Communication Sciences and Disorders


WORK IN PROGRESS!!

Disorders of Language in Children
CMSD 451

Fall 2010


Instructor: Patrick McCaffrey, Ph.D., Professor


Office Hours

Days and Times: MW 8:30-9 A.M., 11-11:50 A.M., and 2-3 P.M.
Office Location: AJH 112C
Office Phone: 530-898-6394


Class Information

Days and Times: MWF 1-1:50PM
Location: TBA

Fall '11 Class Schedule

Add/Drop Policy:

Students may add or drop courses or change grade options without restriction or penalty and without instructor approval during the first two weeks of the semester using the Portal or, where necessary, by submitting a Change Of Program (COP) form.


Course Requirements

Prerequisite: a course in language development, or linguistic coursework that covered language development

Three examinations including the final

Written lesson plans

Final exam: W 2-3:50

If you have a special need due to a disability, please let me know by the second week of class

University Catalog

Please don't cheat. If you do you betray yourself.


Text

McCormick, Loeb, and Schiefelbusch, Supporting Children with Communication Difficulties in Inclusive Settings .


Course Outline

Review of Language Development 

Perlocutionary Stage- (Pre-language period)

Birth to 6/7 mos
Children communicate their needs through crying or facial expressions. The child does not intend to communicate, but parents often interpret vocalizations as intentional. This is known as adult morphizing

Illocutionary Stage- (Gestural Intentionality)
From 6/7 mos to 11/12 mos
Children communicate through gestures and vocalizations that are meaningful and precede first true words.  Intentionality through gesture begins in this stage.

Locutionary Stage- (Speech Intentionality)
From 11/12 mos to 18/24 mos
Child is communicating with words. This is true intentionality through verbalizations.

PHONEMES

Phonemes DO NOT have meaning. Meaning occurs when phonemes are sequenced in words.

A syllable is greater than a phoneme.

MORPHEMES

Morphemes are the smallest unit of meaning

There are two types of bound morphemes:

Grammatical Morphemes
•Types

Bound: These are inflected morphemes (allomorphs). They cannot stand alone.

(ing, past tense, possession etc.)

Free: They can stand alone. Some examples are: in, on, the,and a,

 Negation
            Types:

            (negative morpheme+auxiliary)

 

Form=             Syntax, Morphology, and Phonology

Content= Semantics

Use= Pragmatics
Assimilation-
New information is incorporated into mental schema.  Child sees a wolf, and incorporates into the “dog” schema he/she has.

Accommodation-
A change in cognition has to occur to allow for information input.  Child sees a fox, yet they have to allow for cognitive change to create a new schema, since it cannot fit into his or her “dog” schema.



2. Perspectives on categorization and prevention 
	   

Incidental Teaching
Playing while teaching.  This is not formal or direct, it is play.

Authentic Assessment
This type of assessment has originality and may be quantitative or qualitative.  Assessment is performed in the child’s natural environment.

Standardized Tests
This type of testing is used to place students (there are several types).
They are not useful in giving a starting point for therapy

Criterion Reference Tests
This type of testing is informal and can tell how child is progressing. These references tests can look at a particular criteria at one point in time.

Cognitive Referencing

            This measures intelligence and if age and language match up, a child will not go             to special education because cognitive referencing assumes that if IQ and             language age match up, there is not problem.

  

Children with Prelinguistic Impairments

SLP can help child come up with a classification and storage system by repeatedly allowing child to experience stimulation and using morphizing.

It is imperative that the SLP knows if the child has acquired the precursors to language.
Precursors to Language:

      Crumpling or tearing paper

      Understanding that an object exists even when it is no longer in view

      Ability to solve problems mentally (cause and effect)

      Understanding that one’s behavior can affect and be affected by others.

            Using imaginative play, for example using a spoon as an airplane.

  

Well’s Six Techniques that Mother’s Use to Produce Dialogue

  1. Joint Reference

      Parent monitors child’s gaze, then looks at what child is looking at and makes a       comment.

  1. Adaptive Behaviors

      Behaviors that optimize child’s ability to take in information and assimilate.  For       example, parent can use slow gestures and exaggerated facial expressions.

