrincessMay2005.html [Pacific Princess Itinerary K515} Selected Historical Dates for the 25-Day Islands of the Pacific Theater Cruise, Honolulu to Beijing, May 29->June 24.]

2005b http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tahiti2005.html [Tahiti: From 1971 To 2004/2005! For a presentation at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on May 5, 2005.] [Please see this item for information about Tahiti and the lecturing on the Tahitian Princess in December 2004-January, 2005]

1991 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/OperationHawaii.pdf. [Prelude to Pearl Harbor: Operation Hawai'i. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, December 5, 1991.]


SELECTED VISUALS

FIGURE I: 29 May 2005 -> 24 June 2005
 

Figure II, from: Dudley McCarthy, 1959, South-West Pacific Area--First Year Kokoda to Wau (Canberra: Australian War Memorial), page 37.
 

Tokyo Bay, Japan, September 2, 1945.
Tokyo Bay, Japan, September 2, 1945.
from: http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/images/ac00001/ac02719.jpg
from: http://history.acusd.edu/cdr2/PATCH/NA/ww2198.jpg

Pacific Princess (27 May 2005 -> 24 June 2005).
Program Urbanowicz was involved with on the Pacific Princess in 2005 and the Tahitian Princess in 2004-2005.

Arrive and Depart the Pacific Princess.
Starboard Side, the Pacific Princess.
Pursers Area, the Pacific Princess.
Lecturing on the Pacific Princess in the Cabaret Lounge.
Buffet Area, Deck 9, Pacific Princess.
To the Club Restaurant, Deck 5, Pacific Princess.
Main course.
Dessert.
Results.
 

Midway Atoll sign.
Midway birds.
Battle of Midway (June 3-6, 1942) Monument.

To Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands.
Multi-language Peace Sign, Majuro, Marshall Islands.
Alele Cultural Center (Archives-Library-Museum), Majuro, Marshall Islands.
Docked at Honiara, Solomon Islands.
Bloody Ridge, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands.
Guadalcanal American Memorial, Solomon Islands.

Volcanic greeting, Rabaul, New Britain, Papua New Guinea (11 June 2005).
Kokopo Museum Sign, New Britain, Papua New Guinea (11 June 2005).
Bitapaka War Cemetary, New Britain, Papua New Guinea (11 June 2005).

Guam Latte Park, June 15, 2005.
Arriving in Saipan (June 16, 2005), Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, CNMI.
Memorial Ceremony on June 16, 2005 at American Memorial Park, Saipan.

Remains of Garapan Jail, Saipan.
On-board televised "distance" information.
Model of Tinian, Mariana Islands.

Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima.
Okinawa, Japan, Museum Sign.
Memorial on Okinawa, Japan.
Nagasaki, Japan, Atomic Bomb Museum.
Nagasaki Peace Park.
Nagasaki Peace Statue: erected in 1955).
USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor, Hawai'i.
USS Missouri, Pearl Harbor.
Instrument of Surrender Location, USS Missouri.


 (1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on 1 September 2005, for a presentation (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on September 1, 2005. My thanks to Ms. Debra Besnard and Mr. Stan Griffith and their "Digital Asset Management Project" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico and the work they did which allowed me to incorporate some historical visuals into the PowerPoint presentation this day. Please remember that "today" it is Thursday September 1, 2005, in the United States of America but across the International Dateline "today" is "tomorrow" and it is September 2, 2005: the 60th anniversary of the signing of the instrument of surrender on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay on September 2, 1945, which meant that World War II Ends! To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.


WOMEN IN THE PACIFIC: SOME POLYNESIAN EXAMPLES.

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

[This Page is printed from: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/1980PolynesianPaper.html]

15 August 2003 [1]

© [All Rights Reserved.] This paper was originally presented on October 25, 1980, at the "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25, 1980 and was placed on the WWW on August 15, 2003 as an "example" of ideas and writing of 1980. The text below is essentially unchanged from the original 1980 paper (with additions being indicated in [ ]'s below). In placing this paper on the WWW some 23 years after it was written I attempt to demonstrate to my students that life is, in fact, cumulative and ideas develop out of previous ideas; I also follow the 1963 words of Sir Karl Popper [1902-1994]: "we can learn from our mistakes [stress added]" (Conjectures And Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge, 1963, page vii). Several of my earlier papers have already been placed on the WWW for student use, such as Urbanowicz 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970a , 1970b, 1971, 1973, 1976a, 1976b, 1977, and 1983 (all referenced below); in placing them on the WWW, I was often reminded of the words of stanza 51 from the 1859 (first) edition translation of The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám of Naishápúr by Edward Fitzgerald (1809-1883)

"The Moving Finger writes; and having Writ,
Moves on: nor all thy Piety nor Wit
Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
Nor all thy Tears wash out a Word of it."

Please note the following: "The first Edition of the translation of Omar Khayyám, which appeared in 1859, differs so much from those which followed, that it has thought better to print it in full, instead of attempting to record the differences." W. Aldis Wright, n.d. [1932?], The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám And the Salámán And Absál of Jámí Rendered Into English Verse by Edward Fitzgerald (NY: A.L. Burt Company), page 119.

This 1980 paper dealt with some of my thoughts concerning women in Polynesia, beginning with my 1970-1971 fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga; several publications resulted from that fieldwork and are referenced below. I was last in Tonga in 1971, in Tahiti in 1980 (and before that in 1971), and last in Hawai'i in 2003. (Since 1970 I have been to Hawai'i, for various lengths of time, on twenty-six occasions.)

Historical footnote: Born in Jersey City, New Jersey in 1942, I graduated high school in 1960 and after attending New York University in 1960-1961, I enlisted in the United States Air Force (1961-1965), was Honorably Discharged, and eventually received the B.A. in Sociology/Anthropology in 1967 from Western Washington State College (now Western Washington University). I began Graduate Work in Anthropology at the University of Oregon in September 1967 and received the M.A. in Anthropology in 1969. In July 1970 I went (with my wife) to do fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga and was awarded the Ph.D. in 1972. For a complete résumé, please see http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/resume.html). I taught in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Minnesota for 1972-1973 and joined the faculty of California State University, Chico, in August 1973 and have been happily here ever since!

INTRODUCTION
THE BACKGROUND AREA
THE ISLAND WORLD THROUGH EUROPEAN EYES: TAHITI AS "EXAMPLE"
TONGAN, TAHITIAN, AND SOME HAWAI'IAN WOMEN
CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES CITED
[APPENDIX I: CONTEMPORARY MAPS OF THE PACIFIC]
[APPENDIX II: SELECTED WEB PAGES FOR THE PACIFIC]
[APPENDIX III: SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ PUBLICATIONS DEALING WITH TONGA, 1972->1994 (in reverse chronological order)]
[APPENDIX IV: OTHER SPECIFIC URBANOWICZ HISTORICAL WEB PAGES (in reverse chronological order: 1965 -> 1983)]
 

INTRODUCTION

"Current interest in the status of women has spurred greater attention to and research on women." Dorothy Hammond and Alta Jablow, Women in Cultures of the World, 1976.

Over the centuries, since first contact, the women of the Pacific, or Euroamerican interpretations of what women in the Pacific were supposed to be like, created the idea of an idyllic paradise which has come down to us in this part of the 20th century.

Women from the Pacific have been immortalized in print by Michener, captured on canvas by Gauguin, and have been paraded before our senses by every individual who has encouraged travel to the "South Seas" over the ears: from 16th century voyagers who were determined to receive sensual pleasures from island women, through 19th century missionaries who attempted to convert the bloody 'eathens, to the 20th century mass transporters who foster the notion of a "vacation in Paradise."

There are, however, other aspects of women in the Pacific than the sensual pleasures which are enshrined in the various mediums: women in the Pacific were leaders, visionaries, and important focal points for numerous aspects of island life which this brief paper will discuss. This paper draws and expands upon certain points first made in earlier publications (Urbanowicz, 1973, 1977, and 1979). 

THE BACKGROUND AREA

For various purposes, the island world of the Pacific is traditionally divided into three major culture areas: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesia, in the northern Pacific, is a group of small islands scattered over an area the size of the 48 contiguous American states, with a landmass of slightly more than 800 square miles (the Marianas, including Guam, add approximately another 280 square miles to this Micronesian mass).

Melanesia, including New Guinea (the second largest island in the world), is undoubtedly the largest part of the Pacific in terms of landmass (and population). Diversity in language, culture, and lifestyle is the key to Melanesia, and as Ann Chowning has stated it:

"There is, at present, no general agreement even among anthropologists about the geographical boundaries of Melanesia.... Every anthropologist who has tried to generalize about Melanesia has emphasized its enormous diversity.... [and] it is literally impossible to make more than a handful of generalizations that will apply to even the majority of societies in Melanesia." (An Introduction to the Peoples and Cultures of Melanesia, Second edition, 1977: 1-2).

The island world of Polynesia, bounded by Hawa'i in the northern Pacific, Easter Island in the southeast Pacific, and New Zealand in the southwest Pacific, are probably more familiar to the general public and will provide examples for this brief note. It has been the island world of Polynesia, with swaying palm trees, blue-green lagoons, and misty mountain tops, which has provided us with the vision of the "Paradise of the South Seas" over the years. (Please see Map #1.)

 

 

Map #1
[August 2003 note: For Contemporary maps of the region, please see Appendix I at the end of this 2003 paper.]

The "South Seas" or "Mar del Sur" was the term applied to the Pacific Ocean, largest on this planet with over 64,000,000 square miles in area, by the Spanish conquistador Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, on September 28, 1513. Balboa had crossed the land we now know as Panama in search of fabled gold and when he eventually saw the Ocean, he solemnly claimed it all on behalf of the Spanish Crown.

Although Pacific islanders had been crossing the island world of Polynesia since at least 1140 B.C., and Hawai'i was peopled by indigenous inhabitants by at least 750 A.D., it was not until September of 1519 that a small fleet of vessels left Spain on a 13 month voyage destined for the South Seas. This was the first European voyage across the Pacific, led by the Portuguese navigator Fernao de Magalhaes (also known as Ferdinand Magellan). Magellan was killed in the Philippines in 1522, and only one vessel, The Victoria, with 31 individuals eventually returned to Spain after the circumnavigation, but the Pacific could be crossed by Europeans (because the sea was so calm on the voyage from Spain to the Phillipines, Magellan gave the ocean the name of "Mar Pacifico," an illusory name which has survived to this date.

Although various European explorers from Magellan onwards gave the non-Pacific world some idea of what the Pacific islands were like, the Pacific islands were truly placed upon Europe's map of the world by two distinguished men: Captain James Cook (1728-1779) of the English Navy and Captain Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) of the French Navy. Cook literally criss-crossed the Pacific in three expeditions (1768-1771, 1772-1775, and 1776-1780) and he was eventually killed by Hawai'ians on the big island of Hawai'i on 14 February 1779. The records from these descriptions encouraged Europeans to go out and not only see the Pacific but change the lifestyles of the indigenous inhabitants. Bougainville's three year voyage from 1766 to 1769 was the first and most important of French expeditions to the Pacific and it is from Bougainville, perhaps that we get the first full-blown Euroamerican myths about Polynesian women. 

THE ISLAND WORLD THROUGH EUROPEAN EYES: TAHITI AS "EXAMPLE"

"Here Venus is the goddess of hospitality. The very air the people breathe, their songs, their dances...all conspire to call to mind the sweets of love, and all engage to give themselves up to them."

Thus de Bougainville immortalized the island the native called Tahiti, but which he termed "La Nouvelle Cythere" since it reminded him of the Greek goddess of love. Tahiti is perhaps one of the most beautiful islands of the Pacific and de Bougainville's two ships (the Boudeuse and Etoile) landed at Tahiti on April 6, 1768. He wrote:

"The aspect of this coast offered us the most enchanting prospect. As we came nearer the short, the number of islanders surrounding our ships increased.... All these people came crying 'tayo.' [taio] which means 'friend,' and gave a thousand signs of friendship. They all asked nails and ear-rings of us. The canoes were full of females, who, for agreeable features, are not inferior to most European women; and who, in point of beauty and body, might with much reason vie with them all. Most of these fair females were naked, for the men and old women that accompanied them had stripped them of the garments which they generally dressed themselves in.... The men...soon explained their meaning very clearly. They pressed us to choose a woman and to come ashore with her; and their gestures, which were nothing less than equivocal, denoted in what manner we should form an acquaintance with her. It was very difficult amidst such a sign to keep 400 young French sailors who had seen no women for six months." (Robert Langdon, Tahiti: Island of Love, 1968, pages 19-20)

de Bougainville's Voyage Autour du Monde was published in French in 1771 and in English as Voyage Around the World in 1772. With published prose such as this, and confirming statements from other voyagers, the Pacific Paradise was born. As Carl Stroven and A. Grove Day have stated it:

"At this time in France and England there was a widespread interest in Rousseau's doctrine of primitivism, which held that civilization corrupted human nature and that mankind could be noble and happy only in a primitive society. Since de Bougainville gave a detailed and colorful picture of a newly discovered primitive [sic.] people, the Tahitians, living happily in the 'state of nature,' his narrative was eagerly read for its illustration of Rousseau's theories operating in practice. This and the fact that de Bougainville wrote with raciness and humor made the book one of the most popular of all Pacific voyages. (The Spell of the Pacific: An Anthology of Its Literature, 1949, page 113.)

de Bougainville's "racy" accounts were also eventually substantiated to some extent by Captain Cook. The descriptions of island life recorded by Cook, and the sketches made by his various artists and scientists on the expeditions, fleshed out the island world of the Pacific. In Tahiti, on the 14th of May 1769, Cook recorded in his Journal:

"...this day closed with an odd scene at the gate of the Fort where a young fellow about 6 feet high lay with a little girl about 10 or 12 years of age publickly before several of our people and a number of the natives. What makes me mention this, is because, it appeared to be done more from Custom than Lewdness, for there were several women present particularly Obarea (Purea) and several others of the better sort and these were so far from showing the least disprobation that they instructed the girl how she should act her part, who young as she was, did not seem to want it." (J.C. Beaglehole, Editor, The Journals of Captain James Cook, Vol. 1, 1955, page 93)

What Cook and his men had witnessed were part of the activities associated with the celebrated Arioi sect which flourished in traditional Tahitian society. The Arioi were dedicated to the worship of the Tahitian deity known as 'Oro, a youthful and handsome deity in the Tahitian cosmogony. Cook wrote:

"They are called Areeoy and have meetings among themselves with wrestling &c. and the women with dancing the indecent dances before mentioned, in the course of which they give full liberty to their desires but I believe keep strictly up to the appearance of decency. I never was admitted to see them, one of our gentlemen saw part of one but I believe very little of their real behavior tho he saw enough to make him give credit to what we had been told." (J.C. Beaglehole, Editor, The Journals of Captain James Cook, Vol. 1, 1955, pages 351-352)

The Arioi were involved in various activities, many of which revolved around sex. Douglas Oliver, perhaps the greatest living expert on Ancient Tahitian society has written:

"In other words, the things about the [Arioi] sect that attracted and held members were not only the positive advantages of membership...but [also] the institutionalized opportunity it provided for perpetuating 'youthfulness' in all its gratifying aspects." (Ancient Tahitian Society, Vol. 2, 1974, pages 943-944.)

