GEOG 102 Map Exercise 2: Demographics

1.     1. Look at the map at this link: http://www.csuchico.edu/~sbrady/102worldpopdensityrotated1copy.pdf

a. What are the units of measure for population density? # of people per area

b. With several sentences describe the geographical distribution of high and low population density areas throughout the entire world.

The continental margins of the Northern Hemisphere contain most of the areas of high population density.  East Asia, South Asia and Europe are the 3 large areas of high population density, also called Great Population Clusters.  Large areas of low population density are found in regions of high latitude and high elevation.  Also, desert regions such as the Sahara, Arabia, Central Australia have low population densities, as do Earth's remaining large tropical rainforest regions.

2. Look at the map at this link: http://www.csuchico.edu/~sbrady/102rni.jpg

a. What are the units of measure for rate of natural increase? % increase

b. With several sentences describe the geographical distribution of high and low rates of natural increase throughout the entire world.

Low rates of natural increase (RNI) are found in the US, Canada, Australia, Western Europe, Russia and Kazahkstan. Some of the countries in this group (Sweden, Italy, Russia) have negative RNIs, which means that their CDRs are higher than their CBRs. High RNIs (above 2%) are found in the mid-size and smaller countries of Latin America (Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala), countries of North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa (Libya, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo), Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The worldÕs two most populous countries, India and China, have mid-range RNIs (1.0-1.9%).

3.Look at the map at this link: http://www.csuchico.edu/~sbrady/102cbr.jpg

a.     What is the unit of measure for the birth rate (CBR)?  # of births/1000/year

b. What data would you need to calculate a countryÕs birth rate? number of births during one year and the total population

c. Write several sentences to describe and explain the geographical pattern shown.  In which regions is the CBR high? In which regions is the CBR low?

High birth rates are found in the poor countries of the tropical world.  Low birth rates are found in the wealthy, industrialized countries of the mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere.

4.  Look at the map at this link: http://www.csuchico.edu/~sbrady/102cdr.jpg

a.     What do you think the unit of measure for the death rate (CDR)? # of deaths/1000/year

b. What data would you need to calculate a countryÕs death rate? number of deaths during one year and the total population

c. Write several sentences to describe and explain the geographical pattern shown. In which regions is the CDR high? In which regions is the CDR low?

This pattern is more complex than the one shown on the CBR map.  Low death rates are found in some poor countries.  High death rates are found in some poor countries.  High death rates are found in some wealthy countries.

5.Look at the map at this link: http://www.csuchico.edu/~sbrady/102TFR.jpg

a. What is the unit of measure for the total fertility rate (TFR)? Children born per woman

b. What data would you need to calculate a countryÕs TFR? DonÕtÕ worry about this.

c. Write several sentences to describe and explain the geographical pattern shown. In which regions is the TFR high? In which regions is the TFR low?

The pattern is similar to the RNI pattern with some important differences. Rich countries of the world have low RNIs and low TFRs.  Some of the countries with high RNIs, like those in Latin America have low TFRs. Countries in AfricaÕs mid-section, the Middle East and Afghanistan have the highest TFRs.

6. Use the crude birth (CBR) and death rates (CDR) provided below to calculate the rate of natural increase (RNI) and doubling times.

Rate of Natural Increase = CBR - CDR (expressed as a percentage).  Doubling Time = 70/RNI

Ex:                Country        Crude Birth Rate    Crude Death Rate

Sweden            12                                9

RNI = 12/1000 - 9/1000 = 3/1000 = 0.3%

Calculate RNI by moving the decimal point one space to the left of the fractionÕs numerator (thatÕs the upper number in the fraction, in this example 3) and put a % on the right.

Doubling Time = 70/0.3 = 233 years

Country       Crude Birth Rate          Crude Death Rate         RNI             Doubling Time

Afghanistan    __38/1000___                __13/1000____            _2.5%___        ___28 years_______

Mexico             __18/1000___                __5/1000_____            __1.3%__        _____54 years_____

Italy                  ___9/1000___                __10/1000____            __-.1__        _______WonÕt double___

US                     ___12/1000__                __8/1000_____            ___.4_        ________175 years__