First Year Experience Program

Belonging

Why does belonging matter?

Students who feel that they belong, socially and academically, in and out of the classroom, in their majors, in clubs, in programs, and in the community are more likely to succeed in college. 

 FYE has worked hard to create programs, and to promote pedagogies, that foster belonging in the classroom, to Chico State, and the surrounding community. Belonging is very important for our underrepresented minorities and for our first-generation students.

FYE programs for belonging

Connection courses: Mentor led outings connecting to courses, gets students out together discussing the course while making social connections.

U-Courses: Project-based learning style. Students work in teams with an embedded mentor acting as a role model and connection to the university. Flipped classroom design allows more faculty-student interaction.

Town Hall Meeting: Students work on policy issues. Come together with local community experts on policy to discuss and share ideas. Large-scale public event on campus allows students to feel they are part of something bigger and that their voice matters.

Chico Great Debate: Large-scale public event usually in Chico Plaza and Chico City buildings. Students participate and listen to group and individual speeches and debates over a predetermined topic. Gets students downtown and makes them feel engaged and part of the local community.

Sense of Place Symposium: Students work on sustainability issues in groups and present them to other students, faculty, staff, and community members. Community forums allow students to learn about on and off campus clubs, groups, and non-profit organizations in which they could join.

Conceptual map of belonging

Research on Belonging

1984

Astin, A. W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308

Key Findings:

Involvement implies a behavioral component; what the individual does, how he or she behaves, that defines and identifies involvement.

“The theory of student involvement encourages educators to focus less on what they do and more on what the student does: how motivated the student is and how much time and energy the student devotes to the learning process” (p. 522). 

“Nearly all forms of student involvement are associated with greater than average changes in entering freshman characteristics. And for certain student outcomes involvement is more strongly associated with change than either entering freshman characteristics or institutional characteristics” (p. 524). 


Kinds of research that could be done to explore educational ideas that grow out of the theory:

  • Assessing Different Forms of Involvement
  • Quality Versus Quantity
  • Involvement and Developmental Outcomes
  • The Role of Peer Groups
  • Attribution and Locus of Control
  • Exceptions to the rule
  • Temporal patterns of involvement
  • Combining different forms of involvement
  • Evaluation of non-academic as well as academic matters in terms of the degree to which they increase or reduce student involvement
    • including college personnel

Implications for higher education:

“The theory of student involvement is qualitatively different from the developmental theories that have received so much attention in the literature of higher education during the past few years. These theories are of at least two types: those that postulate a series of hierarchically arranged developmental stages (e.g., Heath, 1968; Kohlberg, 1971; Loevinger, 1966; Perry, 1970) and those that view student development in multidimensional terms (e.g., Brown & DeCoster, 1982; Chickering, 1969). (For recent, comprehensive summaries of these theories see Chickering & Associates, 1981; Hanson, 1982.) Whereas these theories focus primarily on developmental outcomes (the what of student development), the theory of student involvement is more concerned with the behavioral mechanisms or processes that facilitate student development (the how of student development)”  (p.522). 




1993


Goodenow, C. Grady, K, (1993) "The Relationship of School Belonging and Friends' Values to Academic Motivation Among Urban Adolescent Students" (PDF)The Journal of Experimental Education. 62 (1): 60–71.  https://www-jstor-org.mantis.csuchico.edu/stable/pdf/20152398.pdf (PDF) 


“Findings revealed the differential importance of school belonging for different groups. The especially strong association between belonging and motivation found for Hispanic students may reflect the importance that most Hispanic cultures attach to communal and affiliative values as opposed to individualistic or competitive value”  (Goodenow, et al., 1993).




1994

Tinto, V. (1994). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

While Tinto does not directly talk about belonging, he is saying that “if institutions wish to make substantial progress in educating and retaining more, especially those who have been under-represented in the higher educational system, their communities must involve all students. They must actively engage students in the life of the classroom and allow them to gain a valued voice in the educative process” (p. 210-211). Tinto goes on to say that our failure is that students have felt “alienated from education, seeing the task of college completion as a barrier to be overcome, a ritual to endure, rather than an experience to be valued (p. 211).