Sexual promiscuity was described as being rampant in the Pacific and Europeans were fascinated, A voyage from Europe to the Pacific islands was indeed a long one, and the islands of the Pacific beckoned when sailors made landfall. European vessels needed fresh supplies when they reached the islands and islanders sought trade goods from the European emissaries. As W.H. Pearson clearly wrote in an article entitled "The reception of European voyagers on Polynesian islands, 1568-1797" in 1970:

"First contact between Europeans and Polynesians were conditioned by a conflict of two economic pressures. The first was the need for the ships companies for fresh water, for vegetables food and fresh meat and for timber and firewood; the second, the need to protect the population and resources of each island from the inevitable drain on food supply that must accompany the visit, unexpected and of uncertain length, of a numerous company of strangers." (1970: page 121.)

Traditional Island life revolved around working with the available natural resources of each island and the Pacific islanders quickly realized the value of European technology. Trade quickly took place as soon as the foreign vessels landed. As one example, iron was not found in the Pacific islands until Euroamericans brought it in, and it proved an extremely valuable trading commodity. It was such a valued item that Cook had to pass the following regulation designed to curb (or at least slow down) some trade with Pacific islanders:

"No sort of Iron or anything that is made of iron, or any sort of Cloth or other useful or necessary Articles are to be given in exchange for anything but provisions.... (J.C. Beaglehole, 1955 op. cit., page 572.) 

TONGAN, TAHITIAN, AND SOME HAWAI'IAN WOMEN

The pattern for Euroamerican penetration of Pacific islands discussed above for Tahiti took similar form throughout other islands of the Pacific. Oliver has written of the "Western conceit" to call the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries as the "Era of Discovery" (The Pacific Islands, 1962: 83) and in 1966 Alan Morehead wrote eloquently of The Fatal impact: An Account of the Invasion of the South Pacific 1767-1840 as a result of Euroamerican contacts.

Throughout much of the general published literature, women were often viewed as being sexual objects, objects of "trade," and generally regarded as having an inferior (or at least a lower status) than men in Pacific societies. In the anthropological literature, however, this is clearly not the case. In earlier papers (1975 and 1979) I have maintained that in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga, for example, women played an extremely important role in all major portions of island life before the coming of Euroamericans. Indeed, in his pioneering work of 1929, entitled Tongan Society, Edward Winslow Gifford clearly pointed out that "a woman is always superior in rank to her brother regardless of seniority" (1929: 17).

The overall importance of Tongan women in traditional times is clearly evident in all levels of society, from the family level to that of the "chiefs" or 'eiki. A 19th century missionary who was in Tonga from 1828 to 1859 reported in an unpublished manuscript that:

"Formerly there were three ranks of nobles in Tonga to which the term Eiki or Lord applied, of these the Tuitonga stood first, then the Tamaha, and next the Hau or civil ruler." (John Thomas, n.d., Ranks of Chiefs, page 1.)

While the Tu'i Tonga was a representative of the gods, the Tamaha was actually viewed as a god herself on Tonga and Gifford reports that "The Tamaha, the daughter of the female Tui Tonga and sororal sister of the male Tui Tonga, was the person of highest rank in the kingdom" (1929: 80) (also see Urbanowicz 1979: 228).

The Tamaha, the living oracle of the Tongans and the daughter of the Tu'i Tonga Fefine (the sister of the Tu'i Tonga) was an extremely important person in traditional Tongan society. Indeed, the Tu'i Tonga Fefine herself had an important role to play in Tongan society as the French explorer Dumont D'urville reported in his manuscript account of his 1827 visit to the main island of the Tongan archipelago, Tongatapu:

"Soon after our arrival at the anchorage, a native came to present me with a great ceremony a green branch of kava (piper methisticum). Singleton (a European residing in the islands of Tonga since 1806), whom I questioned about the reason for this gift, informed me that this branch had been sent to me by the old queen Tuoï-Tonga-Fafine (Tu'i Tonga Fefine), and that in doing so she did me a great honour. The branch put the ship under the protection of the gods of the country and would guarantee it against any misfortune. Consequently I received the sacred branch with respect and had it planted in a spot within view of the ship, which seemed to please the natives who witnessed the ceremony." (D'Urville, n.d.: MS: 1a; and see Urbanowicz 1975: 39).

Throughout Tongan history, women have always played major roles in daily life, including the running of the Kingdom. (When the Tongan Constitution of 1875 was promulgated, with the assistance of Europeans, quite a few things changed in Tonga. Please see Urbanowicz 1973.) Perhaps the most famous recent Tongan woman has been Her Majesty Queen Salote Tupou III, who was the reigning monarch from 1918 until her death in 1965 when her son acceded to the throne and became His Majesty King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV.

An article in a recent Pacific Islands Monthly pointed out the role being played by a contemporary Tongan woman, Papiloa Foliaki, and also mentioned Tongan women in general"

"Tongan women have always been a powerful behind-the scene influence on public affairs, but the Hon. Member for Tongatapu's emergence as a charismatic centre-stage public figure in her own right has caused a lot of talk, both for and against." (Penny Hodginson, 1980: 24)

Papiloa Foliaki is the only elected woman in the Tongan parliament of 23 individuals; she is one of the seven elected representatives for the Tongan population of over 100,000 individuals. Women have been important in the Pacific and Euroamerican interpretations of their traditional and contemporary roles has often been lacking.The most famous of all Tahitian women, perhaps, was Queen Pomare Vahine IV, who became the ruler of Tahiti and the Society Islands in 1827 at the age of 16, and who ruled until her death on September 17, 1877. This fifty year reign saw the introduction of Catholicism to French Polynesia, eventual internal warfare, and the establishment of the French Protectorate. (It was her son, Pomare V, who gave into pressure and turned this Polynesian Kingdom over to France.) When Queen Pomare died there was a great deal of concern over the future of the islands:

"Underlying the flowery rhetoric of some (funeral) speeches, there was actually a measure of anxiety among the chiefs and even among the people concerning the future of the country without a Queen. Unconsciously, the Tahitians felt that they had lost a queen and a mother, the symbol of their profound personality and their national heritage." (P. O'Reilly, Pomare: Queen of Tahiti, 1972: 30).

Indeed, the Hawai'ian counterpart of Queen Pomare IV is Queen Liliuokalani, who was born in 1838 and who came to the Hawai'ian throne at the death of her brother, King Kalakaua, in 1891. Queen Liliuokalani took the Hawai'ian throne at a time when the economy of the islands was depressed, Americans were seeking annexation to the United States, and things were going generally from bad to worse! On January 17, 1893, a "Committee of Safety" (formed by Honololu's annexationists) "abolished the monarchy of Hawaii and established a provisional government" (Joseph Feher, Hawaii: A Pictorial History, 1969: 331). On July 4, 1893, Hawai'i was proclaimed a Republic, with Sanford Dole as the first President. On August 12, 1898, the American flag was flown over the annexed islands of Hawai'i and on June 14, 1900, the Territory of Hawai'i was finally established. The last Queen of Hawai'i, now known as Lydia Dominis (and poet-authoress of Aloha oe) died a private citizen in 1917. 

CONCLUSIONS

In her work entitled Women of Old Hawaii (1975), Maxine Mrantz pointed out that in Hawai'i, women were in fact leaders, artists, rulers, and lawmakers. Similar examples could easily be found for other island groups in the Pacific which would clearly point out the important role that women have played in the past and continue to play in the present as we move into the future.


[PLEASE NOTE: "REFERENCES CITED" have been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]


[APPENDIX I: CONTEMPORARY MAPS OF THE PACIFIC] 

Source: http://www.netzmafia.de/skripten/server/tonga.gif

Source: http://www.nationmaster.com/images/maps/zn-map.gif

Source: http://www.nationmaster.com/images/maps/tn-map.gif

Source: http://www.world-gazetteer.com/o/o_pf.gif

Source: http://www.boh.com/econ/pacific/fp/images/fp_map2.gif

Source: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/islands/npacific/hawaii.gif

Source: http://www.nmfs.hawaii.edu/fmpi/fmep/images/mauzone.gif

Source: http://www.hotels-hoteles.com/hawaii.gif


[PLEASE NOTE: "Selected Web Pages For the Pacific" and "Specific Urbanowicz Publications Dealing With Tonga, 1972->1974" as well as "Other Spefcific Urbanowicz Historical Web Pages" have been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]


(1) © [All Rights Reserved.] [Original 1980 footnote:] This paper was originally presented on October 25, 1980, at the "Asia and Pacific" Section of the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Ethnohistory, San Francisco, California, October 23-25, 1980. [August 2003 Note: At the time this 1980 paper was written and presented I held my academic appointment in the Department of Anthropology and was also the Associate Dean in The Center for Regional and Continuing Education at California State University, Chico (a position I held for 1977->1988). To return to the top of the paper, please click here. 


EUROPEANS IN TAHITI: FROM COOK TO GAUGUIN

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/TahitiAndEuropeansFa2004.html]

6 November 2004

 (1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Originally placed on the World Wide Web on November 4, 2004, for a presentation(with numerous visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on November 4, 2004, and modified (with one addition) concerning an auction of a Gauguin painting by Sotheby's on November 4, 2004. My appreciation goes to Ms. Debra Besnard and Mr. Stan Griffith and their "Digital Asset Management Project" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico for the work they did for some of my slides used today.

  

ABSTRACT: The Pacific Ocean represents one-third of the globe and it was explored and colonized by indigenous inhabitants well before the Europeans "discovered" and mapped the islands for the rest of the world to "discover" and explore.

Before discussing Captain James Cook (1728-1779) and the illustrious Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), information will be provided about the indigenous inhabitants who first "discovered" these islands and inhabited them long before Europeans arrived. Issues concerning "peopling and prehistory" will be covered as well as "culture contact" in Tahiti. For additional information concerning "Mapping the Islands of the Pacific: Islanders And Others (Including Cook and Darwin)," please see http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html.

 

 

 

 

From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/captain_cook.shtml (National Maritime Museum, Greenwish, London) and http://www.abcgallery.com/G/gauguin/gauguin58.html (1896, Self-Portrait, Museo de Arte, Sao Paolo, Brazil)

I. INTRODUCTION
II. EUROPEANS AND "DIVISIONS" OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS
III.CULTURE CONTACT
IV. MYTHS OF THE PACIFIC
V. ON-GOING-CONCLUSIONS
VI. POSTSCRIPT: THOR HEYERDAHL, ROBERT LANGDON, THE CHINESE, AND BAJA CALIFORNIA!
VII. VERY SELECTED REFERENCES
VIII. SOME VERY SELECTIVE FACTS
IX. SELECTED VISUALS 
 

I. INTRODUCTION

"I wish I could tell you about the South Pacific. The way it actually was. The endless ocean. The infinite specks of coral we called islands. Coconut palms nodding gracefully toward the ocean. Reefs upon which waves broke into spray, and inner lagoons lovely beyond description [stress added]." James A. Michener [1907-1997], 1946, Tales of the South Pacific (Fawcett Crest Books), page 9.

When it is peaceful, the Pacific Ocean (the largest geographical feature on this planet) is a delight and the islands are gorgeous! I am a "Pacific Anthropologist" by training, having received my Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Oregon in 1972. My own expertise in the Pacific developed as a result of graduate courses, combined with library research (California, Hawai'i, Fiji, Australia, and New Zealand), and fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1970 and 1971) more than three decades ago! I have not returned to Tonga since 1971 but I have been to Hawai'i 26 times since 1970 (the last time in 2003). I was last in Tahiti in 1980 (and before that in 1971) and will be returning to cruise through French Polynesia (Tahiti and the Marquesas) and the Cook Islands in December (2004) and January (2005). If those cruises (where I will be lecturing in the "ScholarShip@Sea Program" prove to be successful and fun) I might apply for a "ScholarsShip@Sea Program" for a Honolulu-Beijing cruise in May 2005; please see the maps at the end of this paper). Since 1970, and through 2003, I have also conducted very modest research into tourism in the Pacific islands of the Galápagos, Tasmania, New Zealand, Fiji, Western Samoa, and American Samoa. Additional research into tourism as well as economic development was conducted in China (Singapore), Taiwan, Malaysia, and Japan at various points in time in the 1980s.

Incidentally, after the forthcoming December-January cruises, my wife and I will have been to several more locations listed in the interesting 2003 publication entitled 1,000 Places To See Before You Die: A Traveler's Life List (by Patricia Schultz). In addition to having already been to several once-in-a-lifetime locations (such as the Galápagos and Machu Picchu), Schultz also has the Cook Islands, the Marquesan Islands, Bora Bora, Huahine, Moorea, and the Tuamotu Islands as important destination locations. Needless to say, we hope to see many-many more before.... This presentation then is actually a "practise" run for my next trip to Tahiti and I have almost returned "full circle" back to my Pacific anthropological roots! The Pacific is interesting and in addition to the Michener words above, I should like to add the folowing concerning the islands of the Pacific:

"It is easy to understand the natives' belief in the supernatural, where beauty and desolation are so inextricably entwined. There is no cloying sweetness, no cheap sentimality in the South Sea arabesque. A death's-head shadows the exotic curves and passionate lines that weave the pattern called Polynesia." Robert Eskridge, 1931, Mangareva: The Forgotten Islands (Honolulu: Mutual Publishing Paperback Series, 1958 edition), page 33.

In "traditional" times in the islands of the Pacific, and a date of 1800 has been used by a leading anthropologist, the population of the islands in this part of the Pacific Ocean was estimated to be approximately 300,000 individuals (100,000 in the Marquesas and 200,000 in the "Society" Islands) (Irving Goldman, 1970, Ancient Polynesian Society [University of Chicago Press], page 580). Today, the Territory of French Polynesia (consisting of five archipelagoes, parts of which are the Society Islands), includes the islands of Tahiti, Mo'orea, and the Marquesas, and is located approximately 10 to 30 degrees south of the equator and 130 to 155 degrees west of Greenwich. (Please see Figure IV in this paper.) The capital of French Polynesia is Pape'ete (meaning "basket of water"), is located on the island of Tahiti. The land area of all of French Polynesia is approximately 1297 square miles (3,360 square kilometers) and the largest island is Tahiti at 402 square miles (or 1041 square kilometers). The estimated population for French Polynesia in July 2004 was 266,339 (27.5 per cent below the age of 14), with the majority of the population (~64% or 170,457) living on the island of Tahiti. Pape'ete probably has a current population of approximately 30,000 individuals. Seventy-eight percent of the population is classified as "Polynesian" and twelve percent are Chinese, with individual of French ancestry at ten percent. As far as religon goes, even though the French annexed various islands beginning in 1842, thirty percent of the population is Catholic and fifty-four percent are Protestant. For additonal information, please see David Stanley, 2003, Moon Handbooks: Tahiti Including the Cook Islands, Fifth Edition (Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing) or consult the CIA Fact Book.. As Charles R. Darwin (1809-1882) wrote in his celebrated The Voyage of the Beagle for November 15, 1825:

"At daylight, Tahiti, an island which must forever remain classical to the voyager in the South Sea, was in view." Charles R. Darwin,1839, The Voyage of the Beagle [NY: Bantam Books 1958 edition], page 348 

II. EUROPEANS AND "DIVISIONS" OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS

Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres.

