cut or section divides the brain into right and
left halves of equal size, separating the right and left
hemispheres from one another.
sagittal cut runs parallel to the
medial cut, but divides the brain into right and left
portions of unequal size. A medial section may be considered
to be a type of sagittal cut. However, a sagittal section may
not be a type of medial cut.
coronal cut runs from ear to ear,
separating the brain into front and back portions.
Horizontal (equal halves) or
transverse cuts are perpendicular to
coronal, medial, and sagittal cuts. They divide the brain
into upper and lower sections.
the nervous system, anatomists use the terms
anterior and posterior to indicate front and
Superior and inferior can be used to refer to the
upper and lower parts of the nervous system.
Cranial and cephalic can be used as synonyms
Rostral, which means
"toward the beak," is also sometimes substituted for
The antonym for
rostral is caudal, a term that means "toward the
tail," and may be used to replace inferior in descriptions
of the brain and spinal cord.
Ventral means "toward the belly"
and dorsal means "toward the back." Structures in the lower
part of the brain may be described as ventral.
Medial is toward the center and lateral toward the sides.
and Spinal Nerves are Part of the Somatic Division
are twelve pairs of cranial nerves. Their motor components are called lower motor neurons
Ten of them have
their cell bodies in the brain stem.
Some are motor;
some are sensory, and some are both motor and
Six of them are
involved in speech and swallowing.
connect the central nervous system to the body.
thirty-one pairs each of which is both sensory and
Although controlled by the
hypothalamus the hypothalamus is not part of it. It is involved in all glandular functions.
It works with the
the endocrine system for control of hormonal
and Parasympathetic Divisions
prepares the body for flight or fight.
helps, among other things, to bring the body back to