For us, this is connected directly to students' sense of belonging to the communities of the university and surrounding communities. To not feel alienated is to feel like you belong.


Implications for Higher Education:

Tinto’s action around helping retain students more is about involving and engaging students in the community better. He says, “If we wish to have our students become actively involved in their own learning we must first be involved in their learning as well as in our own. And we must provide them with meaningful ways of becoming involved in learning, both inside and outside of the classroom (Tinto, 1994, p. 210).

While Tinto stresses that classrooms are “central to the process of retention” (p.210),”classrooms represent smaller communities of learning in which both faculty and students participate. Involvement in those communities can serve as a vehicle for further involvement in the life of the institution” (p. 210). In our classrooms, students' voices must be heard and valued. We need to make sure students’ past experiences are an important part of the classroom and their experiences and knowledge that comes with those experiences are valued.



1995

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.http://dx.doi.org.mantis.csuchico.edu/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497


Baumeister and Leary’s seminal work both evaluated and demonstrated the need to belong as 

a fundamental motivation of human behavior. Their work found that the desire to belong substantially impacted both behavior and thought processes of humans among varying cultures. They discovered that humans prefer mutually-beneficial relationships that validate their behaviors, and that positive perceptions of belonging lead to feelings of happiness and calmness. Conversely, feeling rejected, left out, or ignored by a group or interpersonal connection leads to decreased mental and physical health, adjustment, and overall wellness. A negative sense of belonging increases emotional stress, and can lead to feelings of anxiety, grief, jealousy, loneliness, and depression (Baumeister & Leary, 1995).


1997

Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students’ sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70, 324-345. - Alaina


Key Findings:

Elaborated on Tinto’s (1993) original concept of “membership” which aims to include more diverse experiences and communities rather than focusing on one single, predominant norm. The researchers elaborate that membership does not only reflect behavior (participation) but more so the interaction with peer groups. This may “foster a broader sense of group cohesion and enhance an individual’s sense of affiliation and identification with college”(p. 338). Furthermore, they advocate for, and include, a subjective measure alongside others when studying a sense of belonging. 


It also highlights the importance of cognitive mapping for garnering a sense of belonging. Hurtado and Carter (1997) state, “An initial orientation to a college's social, academic, and physical geographies is essential to students' feeling that they belong in their college” (p. 339)

Furthermore, perceptions of a hostile campus climate were found to negatively affect Latino students’ sense of belonging, presumably due to the alienation of minority students (p. 339).

Implications for Higher Education:

This article highlights the importance of acknowledging racially diverse environments when studying a sense of belonging. This is a common issue with Tinto’s (1993) model which uses integration as a measure. Critics argue that using integration may have underlying concepts of acculturation (Attinasi 1989,1992; Tierney 1992).


“The outcomes of students' sense of belonging may have more immediate effects on students' behaviors, such as the quality of students' social interactions, students' selection of academic programs, and their use of support services” (p. 341).


Finn, J ; Rock, D. (1997) Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology. 82(2):221-234doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.221. ISSN0021-9010. PMID9109280.


“Participation may lead students to acquire new skills (organizational, planning, time-management, etc.), to develop or strengthen particular attitudes (discipline, motivation), or to receive social rewards that influence personality characteristics” (Finn, 1997).



2000

Kuh, G. D., & Love, P. G. (2000). A cultural perspective on student departure. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle(pp. 196-212). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. 

Kuh and Love argue that one of the limitations to Tinto’s theory of academic and social integration is that it had “the unintended negative consequence of placing a disproportionate amount of responsibility on students to adapt, attributing little or no responsibility to the institutions to modify their policies and practices to respond to the changing needs and characteristics of students” (Kuh & Love, 2000, p.198).

