Chapter 5: South America..
Defining the Realm
Be prepared to summarize the information-packed first paragraph.
regional disparities, political turmoil, developmental inertia
recent multi-national cooperation, free-trade, declining importance of military, rise of democracy
transportation development, mining
Be prepared to summarize the description of the realm's problems.
infrastructure shortcomings, inefficiency and corruption, boom/bust cycles, widening gulf between rich and poor
20% control 70%; 20% control 2%
Memorize the Major Geographic Qualities of South America
The Human Sequence
Where was the largest pre-Columbian civilization prior to the arrival of the
Spanish? How does that compare to the present distribution of
currently east and north coasts; pre-Colombian = Andes
Why do scholars consider the Inca civilization an "unusual
achievement"? What's an altiplano?
developed in different physical environment; instead of lowland river connected valleys, Inca developed in elongated highland basins (altiplanos) in Andes
Figure 5-2 Note the territorial extent of the Inca empire.
Describe the social-political structure of the empire.
Inca minority of administrators that ruled every aspect of life in a multi-ethnic, class-structured society
Note and ponder the rapid disintegration of the Inca Empire.
~90 year rise; ~10 year fall
Note the Pizarro - Cortes parallels.
Use the term land alienation to explain the Spaniards' activities in
the Inca lands. Why did the Spaniards focus on land?
Spaniards took Indian lands and formed haciendas. Land was focus because it granted Spaniards power and prestige.
Coastal site for shipping precious metals to Spain.
What was the Treaty of Tordesillas? How was/is it significant in
Pope divides up New World between Spain and Portugal along ~50° W meridian in 1494. Focussed Portuguese in Brazil and Spaniards west of there.
Compare Brazil's area and population to that of the rest of South America.
Brazil is almost as large as all of the remaining area of South America
Note the regional disparities between Spain and Portugal's holdings.
Spain got the Incan Andes; Portugal got sparsely inhabited eastern lowlands
What economic activity did the Portuguese pursue? Why
Sugar cane plantations; labor supply; Portuguese South America = African South America
Explain the separation. Why "underpopulated"?
Distance and physiographic barriers; low population density, small resource stores
242/4 Explain the political context of vice-royalties and
resulting independent states.
Colonial focus was to extract resources for Iberia not to build nation-states.
Vice royalties: Peru, New Granada, La Plata
When and where did independence occur? What was the result?
1810s (Argentina-Chile)-1820s (Bolivar in the North); 9 countries emerged
What factors led to political fragmentation?
Distance and physiographic barriers
Who determined the orientation and interaction of post-independence South
wealthy, landholding, upper-class elite
Use the term "plural society" to describe the cultural
makeup of South America.
Society composed of different cultures living close together without mixing
Figure 5-5 Learn the defining characterstics of each
of the 5 Culture Spheres.
TP: Rimland characteristics
EC: Latin, Argentina, Uruguay, interior Brazil, Chile, livestock ranching, mixed farming, higher economic development, higher living standards
AS: Andes, subsistence agriculture, poverty, landless peonage
MT: Surrounds AS, mix of Indigenous and European, mix of commercial and subsistence
UN: Amazon, isolated, limited economic development
Be able to summarize the first paragraph.
separation giving way to regional interaction, move to world market-oriented economies instead of domestic economies
How is Hidrovia a symbol
for recent processes in South America?
5 nations cooperate to build navigation system on Rio Paran-Paraguay
Where have we seen the emergence of trading blocs before this
EU; greater power and efficiency of a large cooperative bloc than in small individual countries
What, where and when is the FTAA?
Free Trade Area of the Americas; completion date 2005, Alaska-Cape Horn
When did urbanization intensify? To what extent?
After 1950; S. America's urban population is almost as large as that of N. America and Europe's, 76% of population is urban
Where is the rate of population growth fastest? How does
rural-to-urban migration contribute to this?
Towns and cities; Young urban migrants account for faster population growth in cities
Which countries have the realm's highest urban percentages?
Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil; higher than US percentage
In which countries are urban percentages lowest? Why?
Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay; continued reliance on subsistence ag
Compare the size South America's urban centers with the rest of the world.
Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Lima, Bogota, Santiago > 5 mill = among world's largest urban areas
What are the push and pull factors?
lack of land reform, perceived economic opportunities in cities, improved infrastructure
Consider the life that immigrants find when they arrive at an urban
center. What percent of urban population growth does inmigration account
Skip the "Latin" American City Model.
Regions of the Realm
Learn the regional units.
The North, The West, The Southern Cone, Brazil
What's the basis of the author's claim that Figure 5-5 demonstrates the
"cultural fragmentation" of every country?
Each region is divided into at least two of the culture spheres
Brazil p. 185-
How does Brazil's area rank in the world? Its population?
5th largest area; 183 million
Note the diversity of the population. Japanese?
Compare Brazil's racial picture with that of the US.
long-term ethnic mixing has produced a national culture
What is Brazil's "true national culture"?
Catholic, Portuguese, vivid colors, distinctive music, growing national consciousness
What's been the surprising population trend of the past 3 decades in
lowering of high rate of natural increase; reasons: contraceptive usage, economic uncertainty, TV
What are Brazil's advantages for development.
mineral resources, hydropower potential, soils
What has led to Brazil's recent economic growth?
international competition, foreign investment, growth in industrial manufacturing, trade
What factors suggest that economic growth does not lead to development in
sharp division of affluence and poverty
The North: Caribbean South America p. 174-
What characteristics do the countries in this sub-region
coastal locations, plantation export agriculture, black laborers, south Asians;
How are Venezuela and Colombia exceptional? population center moved inland, larger areas and populations, oil reserves
What are the 3 stages that lead to the insurgent state?
Contention, equilibrium, counteroffensive
The West: Andean South America p. 178-
What similarities do the countries in this sub-region share?
Amerind Subsistence, low incomes, low productivity, impoverished, landless peasants
How has US influence exacerbated government instability?
US desire for Bolivia's natural gas has undermined democratically elected presidents' authority.
The South: Mid-Latitude South America p. 181
What similarities do the countries in this sub-region share?
Mercosur, commercial economies, higher standards of living
Summarize Argentina's economic potential and problems.
Formerly one of the richest countries in the world, Argentina has diverse natural resources (soil, forests, metal ores) developed infrastructure and well-educated population. Corrupt politics and mismanagement by the urban east plague production in the interior.