It might seem strange to begin a presentation that will discuss the celebrated English explorer, Captain James Cook (1728-1779) and the distinguised French painter Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), but were it not for various Europeans we would probably not be aware of the islanders at all. The opening statement above comes from an Anthropology Forum (http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html) on this campus in 1993 when I invoked the words of Gaius Julius Ceasar's (100-44B.C.) "Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres...." Many anthropologists divide the Pacific into three major culture areas, the first one being Polynesia (bounded by Hawai'i to the north of the Equator, Easter island, and the islands of New Zealand south of the Equator). One then has Melanesia (the islands just north and northeast of Australia) and then the area called Micronesia (or the islands just north of New Guinea and the Equator). For additional information pertaining to "peopling and prehistory" of the islands and population genetics, please see Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza et al., 1994, and the section entitled "Population Genetics of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia" in their monumental publication entitled The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton University press), pages 362-371. For information dealing with physical anthropology studies in the Pacific, including information on the Austronesian languages of the area, please see William Howells, 1973, The Pacific Islanders (NY: Scribner's), especially page 89.

Today I am only concerned with Polynesia and the islands associated with the island of Tahiti, the fabled isle first "discovered" by Europeans in 1767 in two separate expeditions: the first led by Captain Wallis (1728-1795) of England and the second by Louis Bougainville (1729-1811) of France. I considered using their names in the title of this presentation but thought "Cook & Gauguin" would have more name recognition since as someone has recently written:

"Balboa [1475-1519] found it, Magellan [1480-1521] named it, but for any young boy taken with tales of the South Seas--like the young Charles Wilkes [1798-1877]--the central figure had to be James Cook [1728-1779]." Nathaniel Philbrick, 2003, Sea of Glory: America's Voyage of Discovery, The U.S. Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 (NY: The Penguin Group), page 3.

Although we call the inhabitants of the island of Tahiti "Tahitians" they actually referred to themselves as maohi (a term used to this date) and defined by an eminent scholar on this part of the world as their "word for persons, customs, objects, and so forth, native to their archipelago, as distinct from those of elsewhere" (Douglas l. Oliver, 1974, Ancient Tahitian Society [Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press], page 6). Another has written as follows:

"The name 'Tahiti'--or, as Bougainville [1729-1811] first wrote it in 1768, Taiti,' and Cook in 1769, 'Otaheiti'--was the name the natives gave to their island and which Europeans came to apply to the indigenes. If the Tahitians had a name specifically identifying themselves, it is not known. What is known is that all of those living in the Society Archipelago, including Tahiti, referred to themselves as 'Maohi.'" Edwin N. Ferdon, 1991, Tahiti. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume II Oceania (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co.), pages 305-307, page 305.

A summary statement concerning Tahiti is the following:

"The first recorded European to sight Me'etia (Maitea, Mehetia, etc.) ["the easternmost and geologically youngest island in the Society Archipelago"] was H.M.S. Dolphin, on June 17th 1767, during a voyage in search of new lands (including a fabled 'Southern Continent', which many Europeans believed to exist in the Pacific between New Zealand and Cape Horn--a belief based partly on the theory that a large land mass in the southern Hemisphere was essential for the stability of the global Earth). Wallis [1728-1795], Dolphin's Commander, named Me'etia 'Osnaburg' Island, for the second son of George III [1738-1820], Frederick Augustus, who had been elected Bishop of Osnabrug (also Osnaburg) at the age of six months. Philip Carteret, whose sloop, Swallow, was to have accompanied Dolphin throughout the expedition but which went on alone after being separated from her in Magellan Straits, applied the name 'Osnaburg' to another island discovered by him. That was the Tuamotuan Island, Mururoa, of present-day nuclear-testing notoriety. In John Beaglehole's words: 'Cook's English predecessors were more notable for loyalty to the house of Hanover than for romance in their choice of names'. [J.C. Beaglehole, The Journals of Captain Cook on his Voyage of Discovery, 3 volumes] (1955: 72n). ... Following the Dolphin, Me'etia was sighted from Bougainville's ships in April 1968 [sic! 1768!] (and named by Bougainville 'Le Boudoir') and again from the Endeavour a year later.... [stress added]." Douglas Oliver, 1988, Return To Tahiti: Bligh's Second Breadfruit Voyage (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press), page 36. 

When the European "discovered" this part of the world, this is what it was like:

"The fourteen islands of the Society group fall into two geographic divisions. The Windwards, lying eastward, include Tahiti, Moorea, Meetia, and Tetuaroa; the Leewards, lying westward, include Raiatea, Huahiine, Tahaa, Borabora, Maupiti, and several small atolls. The Tuamotu atolls are geographically distinct but came under Tahitian political and cultural influences in the eighteenth century. All the islands shared a common culture and were interwoven into a single genealogical system. Two divergent traditions, however, had developed among them. Raiaetea had risen to eminence as the citadel of aristocracy and Tahiti, known also as Tahiti manahune, 'plebian Tahiti,' had become the center of military and political power and eventually the seat of central authority. The rise of Tahiti and the political eclipse of Raiatea defines rather closely the pattern of social evolution on these islands. The Societies are mong the most fertile and productive of all Polynesian islands. Tahiti was shipping surplus foods--breadfruit, coconut, fowl, and pigs--to all neighboring islands and as far away as the Tuamotus long before the European period (Maude 1959 [H.E. Maude, The Tahitian Pork Trade. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 15: 55-95]). ... Tahitian traditions describe Raiatea as the great center of traditional aristocracy.... A Tahitian chant describes the formation of social classes as follows: 'The high royal family of the 'ura girdle...were descended of the gods from darkness.' They were 'begat' from Ti'i and Hina. The 'common people, the plebians of the world' were 'conjured into being' by the gods. The gentry were 'begat' from intermarriages between royalty and commoners. The nobility, or lesse arii were 'begat' from intermarriages between royalty and gentry (Henry 1928: 402-3 [Teuira Henry, Ancient Tahiti. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 48]). Thus commoners with the stigma of not having a line of descent stnad alone as an absolute category. The highest arii stand alone as god-descended, and the two intermediate classes form still a third category, with merits of descent line and of connection with arii, but with the indelible blemish of mixture. The highest rank were the arii rahi or arii nui, the sacred or great arii The second rank were the arii rii, the small chiefs; the third were the raatira; the fourth, the manahune [stress added]." Irving Goldman, 1970, Ancient Polynesian Society (University of Chicago Press), pages 171 and 187-188. 

III. CULTURE CONTACT

"To hail Europeans as discoverers of the Pacific Islands is ungracious as well as inaccurate. While they were still moving around in their small, landlocked Mediterranean Sea or hugging the Atlantic shores of Europe and Africa, Pacific Islanders were voyaging hundreds of open-sea miles in their canoes and populating most of the vast Pacific's far-flung islands [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands [Third Edition], page 19.

While the Pacific islanders were the first to "discover" the islands of the vast Pacific, credit must also be given to the various intrepid European explorers who first ventured out across the globe; as Dening pointed out in 1980:

"In many ways the European has been the world's voyager. Arabs and Celts Romans and Phoenicians, Chinese and Polynesians all knew their separate seas and often made excursions out of them. But the Europeans of the sixteenth century discovered that the world is an ocean and all its continents are islands. They discovered that all its parts are joined by straits and passages. They 'encompassed' the world. Following those who encompassed it came those who whaled the sea, fished it or traded over it. After them came those who pretected the sea for those who whaled it, fished it or traded over it. They all, even more than those who discovered the straits and passages were the voyagers [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), pages 23-24.

In a conference earlier this year I discussed "Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin)" and todays presentation draws upon that paper (available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html). In that paper I pointed out the importance of the circumnavigation of the globe by Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) who was killed in the Phillipines. As a result of this voyage, the world of the Pacific Islanders (and the rest of the world!) began to change:

"On 6 September 1522, a ship named Vittoria sailed into one of the major ports of Spain, having completed the first-ever round trip of the globe. It was the single surviving vessel of the ill-fated fleet that had set out under Ferdinand Magellan [1480-1521] years earlier. On board were masses of valuable and mysterious products from far-away places. Nutmeg, cloves, and other valuable spices, precious stones, and also two stuffed birds, a present from the Rajah of Bachian (ruler of the island of Tidore in the Moluccas) to the King of Spain. This may seem a meagre gift even by sixteenth-century standards, but what birds they were! Nothing like them had ever been seen in Europe. The plumage was a dazzling palette of fiery red, bright chestnut yellow, deep green, and iridescent yellowish green, completed with two tufts of amazing yellow-and-fawn , long, springy feathers [stress added]." Menno Schilthuizen, 2001, Frogs, Flies, and Dandelions: Speciation--The Evolution of New Species (Oxford University Press), page 35.

In his most delightful and readable 2002 publication, Tony Horwitz has the following to say about Pacific explorers:

"Pacific adventurers also showed an unfortunate tendency toward abbreviated careers. Vasco Núñez de Balboa [1475-1519], the first European to sight the ocean, in 1513, was beheaded for treason. Magellan set off in 1519 with five ships and 237 men; only one ship and eighteen men made it home three years later, and Magellan was not present, having been speared in the Philippines. Francis Drake [~1540-1596] the first English circumnavigator, died at sea of dysentery. Vitus Bering [1681-1741], sailng for the czar, perished from exposure after shipwrecking near the frigid sea now named for him; at the last, Bering lay half-buried in sand, to keep warm, while Arctic foxes gnawed at his sick and dying men. Other explorers simply vanished. Or went mad [stress added]." Tony Horwitz, 2002, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before (NY: Henry Holt And Company), page 14.

There were dangers for explorers (and islanders alike) but the Pacific was changed by European (and eventually American) navigators. It must be pointed out in this cursory overview that there were numerous other European "discoverers" of Pacific Islands: Alvaro de Saavedra (????-1529), discoverer of the Marshall Islands in 1527; Ruy Lopez de Villalobos (1500-1544), discoverer of the Caroline Islands in 1543; Alvaro de Mendaña (1541-1596), discoverer of the Ellice Islands and the Solomon Islands in 1567 and the Marquesan Islands in 1595. (Note: this is not a typographical error: they were discovered by de Mendaña 28 years apart when he was on another voyage.) There was also Pedro Fernandez de Quiros (1565-1615), discoverer of the Tuamotu Atolls and the New Hebrides in 1606; Cornelis Schouten (1580-1625) and Jakob LeMaire (1585-1616), discoverers of the Tongan Islands in 1616; Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603-1659), discoverer of Tasmania and New Zealand in 1642 and another part of the Tongan Islands and the Fiji Islands in 1643; Jacob Roggeveen (1645-1706), discoverer of Easter Island and the Samoan Islands in 1722; John Byron (1723-1786), another discoverer of Tuamotu in 1765; Samuel Wallis (1726-1795), discoverer of the islands of Tahiti, Moorea; and Wallis Island in 1767; and Philip Carteret (1733-1796) discoverer of Pitcairn Island in 1768. Clearly then, when other explorers followed (discussed below) they were building on an extensive information base which they clearly added to! An interesting and useful "jumping-off point for further information concerning "exploration" in the Pacific is available at http://www.win.tue.nl/cs/fm/engels/discovery/pacific.html [Discoverers Web: The Pacific & Australia].

One may deduce from the above listing of names (and implied nationalities) that geopolitical efforts of the great powers of the day clearly manifested themselves in the Pacific Ocean (and in the islands of the Pacific). Just as there was national rivalry in Europe proper, so it was in the Pacific:

"New Zealand looked set to become a French colony when the Nanto-Bordelaise Company sent an expedition of around 120 Frenchmen to settle in the unclaimed islands in 1839. The venture was a largely private initiative although the government gave its blessing and saw the settlement as a means of limiting British interests and establishing a foothold in the pacific. The colonists arrived in 1840 just after the British had taken possession of New Zealand [stress added]. Robert Aldrich, 1990, The French Presence In The South Pacific 1842-1940 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), page 210.

Even the United States of American had a "Pacific presence" in the early 19th century (and not just in Hawai'i): in 1813, one Captain David Porter (1780-1843) of the United States Navy claimed the Marquesan Islands for the United States of America.

"Appointed a midshipman in 1798, he served in the West Indies and in the war with Tripoli. In 1803 his ship, the Philadelphia, was captured off the coast of Tripoli, and Porter was a prisoner until peace was declared in 1805. He achieved his greatest success as commander of the Essex in the War of 1812. In that year he captured several British ships carrying troops to Halifax and the British war vessel Alert. Then, accompanied by young David Farragut, he sailed the Essex around the Horn and cruised in the Pacific, warring on British commercial vessels. He took formal possession of Nuku Hiva, one of the Marquesas Islands, in Nov., 1813, but this act was not recognized by the U.S. government [stress added]." from: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0839784.html

As another has written:

"...Porter fortified a settlement for his operations against British whaling vessels and became embroiled in local warfare against the occupants of Taipi Valley (later made famous in Herman melville's novel Typee [published in 1846]). For the first time, Marquesans were profoundly impressed by the efficacy of firearms and the power of Whites, and chiefs and warriors throughout the group subsequently made grat efforts to obtain the former and make friends with the latter. Trade thus developed a more systematic presence in the Marquesan economy. Both Protestant and Catholic missionaies attempted to gain footholds in the group, but they had very little influence in the period up to 1840, a time of severe depopulation. The French annexed the islands in 1842 but subsequently maintained a minimal presence [stress added]." Nicholas Thomas, 1991, Marquesas Islands. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume II Oceania (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co.), pages 188-191, page 189.

Even Herman Melville (1819-1891), discussed below, mentions Porter's activties in the Marquesas in his 1846 publication entitled Typee:

"Shortly after decrying the French annexations of Tahiti and the Marquesas, he reminds his readers that in 1813 the U.S. naval captain David Porter violently seized Nuku Hiva and that in 1840 the U.S. Exploring Expedition flattened a major Fijian village, killing at least eighty-seven men, women, and children." Geoffrey Sanborn, 2004, Herman Melville Typee: Complete Text with Introduction (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), page 4.

Explorers from another European power, namely Russia, soon discovered the occupation of the Pacific islands by various European powers:

"...the Nadesha under command of Adam von Krusenstern [1770-1846] anchored at Taiohae [Marquesan Islands] on 7 May 1804. Three days later her companion, the Neva under Yuri Lisiansky [1773-1837], caught up with her. They had come from Cape Horn to do for the Russians what Bougainville [1729-1811] had done for the French and Cook had done for the English--to discover the Pacific and its worth. The Russians were surprised to find an Englishman and a Frenchman already living on Nukuhiva. They were not surprised to find the pair enemies: enmity, they thought was innate to Englishmen and Frenchmen. They were, however, disturbed to think the newly discovered islands of the southern ocean had to feel the influence of the rivalry. It was a more prophetic statement than they realized. It was rivalry between the French and English that caused the French to 'take possession' of the Marquesas [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), page 112.