Kuh and Love argue for a cultural perspective for student departure, stating that by “using a cultural lens means defining the issue of student departure primarily as a sociocultural phenomenon, rather than an individual, psychological experience: (p. 199). They define three variables with which cultural interaction effect: “involvement, effort, and perceived belonging” (p. 199).

Kuh and Love’s argument is that Universities do have a certain dominant culture, and when people come to the university, especially underrepresented minorities or first-generation students, they find their own cultures at odds, or even looked down upon, and therefore  become less involved, give less effort, and have a lower perceived sense of belonging.

Kuh and Love then give eight cultural propositions for student departure.

  1. The college experience, including a decision to leave college, is mediated through a student's cultural meaning-making system.
  2. One's cultures of origin mediate the importance attached to attending college and earning a college degree.
  3. Knowledge of a student's cultures of origin and the cultures of immersion is needed to understand a student's ability to successfully negotiate the institution's cultural milieu.
  4. The probability of persistence is inversely related to the cultural distance between a student's culture(s) of origin and the cultures of immersion.
  5. Students who traverse a long cultural distance must become acclimated to dominant cultures of immersion or join one or more enclaves.
  6. The amount of time a student spends in one's cultures of origin after matriculating is positively related to cultural stress and reduces the chances they will persist.
  7. The likelihood a student will persist is related to the extensity and intensity of one's sociocultural connections to the academic program and to affinity groups.
  8. Students who belong to one or more enclaves in the cultures of immersion are more likely to persist, especially if group members value achievement and persistence.(p.201)

Many of these propositions could be mediated through thinking more about belonging and the ways in which a university can foster a sense of belonging both to the university as a whole, but also to academic programs, enclaves, affinity groups, and how we can make sure that the valued practices of those groups are around achievement and persistence. Programming that “intentionally reaches across cultural distance to assist students in bridging that distance” should help students belong and persist at the university (p. 210).



Osterman, K. (2000) Students’ Need for Belonging in the School Community.Review of Educational  Research, 70 (30) 323-367. doi:10.3102/00346543070003323 


“Communities exist when its members experience a sense of belonging or personal relatedness. ... Members of the community feel that the group will satisfy their needs; they will be cared for or supported” (Osterman, 2000).



2003

Willms, J. (2003)   Student Engagement at School: A Sense of Belonging and Participation: Results from PISA 2000. PISA. OECD. doi:10.1787/9789264018938-en. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/student-engagement-at-school_9789264018938-en 

Socio-economic status impacts one’s ability to access education, as well as their sense of belonging within academic spheres (Willms, 2003).



2004


Libbey, H. P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement.Journal of School Health, 74 (7): 1275 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x


Sense of community at school is created through several different social concepts, such as: people connectedness, attachment, bonding, and student engagement (Libbey, 2004).



2006

Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J. A., Bridges, B. K., & Hayek, J. C. (2006). What matters to student success: A review of the literature (ASHE Higher Education Report). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Google Scholar- Kalista 

KEY FINDINGS

Students are “products of many years of complex interactions with their family of origin and cultural, social, political, and educational environments. Thus, some students more than others are better prepared academically and have greater confidence in their ability to succeed. At the same time, what they do during college—the activities in which they engage and the company they keep—can become the margin of difference as to whether they persist and realize their educational goals” (p.3).


Identifying and intervening with these students are essential to improving achievement and persistence rates. 


Earning a bachelor’s degree is linked to long-term cognitive, social, and economic benefits to individuals, benefits that are passed onto future generations, enhancing the quality of life of the families of college-educated persons, the communities in which they live, and the larger society. College was once considered an option, but now young adults need some form of postsecondary education to live and work productively in a rapidly changing, information-based economy. For this reason, various groups have put forward scores of policy recommendations for how policymakers, states, K–12 schools, postsecondary institutions, students, families, and community agencies can work together to enhance student success and educational attainment. 