  1. Facilitation

      Daily routines and environment are structured to ensure success (bath and bed time).

  1. Elaborative Behaviors

      Parent goes beyond the reference.  For example, if the child shows interest in something       and mother shows how to play with or handle what the child is looking at.

  1. Initiating Behaviors

      Parent makes sure that the child stays on task, directing behavior.

  1. Control

      Child is told what to do.

Childhood Apraxia
SOL- Broca’s Area

Apraxics do not use language as a learning tool.
They have trouble introducing topics, poor eye contact, and lack proximity

Neurological Factors (Major Areas of Language)

  1. Broca’s Area
  2. Wernicke’s Area
  3. Angular Gyrus (Association cortex)

Geshwind says that the association cortex is the most important area.  It has axons from all four lobes.  Association pathways do not carry motor or sensory information, but rather they associate different parts of the brain, allowing for communication

Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

Autism

      A neurological disorder that is caused by biological deficits.  There is abnormal brain       patterns with high levels of serotonin, neurotransmitters, and opiates.

      20% have an IQ between 50-60
      20% have no cognitive change

Autistic Children Behavior Types

      Repetitive and rhythmic behaviors such as rocking, hand flapping, and long gazes.

      Children often engage in head banging, biting, and scratching themselves.
      Lou Vass (a researcher) from Santa Barbara used electrical grids to help stop, yet this       failed.

      Children engage in biting, hitting, and scratching others.

 Adaptive Motherese

Adapted motherese is a naturalistic approach to therapy that is action-oriented.  This therapy provides both an active role for the Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) and the client.  Adaptive motherese is the SLP's way of fine tuning, while a child is learning language.  In therapy, it is essential for the SLP to recognize that the power of language is the best reinforcer, rewarding naturally occurring contingencies.  The SLP must provide a good linguistic model, by teaching indirectly through play, rather than teaching directly.  The SLP should use a small core vocabulary, and be systematic and repetitive in helping the child.  For example, if the client loves dogs, the SLP can set up the therapy room to look like a pet shop.  The SLP would want to make a list of the vocabulary words that will be discussed.  An example of a list that the SLP would use for the pet shop theme would be dog, cat, cat/dog food, kennel, leashes, customers, and money.  In order to best accommodate the child, the SLP could share the list with the parent(s) so that this vocabulary can be practiced at home. If the child says feed doggie, the SLP should expand their utterance by saying, “Yes we feed the doggie”, or even extend the utterance by saying, “Yes we feed the doggie everyday.”  The SLP would want to be in close proximity of the child and exaggerate gestures, facial expressions, and heighten their intonation to appear excited and involved.  The systematic plan of the SLP should include multi-sensory therapy.  There should be a clear sequence of events: a beginning (open the shop up), middle (feed the animals), and end (walk the animals and put them to sleep).  Adaptive motherese must be naturalistic, in which the SLP practices being repetitive with the child.  Having fun, being involved with a child, asking several questions throughout the session, and studying their interests to best suit their needs is a recipe for success in helping a child with their acquisition of language.     

   

Milieu Language Teaching
A new word for naturalistic teaching
Scaffolding occurs (supporting a child in using complex language).

Incidental Teaching
Playing while teaching.  This is not formal or direct, it is play.

Authentic Assessment
This type of assessment has originality and may be quantitative or qualitative.  Assessment is performed in the child’s natural environment.

ELI
Therapy
      Imitation first, then conversation cue
Assessment
Conversation cue first (Diagnostic)


Standardized Tests
This type of testing is used to place students (there are several types).
They are not useful in giving a starting point for therapy

Criterion Reference Tests
This type of testing is informal and can tell how child is progressing. These references tests can look at a particular criteria at one point in time.

Cognitive Referencing

This measures intelligence and if age and language match up, a child will not go             to special education because cognitive referencing assumes that if IQ and             language age match up, there is not problem.