Regardless of the many voyagers who "discovered" the islands of the Pacific, it is generally recognized that the most important explorer for the Pacific was Captain James Cook (1728-1779) of the British Royal Navy. Cook's three voyages of 1768-1771, 1772-1775, and 1776-1780, firmly placed various "Pacific Islands" (and Pacific Islanders) onto the European map of the world. As Nicholas Thomas stated it in his interesting 2003 book, Cook: The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook (NY: Walker & Co.):

"Cook found not only lands and islands unknown to Europeans, but also people who already knew this islands intimately, whose ancestors had lived and died on them. Cook was a master of techniques that enabled him to determine the orientation of a coast, the height of a mountain and the position of a reef--and to transcribe the whole to a chart [stress added]." Nicholas Thomas, 2003, Cook: The Extraordinary Voyages of Captain James Cook (NY: Walker & Co.), page xx.

Cook was a genius at his exploring endeavors (and one indication of this would be an analysis of the various sailors who sailed under his direction, such as George Vancouver [1757-1798] or William Bligh [1754-1817]). As written elsewhere, Cook has been recognized as the major individual for 18th Century exploration!

"Cook, by the time of this third [1775-1779/1780] and, as it would turn out, final voyage, had acquired the reputation of being an immaculate navigator and seaman, and a brilliant manager of men. His far-ranging accounts of his voyages, moreover, revealed a remarkable respect for the foreign peoples he met, and a striking reluctance to condemn outright even those alien practices that his own culture held to be immoral [stress added]." Caroline Alexander, 2003, The Bounty: The True Story of the Mutiny on the Bounty (NY: Viking), pages 129-130.

As Horwitz points out, Cook's discoveries (or lack of same) were also very important:

"While Cook had failed to find the fabled southern continent, his circling of the globe, near its southernmost latitude, demolished forever the fantasy that a land of plenty girdled the bottom of the world [stress added]." Tony Horwitz, 2002, Blue Latitudes: Boldly Going Where Captain Cook Has Gone Before (NY: Henry Holt And Company), page 220.

One "fantasy" demolished and new myths developed! Incidentally, Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) sailed through, and stayed for awhile, in French Polynesia (and other islands of the Pacific in 1888-1889) and had this to day about culture contact:

"Upon the whole, the problem seems to me to stand thus:--Where there have been fewest changes, important or unimportant, salutary or hurtful, there the race survives. Where there have been most, important or unimportant, salutary or hurtful, there it perishes. Each change, however, small, augments the sum of new conditions to which the race has to become inured [stress added]." Robert Louis Stevenson,1900, In The South Seas Being An Account of Experiences and Observations in The Marquesas, Paumotus And Gilbert Islands in the Course of Two Cruises, on the Yacht 'Casco' (1888) and the Schooner 'Equator' (1889) (London: Chatto and Windus) (1971 University of Hawaii Press Facsimile Reproduction), page 41.

Stevenson ("Tusitala" or teller of tales) is buried on Mt. Vaea, Samoa (formerly known as Western Samoa). Incidentally, the above Stevenson statement reminded me of one of my favorite quotes concerning Darwin:

"He [Charles Darwin] believed that the natural world was the result of constantly repeated small and accumulative actions, a lesson he had first learned when reading Lyell's Principles of Geology on board the Beagle and had put to work ever since. ... No one, not even Lyell himself, or any of Darwin's closest friends and supporters, accepted as ardently as Darwin that the book of nature was about the accumulative powers of the small [stress added]." Janet Browne, 2002, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), page 490.

Not only is the "book of nature" the result of the "acumulative powers of the small" but so it is for culture change as well!  

IV. MYTHS OF THE PACIFIC

"Over the years the romance of the legendary South Seas has been elaborated by a succession of famous writers who came in search of Bougainville's [1729-1811] 'Nouvelle Cythere' or Rousseau's [1712-1778] 'noble savage.' Brought to the stage or silver screen, their stories entered the popular imagination alongside Gauguin's [1848-1903] rich images [stress added]." David Stanley, 1989, South Pacific Handbook (Chico, CA: Moon Publications, Inc.), page 59. 

Although it was the British navigator Wallis who first "discovered" Tahiti for Europeans, it was the French Explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) who probably did more than any other explorer to create the image of the islands of love in the South Pacific.

"Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti Island in 1768. He stayed on the island for several months, bringing with him the first French influence. He named Tahiti "La Nouvelle Cythere", after the birthplace of the Greek goddess of love [Kythera, or Cerigo as it was once termed] [stress added]." [from: http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/t/te_ao_maohi.html]

Another source tells us the following about Bougainville:

"Eighteenth Century French Sailor, Soldier, Statesman, Mathematician and leader of a voyage around the world. The French Sailor, Soldier, Statesman and Mathematician, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville [1729-1811], was one of the most interesting characters of the Eighteenth Century. Born in Paris in 1729, he led a voyage around the world in the 1760s which had far-reaching repercussions in the way European Society perceived life in the Pacific. The notion of the "Noble savage" had some of its roots in the reports given by members of Bougainville's expedition of their short time on the island of Tahiti [stress added]." From: http://pages.quicksilver.net.nz/jcr/~boug1.html.

In his most informative 1960 publication entitled European Vision And the South Pacific 1768-1850: A Study In The History Of Art And Ideas, Bernard Smith writes the following about Bougainville:

"...the French navigator, Louis de Bougainville, who visited Tahiti in April 1768, a year before Cook, compared the Tahitians to Greek gods. 'I never saw men better made, and whose limbs were more proportinate: in order to paint Hercules or a Mars, one could nowhere find such beautiful models [stress added].'" Bernard Smith, 1960, European Vision And the South Pacific 1768-1850: A Study In The History Of Art And Ideas (Oxford University Press), page 25.

Ever the observant traveler, in 1835 Darwin commented on some aspects of Tahiti:

"In point of morality, the virtue of the women, it has been often said, is most open to exception. But before they are blamed too severely, it will be well distinctly to call to mind the scenes described by Captain Cook [1728 -1779] and Mr. [Joseph] Banks [1743-1820, who was the naturalist on Cook's first voyage of 1768-1771], in which the grandmothers and mothers of the present race played a part. Those who are most severe, should consider how much of the morality of the women in Europe, is owing to the system early impressed by others on their daughters, and how much in each individual case to the precepts of religion [stress added]." Charles R. Darwin,1839, The Voyage of the Beagle [NY: Bantam Books 1958 edition], page 358.

Numerous other individuals have contributed to the "myths" (and stories) of the South Pacific and Tahiti: authors who wrote about the islanders (and non-islanders) include W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), noted for The Moon and Sixpence (1919) and The Trembling of A Leaf (1921) from which we get the short story "Rain" (and Miss Sadie Thompson!), as well as Charles Nordhoff (1887-1947) and James Norman Hall (1887-1951) and their celebrated Bounty Trilogy (1934). We also have James Michener (1907-1997) and his 1948 Pulitzer Prize winner Tales of the South Pacific (published in 1946), which turned into a beautiful play entitled South Pacific (first produced by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II and which opened in New York City on April 7, 1949). The play was also turned into an exquisite movie of the same title. Although stationed in Melanesia, in what was once called The New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), it was the island of Ambae which inspired his Bali Ha'i (although the fictive island is often associated with Tahiti and French Polynesia):

"It is rumoured that James Michener based his mythical, idealized island, Bali Hai on Moorea. And it is easy to see why. Many people have described Moorea as the most beautiful place on earth. Here, you'll find the real South Seas' experience -- a casual, barefoot existence amidst white sand beaches and multi-hued lagoons surrounded by jagged mountains and volcanic spires that reach into the clouds, while below, valleys are blanketed with the colors that one only finds when tropical climates and rich, volcanic soils meet. Clearly visible from Tahiti, Moorea is located only nine miles away across the Sea of the Moon. For all the hustle and bustle of nearby Tahiti (125,000+ population compared to Moorea's 9,000), Moorea is the best-kept secret of the trio of famous French Polynesian islands. Bora Bora and Tahiti get the press, but Moorea is the real prize. Beyond the picture postcard lagoons and white sand beaches, the volcanic island -- twice as old as Tahiti -- is also famous for its six mountains, including Mt. Rotui, which offers spectacular views of Opunohu Bay and the island [stress added]." [from: http://moorea.com/]

Another other individual who contributed to the "myths" of the Pacific must be mentioned, namely that of Herman Melville (1819-1891) and what has been called the most famous American novel of all times, Moby Dick (1851). In the 19th century, Melville had shipped out on the whaler Acushnet and in 1842 he deserted the ship when it was in the Marquesas Islands. The Marquesan Islands, so named by the Spanish Explorer de Mendaña in 1595 (but called Te Enata Henua or "The Land of the Men" by the inhabitants) are part of French Polynesia:

"They are divided into two distinct groups about 60 miles apart. Nuku-Hiva, the administrative and economic center of the Marquesas, lies 932 miles northeast of Tahiti, in the northern group. Ua Huka and Ua Pou are also in this group, with the southern Marquesas including Hiva Oa, Tahuata and Fatu Hiva [stress added]." [source: http://www.tahiti-explorer.com/index.html]

On Hiva Oa, where Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) was to eventually live and die in the town of Atuona, we have the following:

"Located 740 miles northeast of Tahiti, the town of Atuona is the administrative center for the southern Marquesas. Frames in a theater of mountains with the Bay of Traitors providing safe anchorage, Atuona is a favorite port of call for yachts and copra ships [stress added]." [source: http://www.tahiti-explorer.com/index.html]

Volcanic in origin, as are the other islands of French Polynesia, the Marquesan Islands are very rugged and may be described as inhospitable. The indigenous inhabitants were quite warlike, assisted, it may be assumed from their initial contact with Europeans in 1595 when de Mendaña's men killed some 200 Marquesans.

Melville eventually left the Marquesas on another whaler, went to Hawai'i and Tahiti and after four years returned to Cape Cod where he wrote and published Typee (1846), Omoo (1847), Mardi (1849), Redburn (1849), White-Jacket (1850), and eventually Moby Dick (1851). There actually was a huge whale in the Pacific, called "Mocha Dick" because of a patch of white that it had on its body (A. B. C. Whipple, 1973, Yankee Whalers In The South Seas [Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Co.], page 60) and whales did attack and sink whaleships throughout the Pacific; please see Nathaniel Philbrick's 2003 publication entitled In The Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex, which is the excellent story of what happened when a whale rammed, and sank, the American 106-foot long whaler Essex in the South Pacific. This, and other attacks, was the inspiration for Melville's 1851 Moby Dick.

"Melville worked for years on his mighty sea epic, which he always called, very literally, The Whale. ... In England, Melville's publisher, who had originally rejected The Whale as not good enough to be a children's book, finally offered it to the public as juvenile fiction. Harper and Brothers in New York felt differently, and having read a real-life newspaper account of a monumental chase at sea involving a mammoth white whale called Mocha Dick, suggested that Melville play up on the public's awareness of the news with a very subtle change of name. It didn't work--the book was one of the greatest publishing failures of its time--but who today has not heard of the might Moby-Dick? [stress added]." André Bernard, 1995, Now All We Need Is A Title: Famous Book Titles And How They Got That Way (NY: Barnes & Noble Books), pages 78-80.

If one is reluctant to read Melville's Moby Dick in the original, there is a delightful book by Maurice Sagoff (1970) which is called to your attention: Shrinklits: Seventy of the World's Towering Classics Cut Down To Size (New York: Workman Publishing) wherein the following appears on page 97:

"Whale chomped Ahab's leg in two.
'Hunt that beast!' he tells his crew.

First, a welter of whaling schmoose,
Then comes Moby and hell breaks loose.

Smashup! Ahab's drowned in brine,
Lashed to the whale by a harpoon line.

Good (symbolic) with Evil vies,
If you'd fathom it, you must rise."

With alternating lines being given by Sagoff as:
"Heave ho, blow the man down!" And "Early in the morning."

Melville's 1846 publication of Typee (dealing with his experiences in the Marquesas Islands) was a success both in England (where it was first published on February 27, 1846) and in the United States. Various reviews were generally favorable and even "negative" reviews probably had an impact on increasing readership!

"Even the opposition press helped to give Typee currency. One highly specialized periodical--it called itself The Christian Parlor Magazine--excommunicated the book as 'An apotheosis of barbarism! A panegyric on cannibal delights!' Such a notice must have sent many amateurs of barabrism to the bookstores [stress added]." Clifton Fadiman [Introduction], 1958, Typee [by Herman Melville, 1846] (NY: Bantam Edition), page xvii.

Melville was became quite the public figure and Typee was quickly followed by Omoo (1847), a fictional account of his stay on Tahiti. As A. Grove Day has written:

"Again, the setting of the novel is its most important aspect. Omoo is undoubtedly filled with the best descriptions of Tahiti in 1842 that one can find anywhere. Melville liked the native people and the places he visited. In his later long poem Clarel (1876), Tahiti is mentioned as the only fit place on earth for the advent of Christ. Melville's second book [namely, Omoo] almost became a tourist guide to the region. 'Pierre Loti' [pseudonym for Louis Marie Julien Viaud, 1850-1923] Henry Adams [1838-1918], Charles Warren Stoddard [1843-1909], Robert Louis Stevenson [1850-1894], and Jack London [1876-1916] read their Omoo before voyaging to the Societies. Melville produced this novel during 1846, which one American author christened 'the year of decision.' It was not only the year of publication of Typee but also of the outbreak of the war with Mexico, the annexation of California, and the settling of the Oregon dispute, which opened up the trails to our Norhtwest [stress added]." A. Grove Day, 1970, Melville's South Seas: An Anthology (NY: Hawthorn Books, Inc.), page 87.

On January 5, 1858, Melville began to make presentations about "The South Seas" in his series of public lecture in the United States:

"The title was preferred to that of 'The Pacific' because 'The South Seas' evoked a more romantic picture and because that ocean is not always as peaceful as its name might suggest. One part of his address that is topical today concerns his prediction, exactly a century before the event, that the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands would eventually be annexed to the American Union [stress added]." A. Grove Day, 1970, Melville's South Seas: An Anthology (NY: Hawthorn Books, Inc.), page 273.

As an aside, in order to contextualize 19th century European (and American) activities in the Pacific, please consider the following:

"Between October 1844, when Herman Melville [1819-1891] returned from a nearly four-year Pacific voyage, and February 1846, when Typee appeared in print, the keynote of [American] national life was expansion. In those sixteen months, the United States admitted Florida and Iowa into the Union, annexed the independent Republic of Texas, pressed with new vehemence its claim on the Pacific Coast from Oregon to the latitude 54 40', and accelerated to the brink of a nakedly acquisitive war with Mexico. By the end of 1848, after the settlement of the Oregon boundary dispute with Britain and the treaty ending the Mexican War, the United States was 64 percent larger than it had been in 1844, having added 1.2 million square miles to its territories [stress added]." Geoffrey Sanborn, 2004, Herman Melville Typee: Complete Text with Introduction (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company), page 1.