Umbach, P. D., and Kuh, G. D. (2006). Student Experiences With Diversity at Liberal Arts Colleges: Another Claim for Distinctiveness. Journal of Higher Education, 77(1): 169-192.http://www.konige.kr/files/sub0205/konige201612201119300.pdf (PDF)

Key Findings:

We know that diversity enhances the educational experiences of all students. Despite this, we do not fully understand the relationship between diversity and student experiences while in college.


“Gurin (1999) argued that a diverse student body creates a unique learning environment that leads to increased probability that students will interact with peers from different backgrounds. Hurtado et al. (1999) and others (Duster, 1993; Sleeter & Grant, 1994) suggested that diverse peers in the learning environment could improve intergroup relations and mutual understanding by challenging students to refine their thinking and by enriching the dialogue between students.”


By interacting with other races, students are introduced into a multicultural world in which they will eventually be living and working (Astone & Nunez-Wormack, 1990; Tierney, 1993). Moreover, students that report more diversity experiences show greater relative gains in critical and active thinking 



2007

Hausmann, L. R. M., Schofield, J. W., & Woods, R. L. (2007). Sense of belonging as a predictor of intentions to persist among African American and White first-year college students. Research in Higher Education, 48, 803-839-Emilee


Hausmann et al. (2007) discovered that sense of belonging decreases over the course of the academic year, regardless of class background and/or racial identity. Thus, this article discusses the importance of both college retention programs and intervention strategies that increase student persistence. In this study, greater sense of belonging was directly associated with peer support, positive interactions with faculty, and group integration. Early experiences of social support contributed to a greater sense of belonging more than student’s background and academic integration. Students who reported a positive sense of belonging experienced stronger institutional commitment and intentions to persist through the academic year (Hausmann et al., 2007).


Johnson, D. R., Soldner, M., Leonard, J. B., Alvarez, P., Inkelas, K. K., Rowan-Kenyon, H. T., & Longerbeam, S. D. (2007). Examining sense of belonging among first-year undergraduates from different racial/ethnic groups. Journal of College Student Development, 48, 525-542. -Emilee


Johnson et al.’s 2007 article centers the importance of culturally supportive avenues for student success, and stresses the need for tailored methods of services; Universities must foster inclusive learning environments that relate to a diverse student body. This study found that, overall, first-year students of color felt a weaker sense of belonging than their White peers. Johnson et al. (2007) arge that student success is dependent upon their perception of feeling welcomed on campus, with both the student and institution responsible for contributing to a positive learning and social environment. Students expressed the need to feel important within their larger academic community, specifically within residence halls, co-curricular activities, faculty interactions, classroom activities, and within their overall presence on campus. Positive peer and faculty interaction directly influence students' sense of belonging by making complex environments feel more socially or academically supportive (Johnson et al., 2007).



2009

Nuñez, Anne-Marie. "A Critical Paradox? Predictors of Latino Students' Sense of Belonging in College." Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 2.1 (2009): 46-61. Web.


“There appears to be a relationship between being actively engaged in the life of the college campus, contributing to academic discussions, focusing on building community within and outside of the campus (including having positive cross-racial interactions), and perceiving an increased sense of social cohesion” (Nuñez, 2009).



2010

Bowman, N. A. (2010). The development of psychological well-being among first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 180-200. -Alaina

Key findings:

This article focuses on psychological wellbeing (PWB) in first year college students. Bowman (2010) found that, “Certain pre-college characteristics are strongly related to the development of PWB; specifically, being female, Latino/Hispanic, traditional age, and having high academic achievement and aspirations are associated with greater PWB upon entering college… PWB gains during the first year are positively related to several pre-college attributes, including being a non-first-generation student, female, being older than the traditional college age, and having high academic achievement”(p.193).


Furthermore, experiences with diversity are important for boosting PWB and hostile interactions often lead to deficits among all dimensions of PWB. Bowman emphasizes, “Social interactions clearly play a key role; forming meaningful relationships with other students contributes to strong gains in PWB, whereas drinking alcohol leads to decreases in PWB, other factors being equal. Finally, interactions with faculty and in-class challenge consistently promote PWB”  (p. 193).