Intervention Planning a. psycholinguistic approach b. behavioral approach c. developmental approach d. integrative approach (pragmatic/sociolinguistic/interactive) 5. Intervention for children at risk 6. Prelinguistic intervention 7. Intervention for preschoolers 8. Intervention for school-age children Learning goals/outcomes At the conclusion of the course the student will be able to: •Describe language development milestones •Differentiate disorders from dialects •Describe disorders of content, form and use •Compare and contrast various assessments •Explain intervention approaches •Prepare lesson plans for various disorders of child language  

Cases
A case is a semantic role for a noun

  1. Agentive Case- Instigator of action
  2. Dative Case- Animate being affected by action of the verb
  3. Locative Case- Place or location
  4. Objective Case- Role depends on meaning of the verb; most semantically neutral.

 

McDonald’s 8 Semantic/Syntactic Rules (AKA Two Term Relations)

  1. Agent+Action
  2. Action+Object
  3. Agent+Object
  4. X+Locative
    1. Agent+Location
    2. Entity+Location
    3. Action+Location
  5. Negation+X
    1. Non-Existence
    2. Rejection
    3. Denial
  1. Modifier+Head
    1. Recurrence
    2. Possession
    3. Attribution

 

  1. Introducer+X
    1. Nomination
    2. Notice

8.) X+Dative

Morphological Inflections (9)
            These inflections occur during or after the four word stage.

  1. ING
  2. PLURAL
  3. POSSESSION
  4. PAST TENSE
  5. 3RD PERSON SINGULAR REGULAR
  6. AUXILARY
  7. COPULA
  8. COMPARATIVE
  9. SUPERLATIVE

When SLP is teaching inflections, they should be systematic and repetitive with a lesson plan.

Plurality and Possession
Laura Lee Says that there are two reasons why plurality and possession are hard:

  1. Duration
  2. Varied Models- S, Z, and ?Z.

In therapy, pick one allomorph.  When working with plurality and possession, we typically pick Z because we make all things possessive.

Remediation is based on the order of acquisition.
            Children with CP may not by able to start with the Z allomorph because of the lack of introral             pressure.

SLP must be systematic and repetitive (start with Z and work with Z until it is used in 50% of its obligatory contexts, then introduce S.

 

Past Tense (T, D, Id)
Laura Lee suggests this is hard due to (as mentioned above) duration and varied models.
SLP should start with the T allomorph because D has one more distinctive feature.
The past tense should always be contrasted with its present form.

3rd Person Singular Verb
This is not marked in African American English.
In SLP’s lesson plan, it should be contrasted with the plural

Auxiliary
The early auxiliary is strictly a syntacticad device (a milestone in early language)

Laura Lee Claims the Auxiliary is difficult because:
            In its simplest form, the auxiliary has noting to do with meaning.
            Lee recommends giving the auxiliary meaning by comparing the past versus the present
            (was vs. is).  This is known as giving the auxiliary semantic weight.

“DO” is the next auxiliary to teach.
Do can be emphatic: "I do like you" 
It is not typically used in the present tense and may act as a copula (Yes, I did.)

IN ORDER TO REMEDIATE, THE SLP MUST THE KNOW WHERE THE CHILD IS DEVELOPING

Questions

  1. Intonational Questions-No auxiliary
  2. Interrogative Reversal-Auxiliary is formed

            SLP should contrast the statement with its question form and engage in question turn taking.

  1. WH Questions-

            Types:
            1.) WH Question Introducers:
                        These do not have the auxiliary.
                        Example- “Why mommy?”

            2.) WH Questions
                        The auxiliary is formed and question is introduced with a WH word.
            3.) WH Pronoun
                        Easier because of lack of interrogative reversal.
                        Example-“The girl is the culprit.”

  1. WH Conjunction

                        Example- “The girl WHO took the cookies drank the milk.”

WH Word Order

  1. Who, What, and Where –Concrete Concepts
  2. When- Adverb
  3. Why- Causation
  4. How- Manner

 

Order of Question Acquisition

  1. Intonation
  2. Interrogative Reversals
  3. WH questions
  4. Tag Questions

 


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This document is maintained by Patrick McCaffrey
Last Updated: 11/1/09