Tahiti (and all of Polynesia) changed as a result of factual and fictional information about the people of the islands as presented by numerous individuals! Perhaps the most famous of the Frenchmen to go to Tahiti was Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) who departed Marseilles on the first of April 1891 and arrived in Pape'ete, Tahiti on 9 June 1891. As David Stanley writes in his excellent 2003 publication: "The most unlikely PR man of them all was a once-obscure French painter named Paul Gauguin, who transformed the primitive color of Tahiti and the Marquesas into powerful visual images seen around the world" (David Stanley, 2003, Moon Handbooks: Tahiti Including the Cook Islands, Fifth Edition [Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing], page 76.) Gauguin was to eventually write the following about his introduction to Tahiti:

"Life at Papeete soon became a burden. It was Europe--the Europe which I had thought to shake off--and that under the aggravating circumstances of colonial snobbism, and the imitation, grotesque even to the point of caricature, of our customs, fashions, vices, and absurdities of civilization. Was I to have made this far journey, only to find the very thing I had fled? [stress added]." Paul Gauguin, Noa Noa (originally published in the Revue Blanche in 1897 and in an expanded book form in 1901) translated from the French by O. F. Theis], (NY: The Noonday Press), page 7. (For the Project Gutenberg version of Noa Noa, please see http://www.gutenberg.net/etext/11646.

Although he may have found it like the Europe he left behind, Gauguin's prolific paintings created an image of Tahiti that exists to this day. Recently the New York Times reported on the November 4, 2004 (!) sale of a painting that Gauguin completed in Tahiti:

"Sotheby's Nov. 4 [2004!] sale of Impressioniost and Modern art has a pricey roster of paintings. The most expensive is a Gauguin from his Tahitian period, which Sotheby's expects to bring $40 million to $50 million. Gauguin [1848-1903] created the painting, 'Maternité (II),' in 1899, about the time his 17-year-old Polynesian mistress, Pahura, gave birth to their son.... After Gauguin's death in 1903, the painting was sold at an auction of his estate in the Tahitian capital, Papeete, where a French naval officer bought it for 150 francs. The officer took it to France packed between two shirts, art historians say [stress added]." Carol Vogel, 2004, Inside Art. The New York Times, October 4, 2004, page B30.

[NOTE added Saturday November 6, 2004: Carol Vogel, in The New York Times of this date, wrote that Gauguin's Maternité (II) was "the most expensive work of the evening, selling to an unidentified telephone bidder for $39.2 million, a record for the artist at auction [stress added]." Carol Vogel, 2004, Some High Prices and Low Points in Sotheby's Sale. The New York Times, November 6, 2004, page A26.] When my wife and I were last in Tahiti in January 1980, Émile Gauguin had just died.

Paul Gauguin returned to France in 1893 and then returned to Tahiti in September 1895, and stayed on that island until he went to the village of Atunoa in the Marquesas Islands, ~930 miles northeast of Tahiti. Gauguin stayed in the Marquesas until his death on 8 May 1903. He was not necessarily liked or appreciated by all in the Marquesas and the following statement was made by the Catholic Bishop Martin in the Marquesas in that month: "The only noteworthy event has been the sudden death of a contemptible individual named Gauguin, a reputed artist but an enemy of God and everything that is decent [stress added]." Stephen F. Eisenman, 1997, Gauguin's Skirt (NY/London: Thames and Hudson), page 194.

Fact and fancy always blend together to provide a "story" and in the first section of this paper I cited Robert Eskridge, writing about Polynesia in 1931; consider the 1990 words of Aldrich:

"The traditional island world, however, was not idyllic. On both mountainous islands and coral atolls, arable land was relatively rare; fresh water was not always easily available. Cyclones and tidal waves periodically destroyed lives and resources. A variety of diseases affected islanders; life expectancy was not long and infant mortality particularly high. Tribal fighting often erupted and resulted in loss of life, even if pitched battles were rare. Codification of social relations was strict and probably allowed little latitude for deviance or idiosyncracy. In Polynesia the lower orders lived in a state of economic and social inferiority to the chiefs and lesser gentry.... Island life was neither tragic nor stagnant. Wars, festivals and cycles of harvest, of the seasons and of the life cycle all varied daily activities.... By the time the French conquerors arrived in Tahiti and the Marquesas in 1842 and New Caledonia [in "Melanesia"] in 1853, island life was different from the time of Bougainville [1729-1811] [stress added]." Robert Aldrich, 1990, The French Presence In The South Pacific 1842-1940 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), pages 175-176. 

V. ON-GOING-CONCLUSIONS

"From the eighteenth-century accounts of Captain James Cook [1728-1779], the British navigator, to the writings of the American novelist James A. Michener [1907-1997, enraptured descriptions of the Pacific islands have identified the term 'South Seas' with visions of a blissful life in perpetual summer on white beaches shaded by swaying palm trees." Robert Trumbull, 1977, Tin Roofs and Palm Trees (Seattle: University of Washington Press), page 3.

As stated above, it began with Balboa and then went from Cook to Gauguin, and then Michener (and more!). As indicated by the title of this presentation:

"Paul Gauguin and Tahiti have been closely connected in popular imagination for more than half a century. Although Tahiti has been visited and described at one time or another by many famous persons, among them Captain Cook, Herman Melville [1819-1891], and Robert Louis Stevenson [1850-1894], it is not these names but Gauguin's which at once springs to mind when the islands is mentioned. Conversely, the name of Paul Gauguin has become a kind of watchword which always recalls Tahiti rather than Paris, Brittany, Martinique, Arles, or any of the other places where he also lived and worked. The only comparable case of such complete identification of a man with an island is perhaps that of Napoleon [1769-1821] with St. Helena. It is rather ironical, therefore, to have to begin a book [or end a presentation!] devoted chiefly to Gauguin's life in Tahiti with the assertion that it was pure chance which took him there in the first place, and that the momentous journey was not even his own idea [stress added]."Bengt Danielsson, 1964, Gauguins Söderhavsar [1965 translation by Reginald Spink as Gauguin in the South Seas] (George Allen & Unwin Ltd.), page 19.

As Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) stated it (in translation!). "fortune favors the prepared mind." Also, as pointed out above, after England took possession of New Zealand, the French realized something had to be done elsewhere in the Pacific:

"When [the French] Admiral Dupetit-Thours had left Vaitahu [in the Marquesas Islands] and sailed to Nukuhiva back in May 1842, he had expected to centre France's Pacific empire at Taiohae [in the Marquesas Islands]: his report of four years before, written shortly after his first expedition to the Pacific, had persuaded the French government to act quickly in establishing themselves in the Pacific. The Russians were developing Alaska and Kamchatka. North Americans had begun to pioneer the Rocky Mountains and had pre-empted influence on Hawaii. The British had their lucrative colonies in New Holland [Australia] and had narrowly beaten the French to New Zealand. The South American states of Chile, Peru and Bolivia were exercising their newly one independence and were promising new markets. The French whaling fleet, a hundred strong in the Pacific, was the navy's school for sailors and needed a base of operations that required no British passport. For these national and commerical purposes, the Marquesas seemed perfectly suitable. They were isolated. They lay on lines of communication. They had good harbours. Ships passed no British base to reach them. French missionaires were already established there [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), page 213.

Alas, as Dening later writes out, interests shifted from the Marquesas to Tahiti:

"Admiral Dupetit-Thouars dream that Nukuhiva would become a naval base on the crossroads of the Pacific commerce was never realized. Only twice in a hundred years did the islands have any strategic naval importance. In 1854, during the Crimean War, ships of the British and French navies made their rendevous at Taiohae. ... Its only other historic moment was made by the German raider Scharnhorst in 1914. It took on coal and supplies at Taipivi. In hiding there the Germans showed how forgotten and strategically unimportant the islands were [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), pages 222-223.

The French took over Tahiti, the myths continued, and the people changed. There were battles in French Polynesia in the 19th century and the French military prevailed. In the 20th century nuclear testing took place on Mururoa atoll in French Polynesia (eventually ending in 1996) and...Tahiti continues to change (and myths continue). In June of 2004, Oscar Temaru was elected President of French Polynesia, defeating the former President Gaston Flosse and on October 17, 2004, the following appeared under the title of "Demonstrators Call For Election" in this South Pacific location:

"An estimated 15,000 people have taken to the streets of the French Polynesian capital, Papeete, in support of a call for fresh general election. In the biggest rally ever in Papeete, the crowd has heeded a call by the President, Oscar Temaru, who says mafia methods were used to oust his 15-week old government in a no confidence vote last week. He wants the French president to dissolve the assembly and hold fresh elections but in the past week, France has ruled this out twice. Rallies in support of Temaru's call to stop the return of the veteran leader, Gaston Flosse, are also being held in the outer islands, such as the Marquesas and on Rangiroa. Flosse, whose group secured a one-seat majority in last week's assembly sitting, says the demonstration is anti-democratic [stress added]." (from: http://tvnz.co.nz/view/news_world_story_skin/453678%3fformat=html)

On October 20, 2004, the following took place:

"French Polynesia's Legislative Assembly today failed to elect a new president, due to the lack of a quorum. The sitting was boycotted by members of parliament from the Union for Democracy (UPLD) coalition, led by caretaker President Oscar Temaru. Temaru, who came into power in June this year, was last week ousted in a motion of no confidence after some of his MPs caused a shift in the balance of power by supporting the ouster motion.... Following the vote of a motion of no confidence in Temaru, earlier this month, the Assembly is to convene within two weeks to elect a new Head for the French Pacific country [stress added]." (From: http://pidp.eastwestcenter.org/pireport/2004/October/10-20-01.htm [Pacific Islands Report, East-West Center, university of Hawai'i, Honolulu, Hawai'i)

The romance of the legendary South Seas is no more as the reality of 21st century politics takes hold in the South Pacific. The crisis continues as this paper is being written:

"TONY EASTLEY: There are growing fears there may be violence in French Polynesia if a deepening political crisis isn't resolved. Two men are claiming to be the country's President and neither looks like going quietly. Oscar Temaru, a leader promising independence from France, was ousted as President three weeks ago, but he disputes thelegitimacy of that vote and is refusing to hand over power. From Tahiti, the main island of French Polynesia, our Correspondent Gillian Bradford reports. GILLIAN BRADFORD: Weeks after this stand off began there are still two men who think they're running French Polynesia. Gaston Flosse has the backing of Paris and his friend and political ally Jacques Chirac, while ousted President Oscar Temaru, the pro-independence leader, appears to have the people on his side [stress added]." Gillian Bradford, November 1, 2004, Dispute over presidency in French Polynesia. From: http://www.abc.net.au/am/content/2004/s1231979.htm

"Two men are both claiming to be the president of the Pacific Territory of French Polynesia, as fears of violence over the deepening political crisis rise. Oscar Temaru was pushed from his position as president three weeks ago, however has claimed that the parliamentary vote was not legal. He was ousted in an October 9 vote of no-confidence, after some of his coalition parliamentarians switched to the opposition. Last week the legislative assembly endorsed the return to power of the pro-French Gaston Flosse by a narrow majority. French Polynesia, the main island of which is Tahiti, is an overseas territory of France. Along with his cabinet, Mr Temaru, who is prominently pro-independence, has refused to leave the presidential office and wants the French government to dissolve the assembly and call new elections. Conservative pro-French Mr Flosse is now asking the High Court in Paris to intervene and order Mr Temaru to vacate the office. 'I am the right one, supported by the majority of the people,' said Mr Temaru, according to the Australian Broadcasting Commission. 'What was organised October the 9th was a low blow and that is not permitted in boxing. The referee, which is the French Government, should disqualify Mr Gaston Flosse,' he said [stress added]. Anon. November 1, 2004, Political Standoff continues in Tahiti. From: http://www9.sbs.com.au/theworldnews/region.php?id=97892&region=2.

And finally, from November 4, 2004:

"Workers in French Polynesia are blockading key government buildings as a stand-off continues over who is the country's president. A few dozen supporters of ousted president Oscar Temaru are blocking access to the Ministry of Finance and the official government newspaper. They say they will not move until Gaston Flosse's administration orders fresh elections. President Flosse has asked to meet Oscar Temaru. He says he will tell the ousted president he must stop hindering the work of the Government. Mr Flosse says he will not use force to remove the protesters because he does not want strife in French Polynesia [stress added]." Gillian Bradford, 2004, President's ousting sparks strife in French Polynesia [stress added]." ABC News Online from: http://www.abc.net.au/news/newsitems/200411/s1234859.htm

VI. POSTSCRIPT: THOR HEYERDAHL, ROBERT LANGDON, THE CHINESE, AND BAJA CALIFORNIA!

In writing about the indigenous inhabitants of the various pacific islands, the latest information supports the theory that the islands were "peopled" by individuals island-hopping over thousands of years out of Southeast Asia. More than fifty years ago, Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002) postulated a theory that the islands (notably Easter Island) could have been "settled" from South America. While accidental contact could have taken place between South America and various islands of the Pacific, the migration path was clearly that out of southeast Asia; but please consider the following in the near future:

A replica of the Kon-Tiki balsa raft will sail the Pacific in 2005, to study increasing environmental threats to the ocean since Thor Heyerdahl made his 1947 voyage. One of Heyerdahl's grandsons will be among the six-strong crew for the trip from Peru aiming to reach Tahiti, where the Kon-Tiki ran aground after travelling eight-thousand-kilometres in 101-days. Heyerdahl's original voyage defied many experts' predictions that the flimsy craft would break up and sink. Organisers say since the 1940's, there have been many changes and the new trip is to highlight the environmental threats.The new raft, called the Tangaroa after a Polynesian sea god, will be made of the same materials as the Kon-Tiki, but include solar panels to help transmit pictures to the Internet stress added]." 2004, Anon., Kon-Tiki replica to sail, study Pacific in 2005. From http://www.abc.net.au/ra/newstories/RANewsStories_1193478.htm(September 9, 2004).

Recently (2004), Simon G. Southerton, a Senior Research Scientists at CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) in Canberra, Australia, has published a magnificent volume entitled Losing A Lost Tribe: Native Americans, DNA, and the Mormon Church and while he mentions Heyerdahl's theory (and influence on the position held by certain members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), he cleary documents the origin of Polynesians: "As with the Americas, the living inhabitants of the Pacific trace their molecular roots back to Asia [stress added]." Simon G. Southerton, 2004, Losing A Lost Tribe: Native Americans, DNA, and the Mormon Church (Salt Lake City: Signature Books), page 107. Southerton amasses a wealth of DNA information (mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome DNA) to support his thesis.

"Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome DNA are useful for studying human populations because they remain remarkably intact from generation to generation. Human mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited: the mitochondria in sperm cells do not penetrate the egg upon fertilization. Males receive their mitochonodrial DNA from their mothers but cannot pass it on to future generations. Human Y chromosome DNA escapes the complex chromosomal rearrangements in each generation because it is passed from father to son as a single entity. As a consequence of these unique modes of inheritance, the mitochondrial DNA represents a single paternal line. Both are passed down through the generations like maternal and paternal surnames [stress added]." Simon G. Southerton, 2004, Losing A Lost Tribe: Native Americans, DNA, and the Mormon Church (Salt Lake City: Signature Books), page 167.

Southerton, with a Ph.D. in plant science (and now specializing in molecular biology of forest trees), and who also "served an LDS mission to Melbourne in the 1980s" is more than qualified to state the scientific facts: "As with the Americas, the living inhabitants of the Pacific trace their molecular roots back to Asia." There was a 1924 publication by John Macmillan Brown (1846-1935), Professor at the University of Canterbury, New Zealand, entitled The Riddle of the Pacific. In this fascinating publication he has the following:

"We may dismiss at once the idea that the American coast peopled or even influenced Polynesia, a position that has been argued by many writers who have been puzzled by the accepted theory that Polynesia was peopled by migrations against the trade winds.... Is there any sign of the influence having gone the other way? It is not conspicuous; but there are indications that seem to point in that direction [stress added]. John Macmillan Brown, 1924, The Riddle of the Pacific [Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press 1996 edition], pages 261-262.

Interesting idea! Another controversial theory on the origin of certain Polynesian cultural traits is one put forward by the late Robert Langdon (1924-2003). I met Bob in Australia in 1970-1971 and have followed his work for several decades. He has postulated that some of the stratified societies that early European explorers saw in Polynesia may have actually come about because of a spanish vessel (the San Lesmes) which was shipwrecked in the Tuamotus in the 16th century. Langdon also had Spanish explorers in certain Pacific islands well before any other European explorers!

"...he put forward the theory that they had come from the San Lesmes, wrecked on an atoll in the area [around Tahiti] in 1526, and whose crew of Spaniards survived and had intermarried, influencing Polynesian culture in important ways. He published his evidence in his book The Lost Caravel in 1975. It argued that the peopling of the Pacific might be far more complicated than traditional historians had hitherto thought. The book won him a two-year ANU research fellowship for further study. In 1983 he published, with Darrell Tryon, The Language of Easter Island: Its Development and Eastern Polynesian Relationships. That was followed in 1988 by his The Lost Caravel Re-explored. Meanwhile, he published many academic papers, covering several disciplines, drawing attention to other influences on the peopling of the Pacific. His latest book, which ties all these together, The Kon-Tiki Revisited, is being assessed for publication by an academic publisher. Some of the traditionalists among the professional academics have preferred to ignore his arguments, or to reply to them only selectively, but this last book might achieve what Langdon had been working so determinedly to bring about - the mounting of a serious and thorough academic debate on Polynesian origins. Since his work will most certainly live after him, such a debate will, predictably, be one of his legacies [stress added]." [from: http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/10/31/1067566084557.html?from=storyrhs} November 1, 2003]

Undoubtedly Bob Langdon's work will survive and contribute to our developing interpretations of Pacific islanders and how various myths developed about them. Interestingly enough, the following appeared in a 1919 publication. After an expedition to Easter Island, the research vessel headed to Hawaii and Katherine Routledge wrote as follows:

"Hawaiian Islands - The group is composed of eight inhabited islands which stretch in a line from north-west to south-east. Hawaii, the most southerly, is the largest, and now gives its name to the whole, byt the principal modern town Honolulu, is on the more northerly island of Oahu. The islands were known to the early Spanish voyagers, but their connection with the civilized world really dates from their rediscovery by Cook [stress added]." Katherine Routledge, 1919, The Mystery of Easter Island [Kempton, Illinois: Adventures Unlimited Press 1998 edition], page 322.

In addtion to Langdon's work, we also have the still-controversial 2002 publication by Gavin Menzies dealing with Chinese exploration in the Pacific and indeed throughout the world: 1421: The Year China Discovered America. Finally, new interpretations are being made all of the time!

"A new tribe is emerging from Mexico's scorched earth. A team of geoarchaeologists working on a programme investigating human evolution have found skeletal remains in the desert of the Baja California Peninsula that give rise to new theories on the colonisation of the Americas. The team from the Natural Environment Research Council and led by Dr Silvia Gonzalez, analysed the DNA of skulls with markedly different morphologies to Native American Indians, commonly regarded as the first settlers of the Americas. The skulls are long and narrow, not in keeping with the Native Indians' broader, rounder features. 'They appear more similar to southern Asians, Australians and populations of the South Pacific Rim than they do to Northern Asians,' said Dr Gonzalez of Liverpool John Moores University. 'DNA analysis of the Mexican remains suggest these people were at least partly contemporaneous to the first native American Indian settlers on the continent,' she added. 'We think there were several migration waves into the Americas at different times by different human groups. The timing, route and point of origin of the first colonisation of the Americas remains a most contentious topic in human evolution.' This debate has been running for more than a century. Consensus is split between two camps: the first camp believe settlers came across the Bering Straits, from Russia to Alaska, at the end of the last ice age 12-15,000 years ago. Evidence for this theory comes from Clovis Points - huge tools used to hunt mammoths - found all over the American continent. DNA analysis of skeletal remains close to these Clovis Points suggest just four tribes are responsible for populating the continent. The second camp say colonisation happened much earlier than this, 20-30,000 years ago, but their techniques, using genetics, linguistics and dental morphology, have been steeped in controversy. Dr Gonzalez's team have evidence of a previously unknown group, the Pericues, who went extinct in the 18th Century. She suggests this tribe may not have taken the traditional route to the continent. The work is one of 11 projects investigating whether environmental factors played a part in human evolution and dispersal. Funded by the Natural Environment Research Council, the programme is tackling major anthropological questions such as: how did we become the only true global species? Why did our ancestors swap the tropical beaches of Africa for the icy tundra? How do we explain our trademark big brains? What role did climate play in making us adapt quickly to different environments? The programme, Environmental Factors in the Chronology of Human Evolution and Dispersal, is truly global in its outlook with scientists working in South America, Europe, Africa, the Middle East and southern Asia [stress added]."[from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/09/040913090256.htm]
# # #

VII. VERY SELECTED REFERENCES (in reverse chronological order):

in progress http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificReferences.html [Various Pacific References]

2004 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificWAMLApril2004.html [Mapping The Islands of the Pacific: Islanders and Others (Including Cook and Darwin). For a presentation at the WAML (Western Association of Map Libraries) Conference at CSU, Chico, April 29-30, 2004.]

2003 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/DestinationPolynesia.html [Destination Polynesia: Tahiti And The Neighbor Islands. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, November 6, 2003.)

1993 http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/FSep-30-93.html [Peoples & Cultures of the Pacific: Okeania est omnis divisa in partes tres. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum, September 30, 1993.).

VIII. SOME VERY SELECTIVE FACTS:

ISLAND GROUP
SIZE
COMPARISON
POPULATION
MISC.

French Polynesia (all)

1,297 sq. miles (3,360 sq. km).
Rhode Island (USA) is 1,545 sq. miles (4002 sq. km.)
266,339 (2004)
27.5% under age of 14.
Only Tahiti
402 sq. miles (1,041 sq. km.)
1/3 state of Connecticut
170,457

Only Mo'orea
53 sq. miles (138 sq. km.)
The city of San Francisco (CA) is 46.7 sq. miles (121 sq. km.)
14,550 (2002)
12.4 miles (20 kilometers) from Tahiti.

Marquesas (all)

482 sq. miles (1,300 sq. km.)
~ 1/2 Canberra (Australia).
8,712

Only Nuku Hiva
127 sq. miles (329 sq. km.)
About the size of Pohnpei (Ponape) in Microensia.
2,100
932 miles (1,500 kilometers) norhteast of Tahiti.
Only Hiva Oa
124 sq. miles (327 sq. km.)
Approximately 60% of the size of Tahiti.

740 miles (1,191 km) northeast of Tahiti.
Cook Islands (all)
93 sq. miles (240 sq. km.)
1.3 x Washington D.C.
21,200

IX. SELECTED VISUALS:

 
FIGURE I: Source: http://www.ck/people.htm; and see K.R. Howe, 2003, The Quest For Origins: Who First Discovered And Settled The Pacific Islands? (University of Hawai'i Press), page 68.

FIGURE II: Source: http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/museum/cook/Maps/front2.jpg

FIGURE III: Source: http://www.pica-org.org/Terms/maps/oceania_globe.jpg
FIGURE IV: Source: http://members.aol.com/aimcamera/atoceania.htm
  

FIGURE V: 23 December 2004 -> 2 January 2005.
FIGURE VI: 2 January 2005 -> 12 January 2005.
 
FIGURE VII: 29 May 2005 -> 24 June 2005

 (1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Originally placed on the World Wide Web on November 4, 2004, for a presentation(with numerous visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on November 4, 2004, and modified (with one addition) concerning an auction of a Gauguin painting by Sotheby's on November 4, 2004. My appreciation goes to Ms. Debra Besnard and Mr. Stan Griffith and their "Digital Asset Management Project" in the Meriam Library at CSU, Chico for the work they did for some of my slides used today. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here. 


TAHITI: FROM 1971 TO 2004/2005!

Dr. Charles F. Urbanowicz / Professor of Anthropology

[This page printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Tahiti2005.html] [1]

5 May 2005

 (1) © [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on 5 May 2005, for a presentation (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on May 5, 2005.

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
THE PACIFIC AND FRENCH POLYNESIA
EUROPEANS IN TAHITI
FRENCH POLYNESIA AND TAHITI/PAPE'ETE
CONCLUSIONS (AND THE FUTURE!)
EPILOGUE
REFERENCES
SOME 2004/2005 VISUALS
 

ABSTRACT

My wife (Sadie) and I were first in French Polynesia (Tahiti) in 1971, on our way back to the United States after fieldwork in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga (1970 and 1971). That research was combined with archival work (1970-1971) in Australia, New Zaland, and Fiji. My wife and I were again in Tahiti in 1980 (accompanied by our eight year old son) when I led a group of students who accompanied us in what was then called a "travel study" program, sponsored by CSU, Chico. Today's 2005 presentation provides information dealing with some changes over the past 34 years. My wife and I were last in Tahiti in January 2005 where I had just completed being a "Destination Lecturer" in the "Scholarship@Sea Program" of the Princess Cruise Lines. While lecturing on the Tahitian Princess (December 2004 and January 2005), we cruised through numerous islands of French Polynesia (as well as the independent Cook Islands). Later this month, beginning on May 29, 2004, I shall once again be a "Destination Lecturer" on yet another Princess ship, the Pacific Princess and we will cruise through selected World War II battle-islands of the Pacific (with the cruise terminating for us on June 24, 2005 in China). I plan to present an "Anthropology Forum" on September 1, 2005, that deals with this working research trip back to the Pacific. 

INTRODUCTION

I once knew the anthropologist June Helm, who died in February 2004. June was born in 1924 and I in 1942, and although we were separated in age by eighteeen years, ideas in anthropology drew us together. I was reminded of June when creating the web page for today's Anthropology Forum. Nancy Oestrich Lurie wrote the following in the January 2005 issue of Anthropology News:

"June Helm, who died February 4, 2004, was president of the AAA [American Anthropological Association] (1985-1987).... Following the list of her publications she apppended the comment: 'NB: I have never included 'papers read' and 'invited lectures' in my CV. If there are no published versions, I consider them ephemera [stress added]." Nancy Oestrich Luries, Anthropology in the Liberal Arts. Anthropology Newsletter, January 2005, page 4.

I do not consider any presentations I make as "ephemeral" and that is why I "create" various web pages to go along with the visual presentation. It is important to keep a record of what we share with the public (and it is becoming increasingly complicated and interesting as the WORLD WIDE WEB develops and links us together).

Some instructors from my undergraduate and graduate days have died since I joined the faculty of California State Univeristy, Chicio in 1973 and it is always an excellent reminder of one's own mortality to read obituary pages! I now notice that some of my peers and colleagues are also dying: Keith Morton was a fellow graduate at the University of Oregon (a few years younger than I) who did his fieldwork Tonga just about the same time as I did mine and who also received his Ph.D. in 1972. Keith was born in 1945 and he died in 1998. I have come to appreciate the following words of Isaac Asimov (1920-1992):

"However, as I grew older, the obituary page slowly became at once more important to me and more threatening. It has become morbidly obsessive with me now. I suspect this happens to a great many people. Ogden Nash [1902-1971] wrote a line that I have always remembered: 'The old men know when an old man dies.' With the years, that line has become ever more poignant to me. After all, an old person to one who has known him for a long time is not an 'old person' but is much more likely to be thought of as the younger person who inhabits our memory, vigorous and vibrant. When an old person dies who has been a part of your life, it is part of your youth that dies. And although you survive yourself, you must watch death take away the world of your youth, little by little [stress added]." Janet J. Asimov, 2002, Isaac Asimov: It's Been a Good Life (NY: Prometheus Books), pages 242-243.

I attempt to do nothing ephemeral and will try to stay off the obituary pages as long as possible and over the Spring Break in March 2005, I submitted my retirement papers and will begin teaching for the Anthropology Department in Fall 2005 under FERP: Faculty Early Retirement Program. Teach in the fall and be a "destination lecturer" for the other months! 

THE PACIFIC AND FRENCH POLYNESIA

Today's presentation complements, builds on, and repeats some of the information presented in November 2004 under the title "Europeans in Tahiti: From Cook To Gauguin." In that paper I presented some information on the indigenous people, first European contacts, and various culture changes that took place in certain islands. Some of that information will be repeated today and for more detailed information, please consult that paper available on the web. In a nutshell, some of the islands of French Polynesia were first settled by approximately 500 B.C. (the Marquesas) and Tahiti itself by approximately 500 A.D. As Douglas Oliver, a noted Pacific Anthropologist, has written:

"To hail Europeans as discoverers of the Pacific Islands is ungracious as well as inaccurate. While they were still moving around in their small, landlocked Mediterranean Sea or hugging the Atlantic shores of Europe and Africa, Pacific Islanders were voyaging hundreds of open-sea miles in their canoes and populating most of the vast Pacific's far-flung islands [stress added]." Douglas L. Oliver, 1989, The Pacific Islands [Third Edition], page 19. 

EUROPEANS IN TAHITI

Although it was Samuel Wallis (1728-1795), a British navigator, who first "discovered" Tahiti for Europeans in 1767, it was the French Explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) who probably did more than any other explorer to create the image of the islands of love in the South Pacific.