Implications for Higher Education:

“These findings suggest that programs about group dynamics and conflict mediation— whether based in the curriculum or co-curriculum—may be useful for improving students’ interpersonal relationship skills and, subsequently, their PWB” (p. 193).

“Potential interventions in this area could consist of those suggested previously: bolstering practices that facilitate meaningful interaction among diverse students, minimize hostile or tense interactions, increase the frequency and quality of student–faculty interactions, and curb alcohol consumption” (p. 194).

    • Lee, R., & Davis, C. (2000). Cultural orientation, past multicultural experience, and a sense of belonging on campus for Asian American college students. Journal of College Student Development, 41, 110-115
    • Maramba, D. C., & Museus, S. D. (2011). The utility of using mixed-methods and intersectionality approaches in conducting research on Filipino American students’ experiences with the campus climate and on sense of belonging. New Directions for Institutional Research, 151, 93-101.
  • Rendon, L. I., Jalomo, R. E., & Nora, A. (2000). Theoretical considerations in the study of minority student retention in higher education. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 127-156). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. 


2015

Vaccaro, A., Daly-Cano, M., & Newman, B.M. (2015). A Sense of Belonging Among College Students With Disabilities: An Emergent Theoretical Model.Journal of College Student Development56(7), 670-686. doi:10.1353/csd.2015.0072 


Students explained how their identity as a student and sense of belonging increased when faculty and peers recognized their academic success. Positive recognition from peers and faculty helped students feel like a legitimate college student. This aspect of the student role may be especially significant given the stigma and stereotypes associated with having a disability (Vaccaro, 2015). 



2016

Samura, M. (2016). Remaking Selves, Repositioning Selves, or Remaking Space: An Examination of Asian American College Students’ Processes of “Belonging”. Journal of College Student Development57(2), 135-150. doi:10.1353/csd.2016.0016.


“The importance of “belonging” for college students has been well documented. According to an extensive body of research on college student development, students are more likely to succeed in college if they feel that they belong at their institution (Allen, Robbins, Casillas, & Oh, 2008; Astin, 1975, 1984; Berger, 1997; Braxton, Milem, & Sullivan, 2000; Braxton, Sullivan, & Johnson, 1997; Kuh, Kinzie, Buckley, Bridges, & Hayek, 2006; Maramba & Museus, 2012; Museus & Quaye, 2009; Strayhorn, 2012; Tinto, 1994). Students’ sense of belonging is closely related to their academic achievement, retention, engagement, satisfaction with student life, mental health, and overall well-being (Astin, 1993; Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Bowman, 2010; Hausmann, Schofield, & Woods, 2007; Hurtado & Carter, 2007; Johnson et al., 2007). 

Moreover, even as research indicates that belonging is crucial for students of color, studies that examine how different groups experience belonging remain limited (Kuh et al., 2006; Lee & Davis, 2000; Locks, Hurtado, Bowman, & Oseguera, 2008; Mendoza-Denton, Downey, Purdie, Davis, & Peitrzak, 2002).”


While this research further uses definitions of belonging from Tinto (1994), from Kuh & Love (2000) and Hurtado & Carter (2007), they add to the literature of belonging with two ideas: The first one is that current concepts of belonging are lacking in “fluidity and mutability” (p. 136). That is to say that belonging is not a single idea and that how we belong changes over time. The second idea is to not put the sole responsibility of belonging on the institution, but also with the “agency of students, that is, how students navigate, negotiate, contest, and understand their processes of belonging” (p.137). Although Tinto(1994) is often accused of solely focusing on the student needing to change.

Samura (2016) found that when “students experienced a lower or decreased sense of belonging, they often engaged in one of three processes: remake themselves, reposition themselves, or remake space (p. 140). In each of these methods, the research found people who remade or repositioned themselves either socially or academically in order to belong better. Remaking space, both socially and academically was not reported as frequently.

