Graduate Studies

Tables and Figures


With these comprehensive guidelines, discover how to effectively incorporate tables, figures, and graphs into your document. Learn about sequential numbering, referencing, placement, formatting, and considerations for accessibility and readability. This section also covers reproduced tables and the inclusion of figures in your document.

PAGE CONTENTS


TABLES 

  • Include all table titles in the List of Tables that follows the Table of Contents.
  • Table order is determined by sequential numbering using Arabic numerals; tables will be referred to by their number [e.g., (Table 5)].
  • If there is at least one table in the document, there should be a List of Tables in the pre-text pages sections (see the sequence of pre-text pages in Structuring Your Thesis/Project webpage). 
  • The table should be referred to within the body of the text before the table. Some examples of how to refer to the table include:
    • In Table 5, the data shows...
    • The data shows the results of the study (Table 5).
  • Insert the table at the end of the paragraph that refers to it.
    • Tables follow the paragraph they are first mentioned in with no intervening text, and if there's not enough room on the page, the table is placed on the top of the next page regardless of gaps created by the placement of the table. 

  • Triple space (leave two blank lines) above and below each table to offset the rest of the text.
  • Table label and title (e.g., Table 5. Study Data) appear at the top; all source material and/or notes are placed at the bottom.
  • If space is limited, reduce font to no smaller than 8-point font.
  • In the interest of accessibility and readability,
    • Avoid the use of colors to convey information or meaning.
    • Avoid excessive blanking or N/A values of cells in complex tables.
      • If there is a need to have a lot of blank cells or NA cells, consider breaking down the data into simpler tables instead of trying to accommodate too much information into one table.


TABLES REPRODUCED

  • Include all reproduced table titles in the List of Tables that follows the Table of Contents.
  • A full bibliographic citation is placed directly below tables reproduced or adapted from another source. Copyright permission is required and needs to be included in the reference section of the manuscript.
  • Do not use abbreviated forms for source citations.
  • Copyrighted material that does not fall under what is considered fair use must have letters of permission per final approval guidelines to the Office of Graduate Studies (see Copyright Restrictions and Instructions for Final Submission on submitting copyright approval documentation).
  • Specific wording or "credit lines" must be used if requested by the copyright holder.


FIGURES, CHARTS, AND GRAPHS (include in List of Figures or List of Tables)

  • Include all figure, chart, and graph titles in the List of Tables that follows the Table of Contents.
  • Figure order is determined by sequential numbering using Arabic numerals; tables will be referred to by their number [e.g., (Figure 5)].
  • If there is at least one figure, chart or graph in the document, there should be a List of Figures in the pre-text pages sections (see the sequence of pre-text pages in Structuring Your Thesis/Project webpage). 
  • The figure should be referred to within the body of the text before the figure. Some examples of how to refer to the table include:
    • In Figure 5, the data shows...
    • The map shows the location of the river (Figure 5)….
  • Insert the figure at the end of the paragraph that it is referred to, and avoid breaking up a paragraph over multiple pages when including multiple figures in a row.
  • Insert the figure at the end of the paragraph that referd to it.
    • Figures follow the paragraph they are first mentioned in with no intervening text, and if there's not enough room on the page, the figure is placed on the top of the next page regardless of gaps created by the placement of the figure. 
  • Triple space (leave two blank lines) above and below each figure to offset the rest of the text.
  • Figure title (e.g., Figure 5. River Map) appear at the top; all source material and/or notes are placed at the bottom (e.g., "The river is located in Northern California and runs 85 miles south.").
    • If space is limited, reduce font to no smaller than 8-point font.
  • In the interest of accessibility and readability,
    • Avoid the use of colors to convey meaning or information.
    • Avoid excessive blank cells in complex charts and graphs.
      • If there is a need to have a lot of blanks cells or NA cells, consider breaking down the data in simpler tables instead of trying to accommodate too much information into one table.

Note: If there is a need to have a lot of blank cells or NA cells, consider breaking down the data in simpler tables instead of trying to accommodate too much information into one table.