"Louis Antoine de Bougainville visited Tahiti Island in 1768. He stayed on the island for several months, bringing with him the first French influence. He named Tahiti "La Nouvelle Cythere", after the birthplace of the Greek goddess of love [Kythera, or Cerigo as it was once termed] [stress added]." [from: http://www.planet.org.nz/pacific_action/national/t/te_ao_maohi.html]

Although we call them "Tahitians" in tradition times (before European contact) the indiogenous people of "Tahiti" referred to themselves as maohi (a term used to this date). This has been defined by Oliver as their "word for persons, customs, objects, and so forth, native to their archipelago, as distinct from those of elsewhere" (Douglas l. Oliver, 1974, Ancient Tahitian Society [Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press], page 6). Another has written as follows:

"The name 'Tahiti'--or, as Bougainville [1729-1811] first wrote it in 1768, Taiti,' and Cook in 1769, 'Otaheiti'--was the name the natives gave to their island and which Europeans came to apply to the indigenes. If the Tahitians had a name specifically identifying themselves, it is not known. What is known is that all of those living in the Society Archipelago, including Tahiti, referred to themselves as 'Maohi.'" Edwin N. Ferdon, 1991, Tahiti. Encyclopedia of World Cultures Volume II Oceania (Boston: G.K. Hall & Co.), pages 305-307, page 305.

With Euoropeans (and Americans) change rapdily came to Tahiti and after the three successful voyages of Captain James Cook (1728-1779) change in the Pacific accelerated, especially when the first English missionaries arrived in Tahiti in 1797.

The purpose of this "non-ephemeral" presentation is to present information about changes over the past three decades and to think about those changes; it is also interesting to compare information and observations from 1971 with information and observations from 2005. Consider, if you will, the following from a 1971 publication of the Foreign Areas Study Program of the American university, published by the Superintendent of Document (of the US Government Printing Office):

"In the sixty years between 1840 and 1900, the Western powers of Great Britain, France, Germany, and the united States gained political control over Oceania. During this period Spain lost its colonies, but the Netherlands retained the western half of the island of New Guinea.... France began its formal protection of much of what became French Polynesia in the 1840s [stress added]." John W. Henderson et al., 1971, Area Handbook for Oceania (Washington, D.C.: Superintendent of Documents/DA PAM 550-94), page 11.

When we were in Tahiti in 2004/2005, one election had just been completed and another one was being planned: the candidates (Gaston Flosse and Oscar Temaru) have different political agendas (one advocating strong ties with France and the other eventual independence from France): from "protection" in 1971 to the call for separation from France in 2005!

FRENCH POLYNESIA AND TAHITI/PAPE'ETE

"At daylight, Tahiti, an island which must forever remain classical to the voyager in the South Sea, was in view." Charles R. Darwin,1839, The Voyage of the Beagle [NY: Bantam Books 1958 edition], page 348. 

When my wife and I first went to Tahiti in 1971, the estimated population for all of the islands of French Polynesia was estimated to be 119,168 individuals. The island of Tahiti accounted for almost 67% of total population (or some 79,494 individuals). Pape'ete, the Capital of French Polynesia, and located on Tahiti had a population of 25,342 individuals (or 32% of Tahiti and 21% of the total population of French Polynesia). In 1980, when we made our second visit to Tahiti, the population of all of French Polynesia was approximately 181,400 (or an increase of some 52% since 1971). In 2004, the estimated population for all of French Polynesia was 266,339 with 170,457 on the island of Tahiti alone (or 54% of the total population of French Polynesia).

Even though the British were the first to "settle" this part of the world with their missionaries in 1797, it is called "French Polynesia" today since France exercised "gunboat diplomacy" and in the 19th century gradually acquired control over all of the islands known today as French Polynesia. Global politics operated in the 19th century (as it did in the 20th and continues to operate in the 21st) and after England took possession of New Zealand, the French realized something had to be done elsewhere in the Pacific:

"When [the French] Admiral Dupetit-Thours had left Vaitahu [in the Marquesas Islands] and sailed to Nukuhiva back in May 1842, he had expected to centre France's Pacific empire at Taiohae [in the Marquesas Islands]: his report of four years before, written shortly after his first expedition to the Pacific, had persuaded the French government to act quickly in establishing themselves in the Pacific. The Russians were developing Alaska and Kamchatka. North Americans had begun to pioneer the Rocky Mountains and had pre-empted influence on Hawaii. The British had their lucrative colonies in New Holland [Australia] and had narrowly beaten the French to New Zealand. The South American states of Chile, Peru and Bolivia were exercising their newly one independence and were promising new markets. The French whaling fleet, a hundred strong in the Pacific, was the navy's school for sailors and needed a base of operations that required no British passport. For these national and commerical purposes, the Marquesas seemed perfectly suitable. They were isolated. They lay on lines of communication. They had good harbours. Ships passed no British base to reach them. French missionaires were already established there [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), page 213.

As Dening later wrote, interests shifted from the Marquesas to Tahiti:

"Admiral Dupetit-Thouars dream that Nukuhiva would become a naval base on the crossroads of the Pacific commerce was never realized. Only twice in a hundred years did the islands have any strategic naval importance. In 1854, during the Crimean War, ships of the British and French navies made their rendevous at Taiohae. ... Its only other historic moment was made by the German raider Scharnhorst in 1914. It took on coal and supplies at Taipivi. In hiding there the Germans showed how forgotten and strategically unimportant the islands were [stress added]." Greg Dening, 1980, Islands and Beaches: Discourse on a Silent Land - Marquesas 1774-1880 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press), pages 222-223.

The French eventually gained control over Tahiti and other islands and the people changed. There were battles in French Polynesia in the 19th century and the French military prevailed and France began its "protection" of the islands! Tahiti (and all of Polynesia) changed as a result of factual and fictional information about the people of the islands as presented by numerous individuals! Perhaps the most famous of the Frenchmen to go to Tahiti was Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) who departed Marseilles on the first of April 1891 and arrived in Pape'ete, Tahiti on 9 June 1891. As David Stanley wrote in his excellent 2003 publication: "The most unlikely PR man of them all was a once-obscure French painter named Paul Gauguin, who transformed the primitive color of Tahiti and the Marquesas into powerful visual images seen around the world" (David Stanley, 2003, Moon Handbooks: Tahiti Including the Cook Islands,, Fifth Edition [Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing], page 76; and see: David Stanley, 2004, Moon Handbooks: South Pacific, Eighth Edition [Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing]). 

CONCLUSIONS (AND THE FUTURE!)

Tahiti will continue to change, just as the rest of the world continues to change. Tourism will continue to be an important industry for Tahiti and, perhaps (one day) the French will curtail their colonial attitude and "free" Tahiti. Who knows? One cannot predict the future, merely invent it, and Tahitians are continuing to invent their future! In 1980, and again in 2004, my wife and I flew from Los Angeles to Tahiti: this year, one will be able to fly directly from New York City to Tahiti as French Polynesians attempt to encourage tourism to Tahiti from the East Coast of the United States. With that in mind, one reads the following in April 2005:

"A delegation of traditional Tahitian craft workers will fly to New York tomorrow (Tuesday) to promote local artisans and tap into the American market. French Polynesia's minister of traditional arts and traditional crafts, Natacha Taura is leading the delegation. Five artisans will represent four different types of craftwork. The delegation will exhibit their creations at the Time Warner Center and Grand Central Station." [from: http://www.abc.net.au/ra/news/stories/s1352505.htm} Tahiti craft workers prepare to take on New York. ABC Radio Australia, 25 April 2005]

"April may be the cruelest month but not for New Yorkers. The Big Apple takes on an enthusiastic infusion of tropical warmth as Tahiti Non-Stop Week unfolds around town April 26 - 29 in a series of artistic, culinary and cultural events celebrating the unbroken line that is about to connect Tahiti and Her Islands with New York and her East Coast neighbors (http://www.nyctotahitinonstop.com). For travelers eager to try out the first-ever non-stop flights between New York and Tahiti beginning July 4th on Air Tahiti Nui (the national carrier of French Polynesia), Tahiti Non-Stop Week will preview the temptations of the legendary South Seas destination -- just as the flights will make the islands used as the model for James Michener's Bali Hai a viable alternative to vacations in Hawaii and the Caribbean. Some 150 Tahitians will be on hand for the festivities -- including performing members of the celebrated Les Grands Ballets de Tahiti, newly elected Tahitian President Oscar Temaru, Tahiti tourism officials, general managers of fabled island resorts and the thrilling Nuku A Haka dance troupe from the remote Marquesas Islands [stress added]." [From: http://biz.yahoo.com/prnews/050426/nytu179.html?.v=6]

Tahiti will continue to change (and hopefully for the better).

What have Iearned or thought about in almost 35 years from the first visit to Tahiti in 1971 to the return of 2004/2005? I shall reiterate the following words:

When my wife and I first went to Tahiti in 1971, the estimated population for all of the islands of French Polynesia was estimated to be 119,168 individuals. The island of Tahiti accounted for almost 67% of total population (or some 79,494 individuals). Pape'ete, the Capital of French Polynesia, and located on Tahiti had a population of 25,342 individuals (or 32% of Tahiti and 21% of the total population of French Polynesia). In 1980, when we made our second visit to Tahiti, the population of all of French Polynesia was approximately 181,400 (or an increase of some 52% since 1971). In 2004, the estimated population for all of French Polynesia was 266,339 with 170,457 on the island of Tahiti alone (or 54% of the total population of French Polynesia).

Population growth and development in Tahiti has been tremendous! But this is simply a reflection of world-wide population increases.

Consider, if you will, some recent statistics for Chico, California, the nation, and the planet! The current population of the Chico urban area in May 2005 is approximately 101,955 individuals (http://www.chico.ca.us/), considerably more than it was in 1973 when my wife and I (and our nine-month old son) arrived in Chico. The growth in the Chico area is simply a reflection of growth in California and the estmiated population of California in 2003 was 35,484,453 (see http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/06000.html). On April 21, 2005, the following was published:

"The Golden State is in the midst of a population swell from 33.87 million in the year 2000 census to [an estimated] 46.44 million in 2030.... California's projected growth of 37 percent by 2030 ranks 13th behind rapidly expanding neighbors Nevada and Arizona as well as relatively tiny states like Alaska and Idaho [stress added]." Anon., 2005, Steady population growth projedcted for state. The Chico Enterprise-Record, April 21, 2005, page 5A.

On that same date, USA Today had the following front page information: "U.S. is getting old fast. Seniors will outnumber school-age children in many states by 2030, the Census bureau says in a report out today. That promises to intensify the political tug-of-war between young and old for scarce resources [stress added]." Anon., 2005, USA Today, April 21, 2005, page 1. Incidentally, try "Google" with: Census 2030 population - and see what results you get! As I was finishing this paper, I went to the U.S. Bureau of the Census and found the following: The resident population of the United States, projected to May 5, 2005 at 7:09am [Pacific Standard Time] was 296,041,433 [http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/popclock]. This means there is one birth every 8 seconds, one death every 13 seconds, one international migrant (net) every 26 seconds, for a net gain of one person every 12 seconds. If you have come across this on the web, for some reason, what is the population figure for the United States of America when you are reading this page? What has been the increase since this was posted to the web on the morning of May 5, 2005?

Population growth in Tahiti in the past 35 years is reflected by population growth on the planet, but what about the "scarce resources" of the planet? The distinguished American Anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) once wrote the following: "The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself." Gregory Bateson, Steps to an Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), 1972: 483. Reflect upon the "Millennium Ecosystem Assessment" report of March 2005 (http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.aspx ) and the following information:

"A landmark, four-year study sponsored by the United Nations reveals that rising world populations and pollution are damaging the planet faster than ever. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, conducted by 1,300 experts from 95 countries, reported that humans had ruined approximately 60 percent of ecological systems to meet demands for food, fresh water, timber and fuel....The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment cost some $20 million and was funded by the Global Environmental Facility, the United Nations Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the World Bank and others [stress added]." Anon., March 31, 2005, Humans' basic needs destroying planet rapidly, report says, The San Francisco Chronicle, March 31, 2005, page A17; but see: "Earth's environment in peril, but fixes possible, study says" by Seth Borenstein in The Sacramento Bee, March 31, 2005, page A1 and A16.

If the planet is too big to deal with, just consider the following statements concerning California from the years 2002, 2003, and 2004:

"California's population continues to grow by more than 500,000 people a year. Such growth brings a host of challenges--how to provide enough affordable housing, adequate transportation, schools and jobs. In order to address these challenges, local cities and governments should be encouraged to work together and create regional growth management policies [stress added]." Elizabeth Klementowski, 2002, Flawed solution to an imaginary problem. The San Francisco Chronicle, June 18, 2002, page A19.

"About 90,000 acres of California farmland were lost to urbanization from 1998 to 2000, the largest move to urban acreage in the state in a decade [stress added]." Anon., 2003, Sprawl consumes 90,000 acreas of farms. The San Francisco Chronicle June 5, 2003, page A18.

"California builders on Monday reported starting 191,866 homes and apartments in 2003 [or ~526/day!], and predict slightly more next year before rising interests rates force a slowdown in 2005. ... State official have said the state needs to build more than 220,000 new residences a year until 2020 to handle annual population growth of 600,000 and overcome a 1990s construction slowdown [stress added]." Anon., 2004, California builders report most new houses since 1989. The Chico Enterprise-Record, January 4, 2004, page 3D.

Please keep in mind that the CSU, Chico campus located in the City of Chico (and not counting the acreage of the University Farm) is approximately 119 acres: from 1998 to 2000, approximately 756 CSU, Chico campuses have disappeared from California! How much growth and development is too much growth and development? (For a "whimsical" view of Chico in the year 2027, please see the Urbanowicz 2002 reference below.)

Incidentally, I am interested in Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and appreciated the following words by Janet Browne:

"He [Charles Darwin] believed that the natural world was the result of constantly repeated small and accumulative actions, a lesson he had first learned when reading Lyell's Principles of Geology on board the Beagle and had put to work ever since. ... No one, not even Lyell himself, or any of Darwin's closest friends and supporters, accepted as ardently as Darwin that the book of nature was about the accumulative powers of the small [stress added]." Janet Browne, 2002, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place - Volume II of a Biography (NY: Alfred A. Knopf), page 490.

The book of nature is about the accumulative powers of the small and little-by-little and step-by-step we become who we are and people (and places) are the result of "the accumulative powers of the small." 

EPILOGUE

I may seem to have gone afield from Tahiti and back to California and Chico, but I think everything we are concerned with should relate to other things: I am interested in Tahiti and concerned about Chico, so I make the connections. I also adhere to the words of John Muir:

"'When we try to pick out anything by itself,' wrote wilderness wanderer John Muir , 'we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.' Thus did Muir who founded the Sierra Club in 1892, become on of the first to define in 25 words or less what ecology is all about [stress added]." John G. Mitchell, 1970, Ecotactics: The Sierra Club Handbook for Environmental Activitists, p. 23.

The Bateson quote was given above, but let me repeat it (with some additional words in the same paragraph):

"The unit of survival [or adaptation] is organism plus environment. We are learning by bitter experience that the organism which destroys its environment destroys itself. If, now, we correct the Darwinian unit of survival to include the environment and the interaction between organism and environment, a very strange and surprising identity emerges: the unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" [italics in original; stress added]." Gregory Bateson [1904-1980], 1972, Steps To An Ecology of Mind (NY: Ballantine Books), page 483.

The "unit of survival turns out to be identical with the unit of mind" and if we are aware of the problems we can possibly deal with them in a constructive manner.