Implications:

“To better support students as they engage in processes of belonging, it would be useful for colleges to offer readily available, tailored advising programs. This may involve a combination of personal counseling, career advising, or mentoring. A peer-mentoring program also may provide a way for students to more effectively navigate campus spaces and college life in general” (p. 148).

“Finally, institutional support of race and ethnic-specific organizations is needed because these spaces may enable students to develop belonging, even if such organizations are traditionally viewed as spaces that impede inclusion and belonging with the larger campus community” (p. 148).

Bibliography

Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.http://dx.doi.org.mantis.csuchico.edu/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497


Berger, J. B. (1997). Students’ sense of community in residence halls, social integration, and first-year persistence. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 441-452.


Bowman, N. A. (2010). The development of psychological well-being among first-year college students. Journal of College Student Development, 51, 180-200. 


Finn, J ; Rock, D. (1997) Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology. 82(2):221-234doi:10.1037/0021-9010.82.2.221. ISSN0021-9010. PMID9109280.


Goodenow, C. Grady, K, (1993) "The Relationship of School Belonging and Friends' Values to Academic Motivation Among Urban Adolescent Students" (PDF)The Journal of Experimental Education. 62 (1): 60–71.  https://www-jstor-org.mantis.csuchico.edu/stable/pdf/20152398.pdf (PDF) 


Hausmann, L. R. M., Schofield, J. W., & Woods, R. L. (2007). Sense of belonging as a predictor of intentions to persist among African American and White first-year college students. Research in Higher Education, 48, 803-839


Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students’ sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70, 324-345. 


Johnson, D.R., Soldner, M., Leonard, J.B., Alvarez, P., Inkelas, K.K., Rowan-Kenyon, H.T., ... Longerbeam, S.D. (2007). Examining Sense of Belonging Among First-Year Undergraduates From Different Racial/Ethnic Groups.Journal of College Student Development48(5), 525-542. doi:10.1353/csd.2007.0054 


Kuh, G. D., & Love, P. G. (2000). A cultural perspective on student departure. In J. M. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle(pp. 196-212). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press. 


Libbey, H. P. (2004). Measuring student relationships to school: Attachment, bonding, connectedness, and engagement.Journal of School Health, 74 (7): 1275 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2004.tb08284.x


Nuñez, Anne-Marie. "A Critical Paradox? Predictors of Latino Students' Sense of Belonging in College." Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 2.1 (2009): 46-61. Web.


Osterman, K. (2000) Students’ Need for Belonging in the School Community.Review of Educational  Research, 70 (30) 323-367. doi:10.3102/00346543070003323 


Samura, M. (2016). Remaking Selves, Repositioning Selves, or Remaking Space: An Examination of Asian American College Students’ Processes of “Belonging”. Journal of College Student Development57(2), 135-150. doi:10.1353/csd.2016.0016.


Tinto, V. (1994). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Vaccaro, A., Daly-Cano, M., & Newman, B.M. (2015). A Sense of Belonging Among College Students With Disabilities: An Emergent Theoretical Model.Journal of College Student Development56(7), 670-686. doi:10.1353/csd.2015.0072 


Willms, J. (2003)   Student Engagement at School: A Sense of Belonging and Participation: Results from PISA 2000. PISA. OECD. doi:10.1787/9789264018938-en. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/student-engagement-at-school_9789264018938-en

Glossary

Adolescent - transitional stage of physical and psychological development during puberty to legal adulthood

Completers - resilient students

Engagement in school“An essential component of dropout prevention programs or other interventions for students at risk.” (Finn, 1997)

Identification-Participation model - this model is to identify people who belong to the school, feel respected and their work is valuable. This will help to identify who has the tendency to drop out of school.

Intrapsychic - being or occurred psych, mind or personality.

Resilience - “Successful adaptation to life tasks in the face of social disadvantage” (Finn, 1997)

Socioeconomics - social science that studies how economics activity shaped the social aspects of a person/individual/family.

 

Definition of Belonging

Sense of belonging is when an individual perceives that they are valued, accepted, needed, and “fit” into a social group. This is often facilitated by social interactions that are tied to a group setting