Chapter 5: South America.. 

Defining the Realm

Be prepared to summarize the information-packed first paragraph.

Be prepared to summarize the description of the realm's problems.

Memorize the Major Geographic Qualities of South America

The Human Sequence

Where was the largest pre-Columbian civilization prior to the arrival of the Spanish?  How does that compare to the  present distribution of population?

Inca Empire

Why do scholars consider the Inca civilization an "unusual achievement"?  What's an altiplano?

Figure 5-2    Note the territorial extent of the Inca empire.

Describe the social-political structure of the empire.

 Note and ponder the rapid disintegration of the Inca Empire.

Iberian Invaders

Note the Pizarro - Cortes parallels.

 Use the term land alienation to explain the Spaniards' activities in the Inca lands.  Why did the Spaniards focus on land?


Why Lima?

 What was the Treaty of Tordesillas?  How was/is it significant in South America?

Compare Brazil's area and population to that of the rest of South America.

The Africans

Note the regional disparities between Spain and Portugal's holdings.

 What economic activity did the Portuguese pursue?  Why Africans?  Significance?

Longstanding Isolation

Explain the separation.  Why "underpopulated"?

242/4    Explain the political context of vice-royalties and resulting independent states.


When and where did independence occur?  What was the result?

 What factors led to political fragmentation?

Cultural Fragmentation

Who determined the orientation and interaction of post-independence South America?

 Use the term "plural society" to describe the cultural makeup of South America.

 Figure 5-5    Learn the defining characterstics of each of the 5 Culture Spheres.

Economic Integration

 Be able to summarize the first paragraph.

 How is Hidrovia  a symbol for recent processes in South America?

Where have we seen the emergence of trading blocs before this semester?  Why?

What, where and when is the FTAA?


When did urbanization intensify?  To what extent?

Where is the rate of population growth fastest?  How does rural-to-urban migration contribute to this?

 Which countries have the realm's highest urban percentages?

In which countries are urban percentages lowest?  Why?

Compare the size South America's urban centers with the rest of the world.

 What are the push and pull factors?

Consider the life that immigrants find when they arrive at an urban center.  What percent of urban population growth does inmigration account for?


Skip the "Latin" American City Model.

Regions of the Realm

 Learn the regional units.

What's the basis of the author's claim that Figure 5-5 demonstrates the "cultural fragmentation" of every country?

Brazil p. 185-

 How does Brazil's area rank in the world?  Its population?
Population Patterns

Note the diversity of the population.  Japanese?

Compare Brazil's racial picture with that of the US.

What is Brazil's "true national culture"?

 What's been the surprising population trend of the past 3 decades in Brazil?

Development Prospects

What are Brazil's advantages for development.

What has led to Brazil's recent economic growth?

What factors suggest that economic growth does not lead to development in Brazil?

The North: Caribbean South America p. 174-

What characteristics do the countries in this sub-region share?   
How are Venezuela and Colombia exceptional?

What are the 3 stages that lead to the insurgent state?

The West: Andean South America p. 178-

What similarities do the countries in this sub-region share?


How has US influence exacerbated government instability?

The South: Mid-Latitude South America p. 181

What similarities do the countries in this sub-region share?
Summarize Argentina's economic potential and problems.