Later this year, in November 2005, I hope to make a presentation at the104th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association on a topic I have thought about for many years. The November 2005 paper is entitled "On Intelligence: SETI And Terrestrial" and it will be a reflective piece based on a 1977 presentation entitled "Evolution of Technological Civilizations: What is Evolution,Technology, and Civilization?" This 1977 item was presented at a Symposium (sponsored by the NASA/Ames Research Center) entitled "The Search For Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence." In observing the world as a professional anthropologist for almost four decades, at times I do question the fact of "terrestrial intelligence" on this planet (but I continue to be optimistic). As a former colleague at California State University, Chico, once remarked: "The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide" (Harlen Adams,1904-1997).

[PLEASE NOTE: "References" have been removed from this Fall 2007 ANTH 373 Guidebook publication: please consult the original article on the World Wide Web should you wish to see those.]


SOME 2004/2005 VISUALS

FIGURE I: 23 December 2004 -> 2 January 2005
FIGURE II: 2 January 2005 -> 12 January 2005
 
FIGURE III: 29 May 2005 -> 24 June 2005

SOME 2004/2005 VISUALS:

 

View out to sea; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
Fa'a'a International Airport, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

Highway Sign into Pape'ete; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
Pomare Boulevard Traffic, Pape'ete; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

Pape'ete Market; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
Inside the Pape'ete Market; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].

Le Truck, Pape'ete, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
The French Polynesia Assembly Building, Pape'ete, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].
 
Presidential Palace, Pape'ete, Tahiti; photograph by Charles F. Urbanowicz [2005].


(1) [All Rights Reserved.] Placed on the World Wide Web on 5 May 2005, for a presentation (with visuals) at the Anthropology Forum at California State University, Chico, on May 5, 2005. To return to the beginning of this paper, please click here.


Throughout the entire Fall 2007 semester, I shall be "updating" these web pages; when you go to the URL for this class http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_373-FA2007.html, at the top of the "web page" you will see:

FOR UPDATED INFORMATION ADDED Month & Day,please click here.

and this will take you to the bottom of the pages.


On December 7, 2007, the final items were added to these pages:

"There's nothing you've ever been successful at that you didn't work on every day."
Will [Willard] Christopher Smith Jr. (born September 25, 1968). In Time, December 10, 2007, page 85.

Your final exam for ANTH 373 (worth 35% of your final grade) is scheduled for Wednesday December 19, 2007, from 2pm->3:50pm in Butte 319. A "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH373FA2007TESTThree.htm to assist you in examination #3.

Once again, should you be interested, the web page for yesterday's "Anthropology Forum" is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PearlHarbor2007.html [Pearl Harbor After Sixty-Six Years and World War II in the PTO (Pacific Theater of Operations)]. For the CSU, Chico Anthropology Forum at CSU, Chico, December 6.]

My office hours for finals week will be: Monday 12/17/2007 from 8->10am & Tuesday 12/18/2007 from 8->11am.

For your cross-cultural information:

http://www.interfaithcalendar.org/ [Interfaith Calendar] "Sacred times are windows into religions"

http://aish.com/holidays/chanukah/songfest.asp [Aish HaTorah - Chanukah Site ]

http://www.officialkwanzaawebsite.org [The Official Kwanzaa Web Site]

Finally,

The Universality of the Golden Rule in World Religions:

from: http://www.teachingvalues.com/goldenrule.html 

Christianity: All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye so to them; for this is the law and the prophets.   Matthew 7:1.

Confusianism: Do not do to others what you would not like yourself. Then there will be no resentment against you, either in the family or in the state. Analects 12:2.

Buddhism: Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful. Udana-Varga 5,1

Hinduism: This is the sum of duty; do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you. Mahabharata 5,1517.

Islam: No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself. Sunnah.

Judaism: What is hateful to you, do not do to your fellowman. This is the entire Law; all the rest is commentary. Talmud, Shabbat 3id.

Taosim: Regard your neighbor's gain as your gain, and your neighbor's loss as your own loss. Tai Shang Kan Yin Píien.

Zoroastrianism: That nature alone is good which refrains from doing another whatsoever is not good for itself. Dadisten-I-dinik, 94,5.

And see: http://www.religioustolerance.org/reciproc.htm

AND SOME FINAL WORDS:

"Nothing is so easy as to deceive one's self; for what we wish, we readily believe." (Demosthenes, Athenian orator and statesman [384B.C.-322B.C.])

"The most important word in the English language is attitude. Love and hate, work and play, hope and fear, our attitudinal response to all these situations, impresses me as being the guide." Harlen Adams (1904-1997)

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On November 28, 2007, the following items were added to these pages:

HERE are the quotations that are in the video Margaret Mead & Samoa which will be shown this week:

"Truth is hard to come by." Karl Popper (1902-1994)

"Dreaming of systems so perfect that no one will ever need to be good." T.S. Eliot (1888-1965)

"It is a good morning exercise for a research scientist to discard a pet hypothesis every day before breakfast." Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989)

"All that man can do for humanity is to further the truth, whether it be sweet or bitter." Franz Boas (1858-1942)

"No one's observations can be trusted until repeated." Charles Darwin. (1809-1882)

"The less one knows, the longer it takes to explain what little one knows." Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988)

"The best way to escape from a problem is to solve it." Brendan Francis (1923-1964)


On November 14, 2007, the following items were added to these pages:

http://starbulletin.com/specials/millennium/index.html [Honolulu Star Bulletin} 5 May 1999, Hawaii looking back: A retrospective on the cusp of the new millennium = Eight articles, from "Birth of the Islands" to "How will we be?"

and see:

http://starbulletin.com/specials/ [for various other Honolulu Star Bulletin Specials!]

http://www.hawaiihistory.com/ [Hawaii History} Home]

http://www.deephawaii.com/hawaiianhistory.htm [Hawaiian History} History of Hawaii 300AD ~ 1900]

PLUS, two additional items are now on e-reserve: Midway (Chronology) and an article on Kamehameha I.


On November 2, 2007, the following items were added to these pages:

A "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH373TESTTwo.htm to assist you in the examination next FRIDAY November 9, 2007. EXAM II will have two map components (based on the maps on page 28 in the Guidebook) , multiple choice, and true-false questions.

Margaret Mead (1901-1978) has been mentioned quite a bit in this course and one of her better known statements was "Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."

ON "pollution" in the Pacific Ocean (as mentioned on PAGE ONE of The San Francisco Chronicle on 30 October 2007, and repeated in class on 31 October 2007), please see http://www.algalita.org [Algalita Marine Research Foundation].

AND please don't forget there are two new items on E-Reserve item (two separate "World War II Timeline" items): the specific dates of these items will not be on EXAM II (but are being provided for you as an overview for operations in the PTO (Pacific Theater of Operations). Your password for E-RESERVE items is: Y9HG6

AS MENTIONED IN CLASS ONE DAY, here are some publications that could be of value to you for future Pacific readings/activities (incidentally, these are all drawn from the lengthy on-going item available at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PacificReferences.html, entitled "Various Pacific References):

Ruth Benedict, 1946, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Patterns of Japanese Culture. [The American Anthropologist Ruth Benedict, 1887-1948, worked for the United States Government during World War II, producing this analysis of Japanese culture "at a distance."]

Iris Chang, 1997, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust Of World War II (Penguin Books). [Self-evident from title.] 

Derek Freeman, 1999, The Fateful Hoaxing of Margaret Mead: A Historical Analysis of Her Samoan Research (Boulder, CO: Westview Press). [Self-evident from title.]

Michael Harris, 2005, The Atomic Times: My H-Bomb Year at the Pacific Proving Ground - A Memoir (NY: Ballantine Books). [Self-evident from title: Fascinating tale of life on Eniwetok, Marshall Islands, 1955-1956.]

Maureen Honey, 1984, Creating Rosie the Riveter: Class, Gender, and Propaganda During World War II (Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press). [Self-evident from title.]

Homer Lea, 1909, The Valor of Ignorance (NY: Harper and Brothers). [Fascinating book about a fascinating individual and purported to be the individual who provided the "blueprint" for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and an eventual invasion of the west coast of the United States.]

Homer Lea, 1942 edition [with introduction by Clare Booth], The Valor of Ignorance (NY: Harper and Brothers). [Fascinating book about a fascinating individual and purported to the the "blueprint" for the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and an eventual invasion of the west coast of the United States. This edition includes an introduction by Clare Booth.]

Margaret Mead, 1928, Coming of Age in Samoa [Various editions]. [Self-evident from title.]  

Margaret Mead, 1930, Growing up in New Guinea [Various editions]. [Self-evident from title.]

Margaret Mead, 1956, New Lives For Old: Cultural Transformation Manus, 1928-1953 (NY: William Morrow and Company). [Self-evident from title: Deals specifically with the island of Manus in the Admiralty Islands.]

Jeffrey M. Moore, 2004, Spies For Nimitz: Joint Military Intelligence in the Pacific War (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press). [Self-evident from title.]

Alan Morehead, 1966, The Fatal Impact: An Account of the Invasion of the South Pacific 1767-1840 (Penguin Books). [Self-evident from title and approximately one-half the book deals with Australia.]

Oliver North, 2004, War Stories II: Heroism in the Pacific (Washington, D.C.} Regnery Publishing Co., Inc.). [Self-evident from title.]

E. B. Potter, 1976, Nimitz (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press). [Self-evident from title: Excellent companion piece to Manchester, 1978, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur 1880-1964.]

Kenneth D. Rose, 2008, Myth and the Greatest Generation: A Social History of Americans in World War II (New York/London: Routledge). [Self-evident from title.]  

Michael S. Smith, 2000, Bloody Ridge: The Battle that Saved Guadalcanal. [Self-evident from title.]

David Stanley, 2004, Moon Handbooks: South Pacific, Eighth Edition (Emeryville, CA: Avalon Travel Publishing). [Self-evident from title.]

Robert K. Wilcox, 1985, Japan's Secret War (NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc.). [Convincing argument that Japan test-fired a nuclear device on the Korean peninsula on August 10, 1945, prior to their surrender in September, 1945.]

Peter Worsley, 1968, The Trumpet Shall Sound: A Study of "Cargo" Cults in Melanesia (Second Augmented Edition) (NY: Schocken Books). [Self-evident from title.]


On October 8, 2007, the following items were added to these pages:

From the The New York Times last week:

"SHABAK VALLEY, Afghanistan &emdash; In this isolated Taliban stronghold in eastern Afghanistan, American paratroopers are fielding what they consider a crucial new weapon in counterinsurgency operations here: a soft-spoken civilian anthropologist named Tracy. Tracy, who asked that her surname not be used for security reasons, is a member of the first Human Terrain Team, an experimental Pentagon program that assigns anthropologists and other social scientists to American combat units in Afghanistan and Iraq. Her team's ability to understand subtle points of tribal relations &emdash; in one case spotting a land dispute that allowed the Taliban to bully parts of a major tribe &emdash; has won the praise of officers who say they are seeing concrete results…. In September [2007], Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates authorized a $40 million expansion of the program, which will assign teams of anthropologists and social scientists to each of the 26 American combat brigades in Iraq and Afghanistan. Since early September, five new teams have been deployed in the Baghdad area, bringing the total to six… In interviews, American officers lavishly praised the anthropology program, saying that the scientists' advice has proved to be "brilliant," helping them see the situation from an Afghan perspective and allowing them to cut back on combat operations.….The process that led to the creation of the teams began in late 2003, when American officers in Iraq complained that they had little to no information about the local population.…Ms. McFate, the program's senior social science adviser and an author of the new counterinsurgency manual, dismissed criticism of scholars working with the military. "I'm frequently accused of militarizing anthropology," she said. "But we're really anthropologizing the military [stress added]." David Rohde, 2007, Army Enlists Anthropology in War Zones. The New York Times, 5 October 2007 [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/05/world/asia/05afghan.html?_r=1&oref=slogin]

On September 21, 2007, the following items were added to these pages:

A "sample" self-paced exam is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/SelfTesting/ANTH373TESTOne.htm to assist you in the examination next FRIDAY September 28, 2007. EXAM I will have a map component, multiple choice, and true-false questions. Please remember, a "repeat" of some of the Power Points used on Day One of the class (August 27, 2007) is available at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/PowerPoint/ANTH373FA2007


On September 5, 2007, the following items were added to these pages:

In case you are interested, the web page for the Galápagos presentation I made on campus on 31 August 2007 is at http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/HFAGalapagosAugust2007.html [Why Go To The Galápagos? Why Not?!]

JUST AS BACKGROUND INFORMATION (should you so desire it), THE FOLLOWING SIX ITEMS have been placed on one-day reserve:

Harding & Wallace (1970) Cultures of the Pacific (GN/662/H3/1970)
A. Howard (1971) Polynesia: Readings On A Culture Area.... (GN/670/H68)
A. Howard & R. Borofky (1989) Developments in Polynesian Ethnology GN/670/D48)
Howe, K. et al., eds. (1994) Tides of History : The Pacific Islands in the Twentieth Century [DU/28.3/T53]
Langness & Weschler (1971) Melanesia: Readings On A Culture Area....... (GN/668/L3)
A. Vayda (1968) Peoples and Cultures of the Pacific (GN/662/V36)

YOU MIGHT BE INTERESTED in the following web sites:

http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/worldmusic/view/page.basic/region/content.region/oceania_5 [Oceania: National Geographic World Music]

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/traveler/extras/toolbox/tripmarks_au.html [National Geographic Tripmarks} Australia and the Pacific]

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/traveler/features/foundvideo/video.html [Videos @ National Geographic Traveler]

http://www.janeresture.com/index.htm [Jane's Oceania Home Page} Fascinating jumping-off page for Oceania!]

AND PLEASE DON'T forget my MASSIVE jumping-off site to a variety of published and web-based information dealing with various Pacific topics!:

http://www.csuchico.edu/~curbanowicz/PacificReferences.html [Various Pacific References]

And once again, your password for E-RESERVE items is: Y9HG6 (and the current reading assignment is on Australian Aborigines).

AND NOTE from Time magazine (August 20, 2007):

50% = "Percentage of Australian Aborigines who smoke. The national average is below 20%. Poverty, lack of education, and the fact that indigenous people were once given tobacco as compensation or their land may be to blame [stress added]."

17 = "Number of years the Aborigines' [of Australia!] average life span is shorter than that of their non-indigenous counterparts. Widespread abuse of alcohol and drugs may be conributing factors [stress added]."


To go to the home page of Charles F. Urbanowicz.

To go to the home page of the Department of Anthropology.

To go to the home page of California State University, Chico.

© [Copyright: All Rights Reserved] Charles F. Urbanowicz/August 27, 2007} This copyrighted Web Guidebook, printed from http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/syllabi/SYL_373-FA2007.html is intended for use by students enrolled at California State University, Chico, in the Fall Semester of 2007 and unauthorized use / reproduction in any manner is definitely prohibited.

[~78,858 words} 27 August 2007] 

[~81,079 words} 7 December 2007] 

© Copyright 2007; All Rights Reserved Charles F. Urbanowicz

7 December 2007 by CFU


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